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Full text of "73 Magazine (September 1983)"

International Edition 




Space Shuttle 
Astro-Hamming 

PageB 




Pyramid Portable 

Page 135 

Report from Poland 

Page 138 

Bake Your 
Own Apple 

Page 40 

CoCo RTTY! 

Page 58 

How to Packet 

Page 1 9 














G 


9 


I 






' 74470 


65946 





September 1983 $2.49 x h 
Issue #276 



Amateur Radio's 
technical Journal 



A Wayne Green Publication 




Teotihuacan— 135 



if 



"10.. -9.. .8. 

Be ready when the Space Shuttle Columbia 
carries aloft the first astro-ham. Here's the 
best way to contact this historic DXpedition 
...... WA61TF 8 

Join the Packet-Radio Revolution 

Get error-free, high-speed communications. 
Packet radio's thief architect, WA7CXD, ex- 
plains what it is and how it works. 
WA7GXD 19 

Be a RTTY Rembrandt 

Put that award-winning shine on your RTTY 
pix with these tips from a RTTY artists 
sketchbook. WA2CQJ 28 

How to Increase Your QSOs 

N6HYK's seasoned advice will add spice to 
your CW contacts— even if you aren't a 
Novice, N6HYK 34 

Home-Brew an Apple Computer — 
and Save! 

n this 73 exclusive, KB2CA reveals the 
secrets of Apple construction. From key- 



\ 



board to motherboard, its all here. 



KB2CA 40 



Build This Super Switch 

Py~l The only thing this 5witch won't do is 
^-' brew your coffee, Its the lazy man's 
delight. ... 

The Amazing Cylindrabola 

This microwave antenna is easier to 
build than a dish. But it works just as 



K4YS 52 



\ 



we I 



WA4WDL 54 



Colorful RTTY; An Advanced 

System for the TRS-80C 

ITS Its all here—a TU, program, and 
*™* modem to turn your CoCo into a pro- 
fessional-quality RTTY terminal. , . K6AEP 




Never Say Die— 6 


DX— 96 


FCC— 50 


Dr. Digital— 98 


Gift 


RTTY Loop— 102 


Subscriptions — 67 


Letters— 102 


73 International— 70 


Awards— 104 


Contests — 84 


New Products— 106 


Social Events— 86 


Reader 


Satellites— 89 


Service— 114 


Ham 


Fun!— 116 


Help— 89,100,120 


Dealer 


Corrections — 89 


Directory— 146 


Review— 90 


Propagation— 146 




58 



Your Own Apple— 40 




r k 




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The smallest 2 meter FM 
mobile on the market is now 
even easier to read and use 
with a green LED readout and a 
compact touchtone " /scanning 
microphone and gives you the 
option of 25 or 45 watts. 




New Green LED, Easier to 
read in bright sunlight and not 
gtaing at night, the IC-25A(H}'s 
new readout provides good 
visibility under all conditions. 

5 Memories. Instant access 
to most used frequencies VT-O A 
information ts transferred to the 
selected memory by pushing the 
write button 

PriOftty Channel. Any 
memory channel may be 
monitored for activity on a 
sample basis, every 5 seconds, 
without disruption of a GSG 
conducted on a VFO frequency. 



New HM14 Microphone. 

Smaller and lighter , , , the HM14 
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button touchtone " pad as well 
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adding easy frequency control 
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NOR/REV Capability* Use of 
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will know instantly. 

Scanning. Pushing the S/S 
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2 WO frequencies With the 
mode switch in a VFO position, 
the unit will scon the entire 
band or the portion of the band 
defined by memories 1 and 2 
Full band scan or program band 
scan is selected from the front 
panel and internally switched 
scanning choices of adjustable 
delay period after a carrier is 
received then resume scan, or 
resume on carrier drop, are 
standard, 




the New 45 Watt IC-25H . 
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punch. This 45 watts of power 
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savings of space and wiring. 



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INFO 



Manuscripts 

Contributions in the form of manu- 
scripts with drawings and/or photo- 
graphs are welcome and will be con 
sidered for possible publication. We 
can assume no responsibility for loss 
or damage to any ma ten a! Please 
enclose a stamped self -addressed 
envelope with each sub-mission Pay- 
ment for trie use or any unsolicited 
mater>a! will be made upon accep- 
tance, All contributions should be di- 
rected to the 73 editorial of rices 
"How to Write for 73" guidelines are 
available upon request. 

Editorial Offices: 

Pme Street 

Peteffcorough nh 03458 

Phone: 603-924-9471 

Advertising Offices: 

Elm Street 

Paler bo rough NH 03458 

Phone: 603 924 7138 

Circulation Offices: 

Bm Street 

Peterbofough NH 03458 

Phone: 603-924-9471 

Subscription Rates 

In the Untied States and Possessions: 
One Year {12 issues) S25 00 
Two Years (24 issues) £38.00 
Three Years (36 issues! $53.00 

Elsewhere: 

Canada and Mexico— %27B?t\ year 
only. US funds Foreign surface 
mail— S4497H year only- US funds 
drawn on U.S. bank Foreign air 
mall— please inquire 

To subscribe, 

renew or change 

an address: 

Write 10 73. Subscription Department. 
PO Bok 331. Farniingdale NY 11737 
For renewals and changes of address, 
include the address label from your 
most recent issue of 73. For gift sub- 
scriptions, include your name and ad- 
dress as well as those of gift (w 
pients 

Subscription 

problem or 

question: 

Write to 73, Subscription Department, 
PO Box 931. Farmlngdale NY 11737 
Please Include an address label. 

73: Amateut Ratio's Technical Journal 
(ISSN Q74WJ8GX1 j 5 published monthly 
by Wayne Green, lr>c . 80 Pine Street 
Peterborough NH 03458 Second das* 
postage paid at Peterborough NH 03458 
and at additional mailing offices Entire 
contents copyright 1983, Wayne 
Green, Inc. All rig his reserved No part of 
this publication may be reprinted or 
otherwise reproduced withoul written 
permission from the publisher. Micro- 
film Edition— Un tversiiy Microfilm, Ann 
Arbor Ml 48106 Postmaster Send ad- 
dress changes to 73, Subscription Ser- 
vices, PO Box 931. Farmingdale 
NY 11737. 



4 73 Magazine • September, 1983 





TO CALL 



TOLL 






FOR A 




IN QUOTE 



We Trade 



on New or Used Equipment 

(Check for prices on available used equipment) 

w>HA/VtRADlQCENi 

8340-42 Olive Blvd.* P.O. Box 28271 • St. Louis. MO 63 




In Missouri Call 1-314-993-6060 



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73 Magazine 


• Septen 


iber. 1983 


S 



W2NSD/1 

NEVER SAY DIE 

editorial toy Wayne Green 




GREEN SELLS OUT 

In a way, I suppose you might 
say that I sold out, but I plead 
guilty with an explanation. 

It all started last spring when 
some chaps from one of the big- 
ger banks called saying that 
they had a large foreign publish- 
er who was looking to acquire 
something like rny micro pub- 
lishing empirette. I wasn't much 
interested because I enjoy what 
Tm doing more than anything 
else I can Imagine. But what 
would it cost to listen, right? 

So they came to visit and 
looked over our place. I showed 
them our growth in sales, which 
has run around 50 percent a year 
for the last eight years. They 
mumbled vaguely about $50 
million, which I have to admit 
got my attention, I'd really never 
given much thought to what the 
whole mess might be worth. 

The word that I was thinking 
of selling began to spread, and 
new suitors started calling every 
few days, The more I talked with 
these firms, the more I realized 
that this probably was a good 
time to merge with a larger firm 
so that I would have the money 
to invest in some new projects. I 
have never had much of a per- 
sonal need for money, so selling 
out for a big bundle of cash had 
little attraction. 

No, it would be worth merging 
if I could get the money to start 
magazines at a faster rate and 
thus be able to keep up better 
with the needs of the microcortv 
puter industry. And I had an idea 
for a new type of magazine I 
wanted to try out. If it worked, l + d 
have a way to get perhaps 50 
more like it going, each with ex- 
pected sales on the order of $5 
million a ear or more. 

Then tt jre was my idea for a 
new type of school, a busi- 



ness/technical institute geared 
to the needs of the 80s. The 
more I thought about it, the 
more ideas for new divisions of 
Wayne Green, Inc., came to 
mind. With some cash available 
for getting these new busi- 
nesses and publications going, 
we could step up our growth 
enormously. I did some sales 
projections and I could see us 
growing to a billion in sales with- 
in ten years just on the plans al- 
ready in mrnd. 

As I talked with the firms in- 
terested in merging, I found sev- 
eral of them excited about my 
ideas and plans. I'd had a good 
record ot coming up with inno- 
vative ideas in the past, so there 
wasn't much skepticism about 
my new ideas. After all, I'd had 
the idea to start the first maga- 
zine for micros: Byte, And then I 
started the first system-specific 



magazine: 80 Micro. And I'd pio- 
neered mass-produced soft- 
ware. As I talked with people, I 
realized that I have a pretty good 
track record. 

The final choice of a merger 
partner was most difficult. Sev- 
eral large firms put it bluntly: 
They needed me and I could 
name my price. Now I want to 
tell you, that is fantastic for the 
ego. I really wasn't into shop- 
ping around for the highest offer 
because the difference between 
$50 million and S100 million 
means a lot less than the com- 
patibility of the merger And 
numbers like that don't mean 
anything, anyway: they're just 
very big numbers. 

On May 22nd, I signed a pre- 
liminary agreement with Pat 
McGovern, the publisher of the 

Continued on page 116 




QSL OF THE MONTH 

This month's QSL card winner depicts a nighttime scene from (he hat Ion's capital, 
viewed hum the Virginia side of the Potomac Hiver. The Lincoln Memorial is in the 
foreground with the Washington Monument and the Capitol in the background Tom 
Dorse! WBAJ makes this card distinctive by using lowercase letters tor his caiissgn. giv- 
ing a modem feel to this traditional scene. Opposite Tom's callstgn. a faint moon looks 
serenely over the entire panorama. 

To enter 73*5 QSL of the Month contest, put your earn in an envelope with your choice 
of book from TTs Radio Bookshop and send U to f3, Pme Street, Peterborough NH 03*58. 
Attn QSL of the Month. Entries not in envelopes and without a book choice will not be 
considered. 



STAFF 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 
Wayne Green W2NSDH 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 
Sham/ Smyth# Green 

ASSISTANT PUBUSHERJEDJTOR 
Jetf D«Tra T WS8BTH 

MANAGiNG EDITOR 
John Bum-eft 

ASST MANAGING EDfTOfl 
Susan Pni nonet 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 

Nancy Noyd 

Rich«rtf Pn*ma 

Steve Jewell 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Avery L- Jentuni WB&JLG 

ASSISTANT 

TO THE PRESIDENT 

Matthew SrTMih katiEi 

ASSOCIATES 

Robert B*»*' WB2G.FE 

John Edwarcli KL?U 

Bo i Go^tv «E7C 

Sange* Green 

ClHJO Harris VP2V 

Dr Marc Leavey WA3A JH 

J. h Nation 

B tl« PasiamAk WA61TF 

Perer Star* K20AW 

Robert SwivStcy AF3M 



PRODUCTION MANAGER 
Nanc» Salmon 

ASST. PRODUCTION 

MANAGERS 

Micnaei Murphy 

Dav«d Wozmafc 

ADVERT! SI NO GRAPHIC 5 

MANAGER 

ScoitVV PhilfJnc* 

DESIGN DIRECTOR 
Christine Destre*npe» 

PRODUCTION 

Patncia Bradley 

Linda Drew 

Michael Ford 

Marion* GilliAS 

Donna H&ffAoll 

Alfred HuElorj 

Tayl&r Morrl& 

Ktmberly Nadeau 

Lynn Paribus 

Paula Ramsey 

Anne Roccbie 

Kenneth SuichTFe 

Theresa VervlMe 

Robert m Viileneuve 

Karen Wo^mfiK 

PHOTOGRAPH* 

Thomas Viileneuwe 

Sandra Duheiia 

Laurie J en m son 

Sturdy Thomas 

Irene Van 

rrPESETTING 

Sara Bedeii 

Darken* Bailey 

Prem Krishna Gongaiu 

Lynn Maine S 

Len LoTQtTe 

Debbie Nuiimg 

Ltncfy Pa»misanrj 

Heidi Thomas 

Sve Welle* 



GENERAL MANAGERAMCE PRESIDENT 
Deti* a Weiherbaa) 

CONTROLLER/VICE PRESIDENT 
Roger J Murphy 

ACCOUNTING MANAGER 
Knvd Keller KV4GG/1 

CIRCULATTOM MANAGER 

Patricia Fafranle 

BULK SALES MANAGER 

Ginnte BoLKfneau 

t-fflQ0V34J<}7Z6 

ADVERTISING 

■03.92*- 7 1& 

JtmGraj W1XU Mgr 

Money dampa. AhI Vgr 

Ross Kenyan KA1GAV 

Cornel w Taytor, Qir»ce CoorthfAlO* 



6 73 Magazine • September , 1983 



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KENWOOD'S TW-4O00A FM "Dual- 
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TW-4000A FEATURES: 

• 2m and 70 cm FM in a Compact Package 

Covers the 2 m band (142,000-148,995 
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"ON A1R7 Dimmer switch. 

• 25 Watts RF Power on 2 m/70 cm. 
Hi/Lo power switch. 

• Optional "Voice Synthesizer Unit" 
Installs inside ihe TW-4000A. Voice 
announces frequency, band. VFO A orB, 
repeater offset, and memory channel 
number. 

• Front Panel Illumination 



• 10 Memories with Offset Recall and 
Lithium Battery Backup 

Stores frequency, band, and repeater offset. 
Memory stores receive and transmit fre- 
quencies independently for odd repeater 
offsets, or cross- hand operation. 

• Programmable Memory Scan 
Programmable lo scan all memories, or 
only 2 m or 70 cm memories. Also may be 
programmed to skip channels. 

• Band Scan in Selected 1-MHz Segments 
Scans within the chosen 1-MHz segment 
ftel, 144.000-144.995 or 440.000-440,995. 
etc.). The scanning direction may be 
reversed by pressing either the *UP W or 
"DOWN" buttons on the microphone. 

• Priority Watch Function 

Unit switches to memory 1 for 1 second 
each 10 seconds, to monitor the activity on 
the priority channel. 
■ Common Channel Scan 
Memory 8 and 9 are alternately scanned 
every 5 seconds. Either channel may be 
recalled instantly. 

• Dual Digital VFOs 

Selectable 5-kHz or 10-kllz for 2 m. and 
5-kHz or 25- kite for 70 cm. Depress "UP" 
or "DOWN"" key on the front panel for band 
change in 1-MHz steps. 

• 16-Key Autopatch UP/DOWN Microphone 
(Supplied) 

• Repeater Reverse Switch 



• High Performance Receiver /Transmitter 

GaAs FET RF amplifiers on both 2 m and 
70 cm, high performance MCF's in the 1st 
IF section, provide high receive sensitivity 
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dependable transmissions on either band. 

• Rugged Die -cast Chassis 

• Optional Two-Frequency CTCSS Encoder 
Easily mounted inside the radio, allows DIP 
s witch programming of two different tone 
frequencies, for 2 m and 70 cm. 

• "BEEPER" sounds through speaker. 

• Easy-to -Install mobile mount 

TW-4000A accessories: 

• VS-1 Voice Synthesizer 

• TU-4G Two-Frequency Programmable 
CTCSS Encoder 

• KFS-7A Fixed station power supply 

• SF-40 Compact mobile speaker 



More Information on theTW-4000A and 
TS-780 is available from all authorized 
dealers of Trio -Ken wood Communications, 
1111 West Walnut Street. Compton. 
California 90220. 

KENWOOD 

. . pacesetter in amateur radio 



All mode "Dual-Bander" 

TS-780 



2 m & 70 cm all mode, 
dual digital VFO's, 
10 memories, scan, 
IF shift... 

TS-7S0 FEATURES: 

- USB. LSB, CW, FM all mode, 
trove ring the 2 m band (144,000 
148.000 MHz) and the middle 
70 cm band (430,000-440.000 
MHz). TJP/DOWN band switch. 

• Dual digital VFOs with normal/ 
tight drag switch. VFO steps in 
20-Hz, 200-Hz T 5-kHz, or 
12. 5-kHz. plus M FM CH" channel 



ized tuning. Split [cross] fre- 
quency operation possible. F, 
LOCK switch provided. 

•10 memories include band and 
frequency data, backed up by 
internal batteries (not supplied). 
Baiiery life exceeds one year. 
Memories 9 and 10 for priority 
instant recall. 

• Band scan t with selectable 0,5, 
h 3, 5 T and 10-MHz scan 
bandwidth, 

• Memory scan selectable for all 
memories, or 2 m or 70 cm only 

• IF shift circuit rejects adjacent 
interference, 

• High sensitivity and wide 
dynamic range • 7 -digit 



fluorescent tube digital display 
• 10 watt RF output • 2 m ±600 
kHz TX offset switch with reverse 
switch * Tone switch for optional 
TIJ-4C two frequency tone 



encoder unit • VOX and semi 
break-in CW built-in • FM center- 
tune meter • Noise blanker for 
SSB. CW. 

Subject to FCC approval 




O tj 



3 £ \ 1 & 






MM^'JJ-I-!.) 



' " L ": n hh 



i.,. -vir^irT ******** ?fik,#»to 



r «-Tno 





4 
1 








—• 




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' • 



Bill Pasternak WAMTF 
28197 Robin 
Saugus CA 91350 



"10... 9. 



• 8 . 



tf 



Be ready when the Space Shuttle Columbia 

carries aloft the first astro»ham. 

Here's the best way to contact this historic DXpedition. 



Alan Kaul W6RCL prob- 
ably said it best about a 
year ago when he wrote, 
"Get ready for the greatest 
DXpedition ever. An astro- 
ham in space on 2 meters," 
Alan, who produces NBC 
Nightly News for the west 
coast did not pen those 
words for that vehicle, 
Rather, they were the lead-in 
to a 2-minute special report 
by Roy Neal K6DUE which 
aired on my West link Radio 
News Service, 

It was a story that took 
the world of amateur radio 
by storm, and one which will 
hopefully unfold on Sep- 
tember 30, 1983. That is the 
day when NASA plans to 
launch the STS-9 shuttle 
mission into orbit. On board 
the orbiter Columbia will be 
the European Space Agen- 
cy's "Spacelab/* manned by 
an international crew in- 
cluding Dr Owen Garriott 
of the United States. 

It is Dr Garnott, the radio 
he will take with him, and the 
type of operation planned 
that will open a new chapter 
in space-to-Earth communi- 
cations Dr Garriott is a 
ham— W5LFL The radio is 
for the 2-meter amateur 
band, operates on FM voice, 
and with it W5LFL hopes to 



contact amateurs around 
the world, making this the 
first time any form of pri- 
vate radio has been used 
from space. 

Background 

If you think it's easy to 
convince NASA to let you 
operate an amateur station 
from one of their space vehi- 
cles, then try to get yourself 
permission to do so. In the 
case of WSLFL/Space Mo- 
bile, it has taken a decade 
and a half. The idea 
originated shortly before Dr 
Garriott was rocketed into 
space to serve duty on Sky- 
tab, He had approached 
NASA with the idea of tak- 
ing along a 2-meter radio 
back then, but it was nixed 
because of power require- 
ments and other technical 
considerations 

Since that time, the 
thought of operating from 
space has stayed with Dr 
Garriott and several years 
ago with the assistance of 
members of the Space Cen- 
ter ARC in Houston 
(W5RRR) and NBC news cor- 
respondent Roy Neal. 
another proposal to carrv 
amateur radio on a shuttle 
mission was made The 
flight would be the STS-9 us- 
ing the orbiter Columbia and 



carrying the ESA Spacelab 
This time the response was 
positive, with General lames 
Abramson giving the project 
the green light earlier this 
year. 

About three years ago, 
two other amateur radio or- 
ganizations, the ARRL and 
AMSAT, were brought into 
the planning of this event. 
As plans progressed, it was 
recognized that for the oper- 
ation to be successful, it 
would take the full coopera- 
tion of amateurs around the 
world, A radio that could 
meet the critical require- 
ments of the space shuttle 
was needed Specific oper- 
ating protocol had to be 
developed to ensure a max- 
imum number of QSOs to 
be held in the allotted oper- 
ating time periods. Publi- 
city had to be planned A 
QSL manager or bureau 
would be needed to handle 
the expected torrent of re- 
quests for commemorative 
cards, and much, much more 

It was obvious that only 
an organization with the re- 
sources of the ARRL could 
handle such a chore, besides 
which Dr Garriott wanted 
due credit given to the 
League for its assistance in 
getting the groundwork for 



the mission put together 
The ARRL has been unoffi- 
cially involved since the 
beginning. From the outset, 
this has been billed as a ioint 
ARRL and AMSAT goodwill 
operation in celebration of 
the 1983 World Communi- 
cations Year, but to us on 
the ground hoping for a con- 
tact with W5LFL from space, 
it is far more than that. 

The STS-9 Radio Equipment 

There have been many 
questions asked about the 
type of gear that W5LFL will 
be using on the STS-9 It 
seems that every amateur 
has heard a rumor that it will 
be this HT or that one Offi- 
cially, the radio is described 
as a black-box transceiver 
supplied by the ARRL But 
the ARRL is not building the 
unit. Rather, its design and 
construction were placed on 
open bid to interested radio* 
equipment manufacturers. 
About six. both domestic 
and foreign, initially showed 
interest- 
That number dropped off 
a bit after the specifications 
for the unit were announced 
by NASA. The criteria for 
the radio are very stringent 
and include the provision 
that the equipment cause 



8 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



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absolutely zero interference 
to any other system on 
board while operating from 
the indoor antenna. The unit 
must be totally independent 
of the spacecraft's electrical 
system, yet be capable of 
producing at least 5 Watts 
continuous power for the 
duration of each operating 
period of 1 hour per day tor 
5 days. In addition, the unit 
has to be channelized to 
make it easy for Dr Carriott 
to operate, with maximum 
receiving and transmitting 
efficiency from 144,9 to 
145.8 MHz. All of this and 
more for the distinct 
pleasure of knowing that 
your radio has been selected 
to be the first in space and 
never really being able to 
prove it 

ft was decided a long 
time ago that the term 
"black box" would he ap- 
plied to the set by the ARRL, 
since it didn't want to find it- 
self in the de facto position 
of endorsing the product of 
one manufacturer over an- 

^See List Qf Advertisers on page ti4 



other. Oh, we will all eventu- 
ally know whose radio flew 
on ST5-9. You can be sure 
that the manufacturer 
selected will take full-page 
ads in every amateur maga- 
zine to proclaim this, but 
you won't see an official en- 
dorsement from the ARRL, 
AMSAT, or anyone else in 
amateur radio directly in- 
volved in the mission. For 
the sake of objectivity and 
nonpartisanship, it has to be 
this way The leaders of the 
amateur-radio community 
don't want to become in- 
volved in a "Tang" type of 
publicity campaign. 

The unit itself will have 
three modes of operation. 
This is subject to change be- 
fore this article goes to 
press, but this is what we 
have at this writing. Mode 1 
will permit split-frequency 
transceive with Dr Carriott 
transmitting between 145.51 
and 14577 MHz and listen- 
ing for callers 600 kHz 
lower. It is not expected that 
this mode or mode 2, which 



is simplex operation from 
145,51 to 145.77 MHz, will 
see much use (if any) during 
the mission. Rather, it is 
mode 3 that will probably 
be exercised the most. In 
this mode, the transceiver 
must be capable of trans- 
mitting on the same fre- 
quency range of 145.51 to 
145.77 MHz, but will receive 
on an odd offset between 
144.91 MHz and 145.49 
MHz. Modes 1 and 3 will use 
20-kHz inter-channel spac- 
ing, as will the channels for 
the simplex mode 2, More 
on this operation later. 

The antenna will be inside 
the Columbia orbrter itself 
and will be an "indoor 
array' of some type affixed 
to the upper crew compart- 
ment window Several types 
of antennas are being exper 
imented with One is a loop P 
another a printed-circuit res- 
onator, and there are others. 
Development is taking 
place at the Johnson Space 
Flight Center and being 
done by NASA scientists and 

73 



engineers, During the flight, 
Columbia will be flying up- 
side down by Earth perspec- 
tive and that window will be 
facing the ground. 

What the QSOs 
Will Sound Like 

Present estimates are that 
Dr. Garriott will have time 
for only about 500 or so 
QSOs while in space, so 
don't expect to be able to 
rag-chew or even speak di- 
rectly with W5LFL. I hate to 
use the term, but what I am 
about to describe is going to 
sound like some sort of a DX 
list operation, with Dr Carri- 
ott developing the list as he 
goes The STS-9 orbiter, be- 
cause of its sharp equatorial 
crossing angle (N to S, S to 
N) r will place W5LFL in 
direct contact with a given 
geographic area for about 8 
minutes on any given pass. 
Columbia will be traveling 
with a forward momentum 
of about 17,000 mph at 
about 160 miles altitude in 
what amounts to a sine- 

Magazine • September, 1983 



wave pattern around the 
planet. 

Keeping this in mind P and 
adding to it that during any 
given operating period the 
spacecraft will almost go 
full circle around the world, 
you can easily understand 
the constraints on individual 
QSO time For this reason, 
split-frequency operation 
and some form of time-shar- 
ing between astronaut and 
terrestrial stations had to be 
established When an oper- 
ating period begins, you will 
hear W5LFL making a call- 
up that may be something 
like this; 

'ThisisW5LFL Dr Gar- 
riott aboard the US Space 
Shuttle Columbia we are 
now approaching the west 
coast of the United States 
I II be taking calls from the 
6th call district only for the 
next minute this is W5LFL 
standing by/' 

For the next 60 seconds, 
Dr. Carriott will scan across 
his preprogrammed receive 
frequencies. During that 



time, ground stations (that's 
you and me) will simply 
choose what we feel is the 
best frequency for our use 
and transmit our callsign for 
one minute. During the next 
minute, Dr Carriott will ac- 
knowledge the calfsigns he 
hears and then announce 
the next zone he will be lis- 
tening for. At this point, the 
whole process begins again 
and continues on a minute- 
by-minute basis until that 
particular hour's operating 
period has ended. 

As planned now, Dr Car- 
riott will transmit on the 
even minutes starting at the 
top of the hour and will lis- 
ten for calls on the odd min- 
utes Stations on the ground 
will have about a dozen up- 
link channels to choose 
from. Use of repeaters and 
remote-base systems is dis- 
couraged, and while some 
uplink channels may fall 
on known repeater output 
channels in the United 
States, a myriad of stations 
on the ground trying to cap- 



ture a repeater to be heard 
above the throng will make 
a given channel useless. 
Therefore, repeater owners 
on affected frequencies 
might be wise to terminate 
the operation of their sys- 
tems for the TO minutes or 
so that Columbia will be 
within radio range each day. 
The channels selected 
for uplink were determined 
based on international spec- 
trum utilization including 
ITU regions 1, 2, and 3 Dr. 
Carriott will not limit his 
contacts to US hams, but 
will acknowledge calls from 
the world over as he passes 
overhead. While this choice 
of frequencies may pose a 
bit of an inconvenience in 
some major metropolitan 
US cities where repeaters 
operate every 20 kHz in the 
lower subband, it is a choice 
compatible with the rest of 
the world Now you can be- 
gin to imagine why groups 
the size of the ARRL and 
AMSAT had to be employed 
to coordinate the ground 



side of the operation. No 
one person could possibly 
do it by himself. 

Your Station 

Not every ham reading 
this will have a chance to 
contact W5LFL Space Mo- 
bile, About 500 of you will 
be the lucky ones, but it will 
take more than a 1-Watt HT 
and a rubber duckie to get 
through. Stations that are 
equipped for the OSCAR se- 
ries of amateur satellites 
and have the necessary e\ 
pertise in making contacts 
through these birds will def- 
initely have the upper hand 

If you do not have this ex- 
pertise, then you are advised 
to steer clear of highly direc- 
tional antenna arrays with 
smalt beamwidtk At 17,000- 
mph forward momentum, 
the STS-9 will not be in an\ 
one spot very long. In fact, 
unless your station is operat- 
ing with the antenna under 
direct computer control 
with auto-tracking for both 
azimuth and elevation, any 



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sort of directional array will 
be a definite handicap. 

AMSAT suggests that a 
horizontally-polarized turn- 
stile^type antenna will prob- 
ably provide the average 
amateur the best chance of 
making a contact. In lieu of 
this, any good-quality verti- 
cal antenna should suffice 
The ARRL's Radio Amateur's 
Handbook should be con- 
sulted on design 61 a turn- 
stile, since none for the ama- 
teur 2-meter band is current- 
ly marketed. 

The recommended trans- 
mit-output power level is 10 
Watts Running higher pow- 
er will only cause unneces- 
sary interference to other 
ground stations and will 
gain you little. Remember, 
as with any DXpedition, Dr 
Garriott — not you — is in 
charge of the operation. If 
there is too much QRM on a 
given channel because it is 
infested by the high-power 
boys, it easily can be by- 
passed. Dr. Garriott will only 
spend a few seconds moni- 



toring any given uplink 
channel And while we can- 
not stop anyone from run- 
ning an amplifier, it is re- 
quested by all parties in- 
volved in the planning that 
this practice be avoided 

Because of the odd split 
between uplink and down- 
link, you will need a trans- 
ceiver with split memory so 
that you can select your 
transmit frequency inde- 
pendently of the receive fre- 
quency. In lieu of this, two 
radios can be used, one for 
uplink and the other for re- 
ceiving the downlink. Even 
an HT with a V4 ^wavelength 
antenna may suffice for the 
latter, since Dr. Garriott will 
be easy to hear from almost 
200 miles overhead If you 
have an older, crystal -con- 
trolled radio sitting in the 
closet, it might be used for 
receiving by feeding a stable 
vfo signal of the proper fre- 
quency into the receiver's 
L/O chain Designs have ap- 
peared in this magazine and 
elsewhere that might be 



readily adapted for the pur- 
pose The receiver will then 
have to be realigned for 
maximum sensitivity in the 
region from 145.0 to 145,6. 
Again, super sensitivity or 
ground stations is not essen- 
tial, since W5LFL won't be 
hard to hear. 

So, then, in review; You 
will need a station running 
10 Watts or so of FM on 2 
meters with 20-kHz incre- 
mentation in the 144.91- 
145.49 band to uplink to 
Dr. Garriott. You will have 
to be able to listen for him 
on 1 or 2 frequencies in 
20-kH/ steps from 145 51 to 
14577 MHz You should 
avoid highly directional 
antennas unless you are 
skilled in their use for satel- 
lite-communications pur- 
poses, and you should avoid 
the use of high power to 
make life easier for both 
W5LFL and the other ground 
stations who will be vying 
for contacts Omnidirection- 
al antennas in general, and 
the turnstile in particular, 



are recommended. 

As the plans for Dr Gar- 
riott's historic mission move 
forward, there will doubt- 
less be many changes taking 
place For example, the ex- 
act list of frequencies for 
you to use may not be 
known until just prior to lift- 
off. His daily operating 
schedule, which begins on 
the third day of the mission, 
will not be publicized until 
the vehicle is safely in orbit 
It will be announced, hope- 
fully a day before but pos- 
sibly only hours before an 
operating period begins 
Each operating period is 
subject to last-minute can- 
cellation with little or no no- 
tice should some more ur- 
gent activity concerning the 
overall STS-9 mission itself 
come up. 

While we in amateur 
radio probably consider 
W5LFL/Space Mobile as be- 
ing very important, to the 
folks at NASA it is the low- 
est priority on the mission 
We are their guest and no 



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12 73 Magazine * September 1983 



more. If we handle our- 
selves with the proper de- 
corum, we might be invited 
back again, [f we make fools 
of ourselves, you can count 
on never being invited back 
in the door. 

Since timely, up-to-the- 
minute information will be 
crucial, the planning of 
this has been included in the 
overall scheme. First, there 
is the AMSAT Launch Infor- 
mation Service Net that cov- 
ered the successful AMSAT/ 
OSCAR 10 launch on June 
16. Readers are advised to 
keep an ear on their local 
AMSAT nets for further 
information on what type of 
network will be established 
for the STS-9 

The League's W1AW will 
carry updates daily, but it is 
unknown if this will occur at 
regular times as published in 
QST or at any and all times 
applicable during the STS-9 
mission. This will be an- 
nounced by the ARRL short- 
ly. Finally, the Westlink 
Radio Network's automated 
news line in Hollywood, (213)- 
465-5550, will be devoted 
exclusively to information 
on the STS-9 mission starting 
September 1, This will be a 
weekly tape until Septem- 
ber 29; one day prior to the 
scheduled liftoff of STS-9, it 
will be updated daily or 
whenever pertinent infor- 
mation is available, Hope- 
fully, it will carry the day-to- 
day operating schedule of 
STS-9. Finally, the ARRL Let- 
ter, the W5YI Report, and 
The Westlink Report news- 
letters will carry the timely 
information that can be 
gathered before presstime. 

Amateur magazines such 
as this, with their longer lead 
time of about 2 months, can- 
not bring you up-to-the- 
minute information on STS- 
9. We are doing our share by 
giving you as much back- 
ground material and tech- 
nical advice as we can. For 
up-to-the-minute informa- 
tion, you should consult one 
of the previously-mentioned 
news services starting about 
10 days before the flight and 

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73 Magazine * September, 1983 13 



staying with it until the mis- 
sion terminates. 

Public Relations 

The public relations of 
this first Ham in Space DX 
peri it ion" have not been 
overlooked. As Steve Men 
delsohn WA2DHF of CBS in 
New York has aptly pointed 
out, this will be one of the 
very few times when ama- 
teur radio will be in the news 
as the main event, not just 
the carrier of the message. 
For the duration of the STS- 
9/Spacelab mission, the eyes 
of the non-amateur world 
will be on us, in sharp focus 
and high-contrast living col- 
or knowing the way that 
modern television journal- 
ism works. 

To help plan for this, two 
teleconference meetings 
have been held. They were 
sponsored by the ARRL and 
hosted by Peter O'Dell 
KBINof the ARRL Public In- 
formation Office. The first 
of these was a briefing 
primarily for members of 



the national/international 
press corps and included 
representatives of CBS radio 
and television news, NBC 
radio and television news, 
UPI, AMSAT, The Westiink 
Report, and the W5YI Re- 
port. After this session, an- 
other was held for the ama- 
teur-radio media and includ- 
ed participation of every 
major amateur publication 
and news service. Other 
such meetings are planned, 
including the possibility of a 
group interview with Dr 
Garriotl prior to the mission, 
if NASA gives the go-ahead 
for it 

Radio, television, and 
printed-media coverage of 
the amateur-radio aspect of 
the STS-9 mission is ex- 
pected to be extensive Pool 
video of part of the opera- 
tion is expected to be sup- 
plied to the networks, so it's 
remotely possible that you 
might see your own contact 
being made on your own 
television screen. More like- 
ly, this video will be in- 



tegrated into scheduled 
news programs on a tape- 
delayed basis, intercut with 
pictures of local hams trying 
to make the contact Don J t 
be too surprised to get a call 
from a local TV station ask- 
ing if they can send over a 
i rew to tape you making the 
attempt, A press kit to cover 
this and any other eventuali- 
ty is being prepared by the 
ARRL for field distribution 
through its field organiza- 
tion structure This writer 
and many others are 
contributors to it, and it will 
be very detailed on how you 
should handle this even- 
tuality or any similar one 
that may occur Contact 
your local ARRL Public In- 
formation Assistant or Divi- 
sion Director for more 
details. 

Finally, the ARRL is spon 
soring the production of a 
new videotaped presenta- 
tion entitled "Amateur 
Radio s Newest Frontier/' It 
will detail the flight of STS-9, 
amateur radio's involve- 



ment in it, and the way in 
which our service performs 
a marriage between com- 
puter technology and space- 
age communications. Its pro- 
ducers are Roy Neat K6DUL 
and this writer; it will be 
taped in early July on loca- 
tion at the Johnson Space 
Flight Center, Marshall 
Space Flight Center, Ken- 
nedy Space Center AMSAT's 
laboratory, and ARRL Head- 
quarters. Editing will be 
done at CBS Television City 
in Hollywood with initial 
release anticipated around 
September 1 directly through 
the ARRL 

The hope is to have the 
tape in every school in the 
United States prior to the 
STS-9 liftoff. On termination 
of the STS-9/Spacelab mis- 
sion, the master tape (1" 
type C for those interested) 
will be re-edited using ac- 
tual NASA footage of Dr 
Carriott operating from the 
Columbia and a second 
release will be made. 

Also, the presentation will 




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14 73Magaztne * September". 1963 



be made available to televi- 
sion stations interested in 
airing it prior to or during 
the mission. Its running time 
will be between 10 and 15 
minutes, with availability on 
the following tape types: 
Broadcast 1" type C, Broad- 
cast 2" Quadraplex, 3/4" 
U-Matic, VHS-SP Speed, and 
Beta II 

The tape will be recorded 
using the NTSC 525-line 
standard, but both PAL and 
SEC AM dubs will probably 
be made available at addi- 
tional cost. 

Again, contact the ARRL 
directly or through your 
Division Director for avail- 
ability of this tape Initial 
copies will be distributed on 
both U-Matic and VHS to all 
directors as soon as the proj- 
ect is completed Please do 
not bother them prior to ear- 
ly September since I know 
thai it won't be finished until 
around that time. 

Summary 

Barring the unexpected, 



such as a delay in the STS- 
9/Spacelab mission itself, 
the US Space Shuttle Co- 
lumbia carrying the ESA 
Spacelab will be launched 
into orbit from the NASA 
facilities in Florida on 
September 30, Sometime on 
October 2, at an exact time 
to be announced, the ama- 
teur-radio aspect of the mis- 
sion should begin. Dr. Car- 
riott will be operating as 
W5LFL, either Portable Co- 
lumbia or Space Mobile. He 
will operate for one hour per 
day in the frequency span 
discussed earlier, Ground 
acquisition from any given 
geographic location will be 
about 8 minutes per pass. It 

estimated that Dr. Car- 
nott will be able to make 
about 500 contacts during 
the mission 

Finally, there is the all- 
important QSL information. 
ARRL Headquarters will be 
the QSL manager for the op- 
erating event. Since, as 
stated, only about 500 of 
you will make that lucky 



contact, a decision has been 
made to honor SWL reports 
that can be verified against 
operating times contained in 
both the written and voice- 
recorded logs. A system has 
been developed to prevent 
dual contacts while at the 
same time make legitimate 
QSLs for contacts made 
with STS-9 easy to prove. 
However, this also means 
that anyone, ham and non- 
ham alike, who sends a 
verifiable report to ARRL 
Headquarters will be eligi- 
ble to receive a commemo- 
rative card in return. 

This information is al- 
ready being widely dissem- 
inated by SWL programs on 

many international short- 
wave stations and will prob- 
ably be reported by the US 
mass media during the flight. 
The ARRL staff may be burn- 
ing the midnight oil on this 
one for many days to answer 
all of the QSL requests. 

There, then, is the story of 
what to expect on the STS- 



9/Spacelab mission. Again, I 
have to stress that much of 
this is subject to change 
with little notice. The best 
way to keep up to date is by 
turning to one of the daily, 
weekly, or bi-weekly ama- 
teur-radio news operations 
mentioned earlier. During 
the mission itself, one of the 
amateur-radio broadcast 
services supplied by the 
ARRL, AMSAT, or West! ink 
will be your best source of 
information since they can 
literally update at a mo- 
ment's notice. In the mean- 
time, we trust that many of 
you will enjoy the aspect of 
getting prepared to try to 
contact Astronaut/Dr. Owen 
Carnott W5LFL on 2-meter 
FM as he spins around the 
world. Whether you make 
the contact or not, getting 
ready for the event will be 
half the fun. Hearing W5LFL 
from space and knowing 
that he is one of ours will be 
the other half Making a 
contact is literally the 
frosting on the cake. 



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73 Magazine • September, 1983 15 





mvm 



Been wondering what 
those "chirp-chirp" signals 
were around 14075? They're 
AMTOR, AMateur Teleprint- 
ing Over Radio, European 
hams have been enjoying 
the benefits of error free RTTY 
for sometime. (It's a must for 
commercial Maritime traffic.) 
Now, U -S, Amateurs are on the 
threshold of a new eia of 
RTTY. 

Old problems of QRM 
QRN, & Q5B are gone! If a pro- 
pagation path exists, AMTOR 
will get the message thru — 
with no "hits" — "newspaper" 
perfect copy) 

Two modes are avail- 
able* AMTOR mode A 
transmits a three character 
block specially coded so that 
the receiving station can re- 

16 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



here 



cognize an error The three 
character block is repeated 
until the receiving station 
confirms reception by reply- 
ing with the proper control 
code signal Flawless print is 
possible with this "hand- 
shake" style operation. 

Mode B ( TEC" or Forward 
Error Correction, is actually a 
time diversity mode where 
text is repeated and inter- 
mixed in the transmission. 
The receiving station un- 
scrambles it and prints the 
clear text. This "broadcast" 
mode allows more than two 
stations to communicate. It's 
more effective than conven- 
tional Baudot or ASCII, but 
not as reliable as AMTOR 
mode A. 

The actual DATA transfer 
in either AMTOR mode is 



nominally equivalent to con- 
ventional RTTY at SO baud 
or 66 WPM. 

A receive only "Listen" 
mode is also available for 
reception oi mode A data by 
a station not directly in- 
volved in the "hand-shake" 
communicatiorL 

Start with a new AMTOR 
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Join the 
Packet-Radio Revolution 

Get error-free, highspeed communications. Packet radio's 
chief architect, WA7GXD, explains what it is and how it works, 



Lyfefohmon WA7CXD 

co Tucson Amateur Packet Radio 

PO Box 22888 

Tucson AZ 85734 



Radio amateurs in Can- 
ada, Sweden, and the 
United States have recently 
been experimenting with a 
new system of communica- 
tions that: 

• can provide 100% copy 
under adverse band condi- 
tions (QRN), 

• is virtually immune to in- 
terference from others on- 
channel (QRA4), 

• typically runs at about 
1200 wpm (and can go 
much faster), 

• is highly efficient of spec- 
trum use, 

• " contributed) to the 
advancement of the radio 
art" (FCC Rules and Regula- 
tions, Part 97 1(b)— Basis 
and Purpose), and 

• is inexpensive (surprise!). 
This mode is called packet 

radio, and it opens the door to 
a new world of computer- 
based communications for 
the amateur community 

Imagine having a QSO 
with an amateur a continent 
away via a low-power 2- 
meter FM rig, or handling 
emergency traffic without 



worrying if you correctly 
copied the spelling of Solz- 
henitsyn, or leaving a mes- 
sage at a friend's shack if he 
is out Then there are possi- 
bilities for bulletin-board 
systems, remote program- 
ming of computers, file trans- 
fers, and even multi-player 
computer games! The list of 
potential applications goes 
on and on. 

This article is written to 
give the reader a practical 
look at packet radio, includ- 
ing a description of the 
equipment needed to use 
this new communications 
mode. Subsequent issues of 
73 will carry details on hard- 
ware, software/protocol, and 
application While the 
reading should prove inter- 
esting, the application of 
packet radio in your ham 
shack is the primary goal, 

What Is Packet Radio? 

Packet radio is a method 
of communications that en- 
codes information digitally 
and in such a manner as to 
virtually ensure error-free 
copy at the receiving sta- 
tion. While this is quite a 
step forward from the pres- 
ent vulnerability of amateur 
radio operations to such 
things as QRM and QRN, it 
is only part of the picture 
Packet-radio techniques 
also provide efficiency in 
spectrum usage by packing 



multiple calling and work- 
ing channels on the same 
frequency. 

If you've ever operated 
RTTY, you are very aware of 
the problems of selective 
fading, static crashes, and so 
forth — garbled copy is the 
usual result The solution to 
selective fading general I y 
means clever TUs and/or 
diversity reception, and thrs 
usually implies either a 
great deal of time or money 
or both. ASCII adherents 
will no doubt confess that 
they r too, are subject to the 
same problems. In fact, 
many RTTY operators have 
resisted switching to ASCII 
for this very reason. 

In RTTY operation, opera- 
tors will typically call a CQ 
on a calling frequency, then 
QSY to a working frequency 
to carry on their QSO so that 
other RTTYers may use the 
calling frequency. If a 
number of stations attempt- 
ed to hold independent 
QSOs on the same frequen- 
cy, chaos would result. 



Packet radio overcomes 
the first of these problems 
by employing a technique 
cafled "handshaking/' along 
with a computed error-detec- 
tion value called a frame 
Check Sequence" (FCS) to 
ensure data integrity. The 
sending station expects an 
acknowledgment (ACK) to 
its transmission within a cer- 
tain period of time or it re- 
transmits. Upon accurate 
reception of a packet the 
receiving station sends this 
ACK and the sender then 
continues about its next 
task. The handshake is done 
automatically. 

Due to the structure of a 
packet, which contains cer- 
tain information regarding 
the destination station, mul- 
tiple users can be accommo- 
dated on a single frequency, 
holding separate QSOs with- 
out causing noticeable inter- 
ference to each other! This 
means that the calling and 
working frequencies may be 
the same This ability to se- 
lectively receive messages 



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Fig. 1\ Typical packet-radio equipment 

73 Magazine * September, 1983 19 



from a packet station on* 
channel is called "con 
nectivity" and is a major 
contributor to the efficiency 
of packet radio. 

Packet radio also takes 
advantage of the fact that 
most communications are 
"bursty." This simply means 
that a user does not require 
the entire channel band* 
width most of the time. Con- 
sider an operator typing a 
message to another station, 
It may take him as little as 
10 seconds or as long as a 
minute to type a line, but it 
takes packet radio less than 
a second to get that data 
out. The packet system op- 
erates in bursts and leaves 
the dead time available for 
other packet stations (time* 
domain multiplexing). On a 
lightly-loaded channel (only 
a few users), you may not 
even be aware of the other 
stations 1 On a heavily-load- 
ed channel, you may notice 
an increase in delay time 
before getting your reply 
back. Again, the packet- 
radio equipment takes care 
of all of this for you, 
automatically. 

While packet radio re- 
quires the use of a comput- 
er-based controller at each 
station, it does not require 
that each operator be well- 
versed in computer technol- 
ogy, nor that the operator be 
a programmer. In fact, it 
does not require that the sta- 
tion have a personal com- 
puter; just a terminal will do 

Requirements 

There are four primary 
components in an amateur 
packet-radio station: (1) a li- 
censed amateur radio oper- 
ator, (2) a user terminal, (3) a 
Terminal Node Controller 
(TNC), and (4) an amateur ra- 
dio station. 

Operator — The amateur 
operator is you! No special 
training in computer sci- 
ence, electronic engineer- 
ing, nor digital communi- 
cations is needed. All that is 
required is an interest and a 
little time. Packet radio 
does not run your station; 

20 73 Magazine • September, 



111 

Hi ^H \% Wk m 


^ 


1 l^T 


1 C ^P 





A complete packet-radio station. The TAPR TNC is below 
the HT. 



you run it. (Note that ama- 
teurs possessing personal 
computers and a certain 
amount of expertise may be 
able to program their com- 
puters to control their 
packet stations,) 

Termina /—The user ter- 
minal can be as straightfor- 
ward as a simple Cathode- 
Ray Terminal [CRT), a per* 
sonal computer, or an ASCII- 
speaking TTY, or it may be 
as complex as a commercial 
computer installation. A key- 
board should be available 
for the operator to enter 



messages and to control the 
station. A screen or printer 
should be available to pre- 
sent information to the op- 
erator No doubt, some 
packeteer will design a 
speech-synthesizer interface 
and use a speaker for out- 
put! (After all our radios 
talk to us now, don't they?) 
Most terminals, like RTTY 
and ASCII systems, encode 
the characters they send in 
an asynchronous format 
This means, due to the 
"burstiness" of typing a mes- 
sage, that each character 



© 



9T*RT 



STOP 























i 















1 


I 


D 








i 




-■— 22j 


1VI*C 




I 


MME-< 







§T AST 



RARITY 



STOP 





J 




























































i 


i 




S3 


■ 1 





, 


. 





G 




a 





31 



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1 


t 




















1 





* 1 


a o 





I 






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1 


NM£-» 







Fig, 2. (a) Typical RTTY (Murray) code for letter "A", 60 wpm. 
Note that in asynchronous formats, as used by amateurs, 
each character has one start and one or more stop bits, (b) 
Typical ASCII code for letter "A* even parity, 110 baud, (c) 
The ASCII letter "A" within a packet at 1200 baud, Note that 
a 7 is sent as "no change in state' while a is sent as 'a change 
in state/' This is referred to as NRZI (non-return to zero, in- 
verted) coding and is used by virtually all packet stations, 

1983 



has a little flag to mark start- 
ing and ending points. The 
method employed is to en- 
code a single space before 
the character and end the 
character with one or more 
mark value levels— see Fig. 
2. This way, whenever a 
character is started, a transi- 
tion from mark to space oc- 
curs. This, along with some 
timing information, makes 
the data easily decodable. 
In the case of RTTY, IVi 
"bit-times" are used per 
character, and ASCII uses 10 
or 11, depending on the 
baud rate (note that a baud 
and a bit are not the same 
thing, but in amateur use, 
one bit per baud is encoded, 
so the terms have become 
blurred. 

If you have a terminal or 
computer, you can use it. ff 
not, terminals and comput- 
ers that use TV sets for the 
display are readily available 
for less than 5100 Nothing 
complicated is necessary. 

Terminal Node Control- 
ler—The TNC is a device 
which connects the terminal 
and the radio system togeth- 
er One port connects to the 
operator's terminal {or per- 
sonal computer), communi- 
cating via the asynchronous 
serial or parallel method re- 
quired by the terminal. (Note 
that the terminal baud rate 
has no relationship to the 
packet-channel baud rate.) 
The TNC converts the asyn- 
chronous data stream from 
the terminal into packets 
and vice versa — see Fig. 3. 

The header contains an 
address to indicate where 
the packet's going and con- 
trol information telling the 
network certain details re- 
garding the packet. The FCS 
calculation ensures the in- 
tegrity of the data, and flags 
mark the beginning and end 
of the packet. 

The other port of the TNC 
is the radio interface, which 
connects to the microphone 
audio, PTT, and speaker/ 
phone audio lines. The mod- 
ulation method most often 
used in packet radio is AFSIC 
This simply involves the ap- 
plication of one of two tones 



to the microphone input on 
a voice-grade radio, one 
tone corresponding to a 
mark, or digital 1, and the 
other to a space, or digital 0. 
By switching between these 
tones, the data is passed to 
the radio, which handles it 
like any other audio signal. 
The receiving station then 
decodes the audio tones 
coming from the speaker or 
headphone connector on the 
radio and recovers the data, 
which is then processed. The 
advantage to this method is 
simplicity; the disadvantage 
is the use of a widerthan- 
necessary channel. 



ncsse A**** kcket Radio tor-pant ion 

pi ±m:~- - ,25 level : ,*.-=, c !,*: 









RTTYers will recognize 
this method since they have 
used it for years. They will 
also recognize the need for 
a terminal unit (TU), a 
device used to translate be- 
tween the logic levels (data) 
and the tones. In packet ra- 
dio, the TU is called a mo- 
dem" (Moduiator-DE Modu- 
lator) and serves the same 
function. (Note that some 
TNCs have the modem built 
in. while others require the 
use of an external modem ) 

The usual packet-radio 
modem operates at 1200 
baud (about 1200 wpm) and 
uses tones of 1200 Hz and 
2200 Hz. This particular 
combination of tones is also 
used in the Bell 202 stan- 
dard, which allows compati- 
bility with surplus modems. 
In fact, some of the first 
packet stations used surplus 
202 modems Note that the 
tone combination is the only 
feature needed in a packet- 
radio modem to ensure 
compatibility with 202 
users. The other aspects of 
the 202 standard (handshak- 
ing, timing, reverse channel, 
etc) are not used in the rf 
environment. 

Rad/o-The radio system 
can be whatever you have 
Most packeteers use a 2Hne- 
ter FM rig, such as a hand- 
held or even a simple crystal- 
controlled "hamfest special." 
In light of the increased 
channel efficiencies that 
can be obtained with spe- 
cially optimized radio de- 



tei 



•Z If 4 

aim 

lift 0>r 

nd:i 

4WX, ceiwifct just yet. Thankf, Lylt.. J 



on of Picket ricko gn 2- : U 1288 WPI1 

on of PtcfctL r*<ko Oft 2-fttUrs it IZU Wn 



Highspeed transmission is possible with packet radio. 



sign, we can expect to see 

rigs designed especially for 
packet radio in the near 
future. 

Note that the AFSK tones 
used in packet radio aren't 
compatible with the audio- 
frequency response of some 
radios: If the 2200-Hz tone is 
too severely attenuated, mi- 
nor surgery may be required 
on the radio itself With this 
one limitation, a radio suit- 
able for voice communica- 
tions can also be used for 
packet radio. (Duty cycle is 
not a factor, due to the pre- 
viously-mentioned bursti- 
ness of a packet.) 

In addition to the radio, 
an antenna system and a 
power supply for the radio 
are necessary. 

Why Use a Terminal 
Node Controller? 

The heart of a packet- 
radio station, next to the 
operator, is the TNC The 
TNC is actually a special- 
purpose microcomputer, 
and it contains the neces- 
sary programs (software) to 
handle the radio, pass infor- 
mation between your sta- 
tion and other packet-radio 
stations, connect or discon- 
nect your station from other 
stations, and so forth. These 
functions and the way they 
are implemented are part of 
packet "protocol" While 
protocol is much more than 
just the above, the job of the 
TNC is to effectively imple- 
ment the protocol. 



Many potential packeteers 
ask why a TNC is needed if 

they already have a personal- 
computer system, It doesn't 
appear too efficient in terms 
of dollars, at least at first 
glance. Indeed, there are 
some stations using packets 
that have modified their per- 
sonal computers to act as 
TNCs, with varying degrees 
of success The problems 
arise from two primary 
sources: protocol and real- 
time programming. 

Protocol— Protocol is 

defined by Webster as "the 
highly formal procedure in 
official society." While 
packet radio is not an of- 
ficial society, it does require 
very formal, precise, well- 
defined, and (at least local 
ly) standardized procedures 
m order to transfer data 
reliably. 

In order for a number of 
stations to be on one fre- 
quency at one time with a 
variety of transmissions, 

ACKs, and so forth all going 
on, a computer network, not 
unlike a typical amateur 
net, must be established. 
This must be done rapidly 
and — in typical net fash- 
ion — according to proce- 
dures. If a station fouls up, it 
can cause a lot of confusion 
on the net. Stations must be 
able to check in and out of 
the net at will. The entire 
system becomes highly 
complicated, and the effort 
required to program the pro- 
tocol is substantial. To han- 

73 



die these procedures, 
special hardware is needed, 
not found on any presently- 
made personal computers. 
The TNC is designed to han- 
dle all of the physical pro- 
tocol (radio and terminal in- 
terfacing) as well as local 
networking 

Programming — Most 
computer hobbyists are fa- 
miliar with some version of 
the Basic language and do 
much, if not all, of their pro- 
gramming in It- Calculation 
of an OSCAR satellite posi- 
tion, logbook entry, and 
other typical amateur appli- 
cations run just fine in Basic. 
Basic is usually imple- 
mented as an interpreter, 
which slows things down 
during execution but allows 
the computer system to be 
interactive ("user-friendly") 
during programming ses- 
sions. To speed up things 
that must occur quickly, 
such as graphics or special 
I/O, some programs resort to 
assembly-language routines. 

In packet radio, the TNC 
is required to perform many 
simultaneous tasks, It must 
check for activity on the fre- 
quency, examine all mes- 
sages for certain data, ac- 
cept operator input in the 
form of messages and com- 
mands, output data to the 
operator, handshake, ini- 
tiate and respond to control 
within the network, perform 
FCC-mandated CW ID at 
prescribed intervals, ACK to 
certain transmissions, deter- 
mine if some other packet- 
radio station interfered with 
its transmissions (called col- 
lision detection), and so 
forth. This is enough to keep 
one microprocessor very 
busy, especially at high data 
rates, To also be refreshing a 
video display, doing disk ac- 
cesses, and handling gen- 
eral-purpose computing is 
beyond the ability of most 
personal-computing systems. 

The type of software re- 
quired to do this multi- 
tasking is different than nor- 
mal software, and it requires 
a very different approach in 
design than that required by 
other types of programs. 

Magazine • September, 1983 21 



f '. a;, 



ADDHE35 
FIELD 



FIELD 



^ 



DATA OH IN FOB HAT 1 0*1 
FIELD 

-45 



FCS 



FLAG 



TIME 



Fifr I A typical packet frame* Flag — 01111110 = 1 byte, 
ADDR = 1 to 24 bytes (protocol dependent). CN7I=1 or 2 
bytes, DATA — to 128 bytes typical. FCS — 2 bytes. Flag = 
01111110 — 7 byte. All bytes are sent least-significant bit 
(LSB) first except the FCS, which is sent most-significant bit 
(MSB) first 



Most personal computers 

are not designed to support 
this sort of programming, 
nor to efficiently support 
the special type of interrupt- 
driven hardware systems 
needed to run in this sort of 
real-time environment 

In many commercial- 
computing systems, multi- 
ple CPUs are employed to 
speed things up — a tech- 
nique called multiprocess- 
ing A TNC gives the ama- 
teur with a personal com- 
puter some of the same 
benefits While your com- 
puter is doing disk I/O, the 
TNC can be doing what it 
must do to support the 
packet-radio activity. The 
TNC, then, is nothing more 
than a "smart" peripheral 
device for your personal 
computer, much tike a disk 
drive or a printer. It does its 
task well, allowing your per- 
sonal computer the time it 
needs to do its general-pur- 
pose tasks well. 

What Is a Packet? 

Again referring to Web- 
ster, a packet is "a small, 
compact bundle or portion " 
In packet radio, messages 
are broken up into small 
pieces and sent to the re- 
ceiving station where the 
pieces are put together to re- 
build the message. Natural- 
ly, some information is ap- 
pended to the message so 
the receiving station will be 
able to sort things out. On a 
busy channel, there may be 
packets flying around be- 
tween dozens of stations, 
but only a few are for you. 

The operator generally 
just types in the message he 
wishes to send. Once the 
TNC has been told where to 
send the message, it starts 



breaking the text into pack- 
ets which are then sent out 
on the network. While the 
size of a packet may vary, 
most are limited to 128 
bytes (or characters, if send- 
ing text information) in the 
data field to allow channel 
access by multiple users, 
Typically, when the opera- 
tor hits the RETURN or 
ENTER key on his terminal, 
the TNC formats and sends a 
packet Thus, as the opera- 
tor types the message, the 
receiving station immediate- 
ly displays it. 

Since packet radio is de- 
signed to handle any form of 
digital data (not just ASCII 
or Baudot but also binary, 
EBCDIC, or whatever), a 
special method of format- 
ting the data is employed, 
Most packet systems use a 
protocol based on High- 
Level Data-Link Control 
(HDLC) standards. HDLC is a 
Bit-Oriented Protocol (BOIM 
that enables the "trans- 
parent" (unmodified) pass- 
ingof information within the 
system One of the nice 
things about using HDLC is 
that the complex functions 
it uses to do its tasks are 
available integrated on a 
single large-scale integra- 
tion (LSI) chip, which re- 
duces the complexity of the 
TNC hardware and software, 
as well as TNC cost. 

A packet is enclosed in an 
HDLC frame, which may 
be represented as shown in 

Fig .3. 

The flag is something the 
HDLC controller looks for 
(when receiving) or adds 
(when transmitting] to the 
packet to mark the begin 
ning of a packet frame It is 
a totally unique pattern of 
1s and 0s for easy detection. 



The address field contains 
information as to where the 
packet is being sent and pos- 
sibly who sent it Some 
schemes use the amateur 
callsign in this field (14 or 
more bytes), while others 
use a mapping system that 
requires onlv 1 or 2 bytes. 
Don't worry about how 
packet radio can support dif- 
ferent addressing methods 
and still allow the stations to 
communicate— this is han- 
dled by the protocol and 
will be explained, 

The control field tells the 
network certain things 
about the packet and in 
eludes sequencing, ac- 
knowledgment, and other 
control functions. This field 
may be one or two bytes in 
length. 

The data field contains 
the actual message being 
sent Unless the message is 
less than one packet in 
length, multiple packets will 
be required to send it, due to 
the current 128-byte data- 
length limit. The informa- 
tion in the data field is al- 
most always user-provided. 

The FCS provides the re- 
ceiving station (node) with 
the information it needs to 
determine whether or not 
the data is valid If the FCS 
calculated by the receiving 
node doesn't match the FCS 
it receives from the sending 
node, the receiving TNC 
throws away the packet 

The packet is closed by a 
second flag 

The flags, address field, 
and control field are all 
generated by the TNC and 
are used within the packet- 
radio network to implement 
the protocol used. The oper- 
ator does not need to con- 
cern himself with the coding 
of these fields to use packet 
radio since the TNC does it 
all for him. 

Since HDLC utilizes flags 
to mark the beginning and 
ending points of the entire 
packet, it is very inefficient 
to further require that each 
chararacter also have flags, 
so packet radio uses a syn- 
chronous protocol, remov- 
ing the start and stop bits. 



This reduces the length of 
Baudot characters to only 5 
bits and ASCII characters to 
7 (parity is redundant due to 
the FCS) This means greater 
on-channel throughput 

How Is a Packet Network 
Organized? 

At present, packet radio 
consists of several uncon- 
nected local area nets (LANs) 
that usually run on 2 meters 
or 220 MHz. Since this im- 
plies local coverage, it is on- 
ly necessary that a station 
use the protocol being used 
in its vicinity, I he advan- 
tages here are many, in- 
cluding the fact that it 
allows widespread experi- 
mentation with protocol op- 
timization. This in turn 
leads to more efficient oper- 
ation and allows each group 
the freedom to try various 
approaches for their own 
unique requirements 

An LAN may include a 
packet repeater, although 
using a repeater is not al- 
ways necessary The time- 
sharing nature of packet 
radio allows using a half- 
duplex (single-frequency) 
repeater No splits or cavi- 
ties are needed, so any pack- 
et-radio station can be a 
"digi-peater." Having a sta- 
tion act as a digi-peater re- 
quires no special effort on 
the part of the operator 
who may continue to use it 
as a standard packet-radio 
station. Further, a normal 
full-duplex, split-frequency 
repeater could be used. 

Naturally, VHF is limited 
in coverage (no one has sue- 
cessfully had a packet QSO 
with moonbounce yet), and 
most packeteers would like 
to communicate with others 
in other LANs To this end, 
several packet stations are 
becoming operational on 
HF, and the unique chal- 
lenges presented by HF op- 
eration are being met- How- 
ever, another mechanism is 
being explored, called gate- 
way operation (see Fig, 4)- 

A gateway station is a 
good example of shared 
resources, another packet 
advantage. To commum 



22 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



When two recent American Everest ex- 
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antenna on their radios, it wasn't just be- 
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wed be glad to show you how they'll work 
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Write for our free amateur catalog. 











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AMSAT PMMSE Jll-a 



S4T£lLi?T G*OUHO STATfON 



70 

DISTANT 
RACKET 
NETWORK 



Zm 
Fll 

RAD tO 


^ mK 


TWC 
KMT 


PTT 


i=K« 




TERMINAL 



Fig, 4. Typical packet gateway system. Station A uses a sim- 
ple 2-meter HT. Station B provides linking to other packet 
networks via satellite. Similarly, an HF link could be 
established. 



cate outside the LAN, a 
gateway station receives the 
packet and does a "link" via 
a gateway channel and with 
another protocol (actually 
another layer of protocol) It 
translates the LAN protocol 
into the protocol used by 
the inter-network linking 
system. The gateway at the 
receiving end retranslates 
the protocol into its LAN 
protocol. Due to the contin- 
uing experimentation that is 
being conducted within 
packet radio, it is likely that 
the gateway system will be 
used for a long time. 

Gateway stations allow 
the user in an LAN to com- 
municate with other packet- 
radio stations far beyond his 
normal range To allow this 
three primary gateway paths 
are being developed: 



TERRACON will be a 
high-speed UHF and/or mi- 
crowave-based linking sys- 
tem that will form a so- 
called backbone network 
This will enable any packet 
station to communicate with 
ciny other packet station 
that is also linked into TER- 
RACON. This system could 
handle the bulk of long- 
distance packet-radio com- 
munications in North Amer- 
ica, and it may find its way 
into other high-population 
areas such as Europe Pack- 
et groups are working on 
this development; it will 
probably be a few years be- 
fore a useful system is im- 
plemented, and a few more 
years before it links the 
continent 

AMICON is AMSAT's (Ra~ 
dio Amateur Satellite Cor- 



COMMON PACKET RADIO ABBREVIATIONS 

ACK— An acknowledgment from the receiving station in- 

dtcating that the data was received correctly. 
BOP— Bit-Oriented Protocol. This method allows unmodified 
transmission of information* 
CRT— Cathode-Ray Terminal. 

FCS— Frame Check Sequence. Method of detecting recep- 
tion errors. 

DLC— High- Level Data-Link Control. This is a BOP protocol 
which most packet-radio systems use, 
LAN— Local Area Network. A network of stations in close 
geographic proximity. 
TAPR— Tucson Amateur Packet Radio. 
TNC— Terminal Node Controller. Connects the terminal to 
the radio system and implements packet protocol. 



poration) initial Phase 1 1 IB 
satellite-based network that 
will allow the linking of 
LANs via gateway stations 
equipped to use this high- 
orbit satellite. When work- 
ing, AMICON will allow 
both intercontinental link- 
ing and connection with 
isolated areas High data- 
rate experiments are now 
being planned for the 
23cm/70cm (Mode L) trans- 
lator aboard Phase 1MB that 
could point the way for a 
special high-speed packet- 
radio transponder package 
aboard a future AMSAT 
satellite. 

SKIPCGN is AMRAD's 
(Amateur Radio Research 
and Development Corpora- 
tion] acronym for an HF- 
based network of LAN gate- 
ways Due to the vagaries of 
HF propagation, data rates 
will be slower here, on the 
order of 50 to 600 bits per 
second with forward-error- 
detection and -correction 
protocol to ensure data in- 
tegrity and minimize re- 
transmission. Experiments 
have been conducted with 
these techniques since the 
winter of 1981-1982, 

Where Can I Get a TNC? 

At present, there are two 
TNC designs in common 
use: the Vancouver TNC and 
the TAPR TNC 

The Vancouver board is 
produced by a Canadian 
group called the Vancouver 
Amateur Digital Communi- 
cations Croup (VADCG), a 
nonprofit organization, 
VADCG is a pioneer in 
packet radio (the DOC au- 
thorized packet use in 1978), 
and the VADCG TNC is 
widely used by packeteers. 
This TNC is supplied as a 
"bare board." It requires a 4* 
voltage power supply, an ex- 
ternal modem, and the nec- 
essary parts to populate it. 

Notes are included in the 
instruction sheets that come 
with the board for design- 
ing the power supply, and 
VADCG makes a modem kit 
that is specifically designed 
for radio use. 



The Vancouver TNC de- 
sign is based on the Intel 
8085 CPU and 8273 HDLC 
controller, 4K bytes of 2114 
RAM, and 4K bytes of 2708 
EPROM An 8250 (for serial 
port) or an 8255 [for parallel 
port) is needed to interface 
the station terminal Con- 
tact VADCG or other groups 
using this TNC for software. 
It is up to the user to work 
up the actual radio inter- 
face 

A group of amateurs met 
in Tucson in November, 
1981, and decided to get in- 
volved in packet radio. 
Since many in the group 
were microprocessor hard- 
ware-design engineers, as 
well as real-time program- 
mers, they decided to form a 
nonprofit organization and 
design a TNC with the mo- 
dem, radio interface, and 
power-supply [exclusive of 
transformer) circuitry on a 
single board, for significant 
cost savings over existing 
designs. This resulted in the 
formation of Tucson Ama- 
teur Packet Radio (TAPR), a 
nonprofit corporation, and 
the development of the 
TAPR TNC 

The TAPR TNC is based 
on the 6809 microprocessor 
and can hold a total of 48K 
bytes RAM and ROM on the 
board. It uses the 1933 
HDLC chip (fully compati- 
ble with the 8273 HDLCfor^ 
mat — aren't standards nice?) 
and has both serial and 
parallel ports on the board 
for terminal or computer in- 
terface. The TAPR TNC is 
assembled, tested, and 
calibrated with all software 
in place and includes cir- 
cuitry to interface to most 
radios. Software sources are 
listed in the manual that 
comes with the TNC for run- 
ning in popular personal 
computers (to make them 
act like terminals), along 
with hardware interconnec- 
tion information. 

I would like to express my 
sincere thanks to Den Con- 
nors KD2S and Chuck Green 
N0ADI for their comments, 
criticisms, and technical 
advice ■ 



24 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



I 



Jill 

ill* ^1 * 


h 




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Be a RTTY Rembrandt 

Put that award-winning shine on your RTTY pix 
with these tips from a RTTY artist's sketchbook. 



Alfred La Vorgna \V\>OQI 
J f Kuhl A venue 
Hicks\ith 1601 



J 




Preparing the cartoon for R 7TY. 
28 73 Magazine • September, 1983 







As I always liked art as a 
hobby, it was natural 
for me to adapt to RTTY art 
when I was bitten by the 

RTTY bu# Knowledge of 
art techniques need not be 



a requisite to the creation 
of good RTTY art. For the 
benefit of the few who may 
not know, RTTY pix is the 

transformation of any pic- 
lure into a similar imaye us^ 



ri 





r~t *--* je** mt"j, mm mm^d 







Close-up of typewriter technique. 




The author with a pre<tra\vn cartoon, set up for RTTY 
transfer. 



ing only the upper- and 
lowercase printout of a 
hard-copy RTTY machine 
for transmission on the ham 
bands. There are new con- 
cepts being introduced with 
the use of computers, but 
that is an innovation that 
will develop in a class by 
itself 

When selecting a picture 
for copying, select those 
that have a minimum of de- 
tail and are of a north and 
south composition Hori- 
zontal work is done occa- 
sionally, but the vertical 
format is much easier con- 
sidering the direction that 
the paper is flowing from 
the machine, be it an old 
Model 19 or a later Model 
28. There are many cartoons 
being transmitted on the 
bands because of the sim- 
plicity of design and elon- 
gated format. 

Most RTTY artists select a 
picture from a magazine or 
newspaper and simply pho- 
tostat it for insertion into the 



machine for reproduction 
by typing over the image, 
This usually works quite 
well except for the difficulty 
of obtaining an image that is 
long enough I prefer to use 
the box method of enlarging 
as it gives more control over 
image 1 dimension. Another 
method is to utilize the artist 
in the family to make a long 
skinny drawing. If you are 
not blessed with such an art- 
ist, fear not You need not be 
a great artist to accomplish 
this task. 

The typed area on most 
Teletype® machines aver- 
ages about seven and one- 
quarter inches across with a 
total of 73 characters 
Therefore, use seven inches 
as the width measurement 
and the up-and-down mea- 
surement is unlimited. Pull 
out five feet of paper from 
the roll and square it into 
one-inch spaces allowing 
the same space on the left- 
hand margin that your ma- 
chine allows. Find an illus- 




The author checking a completed picture. 



tration that is at least four 
times longer than it is wide 
Cartoons are suggested for 
early work Divide the dis- 
tance across the selected 
picture into seven segments. 
The size of one of these seg- 
ments will be the dimension 
of all your squares. Now 
simply copy whatever is in 
each segment into the one 
inch squares on your paper, 
Eliminate as much detail as 
possible. Pay no attention to 
the jagged appearance. 
When you have completed 
all the squares, you will re- 
trace the rough lines into 
smooth lines. 

Step back from the com- 
pleted drawing and visual- 
ize the dark, light, and medi- 
um sections and decide 
which letters or figures will 
best accomplish your objec- 
tive. Try to hold overlines to 
two passes as this should 
prove sufficient for most 
work Contest rules usually 
limit overlines to three. 

Now we come to the big- 
gest time-saver of all. If you 
have or can obtain an old 
vintage typewriter, you will 
discover that most of them 
have the same spacing as 
the RTTY machine Many 
old typewriters can be 
picked up at attractive 
prices. 

If you decide to buy a 
typewriter, bring along some 
typed copy from your radio- 
teletype machine. Make a 



similar copy on your intend- 
ed purchase and hold both 
copies up to the light for 
comparison. Let the light 
shine through both sheets 
held together If only half a 
letter is lost by the end of a 
line, you have a good selec- 
tion, but line-to-line spacing 
must be very close. Small 
differences can be made up 
as I will explain later, 

Insert your draw mg in the 
typewriter and type across 
the top, about six inches 
down, the numbers 1234567 
890 and repeat until you 
reach 73 numbers. Then do 
the same down the left-hand 
side for the length of the 
sketch. These are reference 
points for use when you 
make corrections later and 
are not copied on the final 
print. Before you start your 
print, it is a good idea to 
make several copies or trac- 
ings on additional sheets in 
case you make too many er- 
rors on your first try. 

Now insert your sketch in- 
to your old nail-buster and 
start typing right on top of 
your art work using the let- 
ters, numbers, and charac- 
ters you have selected. Most 
errors can be erased or 
typed over. It is best that the 
ribbon not be too fresh. If an 
error is too bad, indicate 
changes with red pencil so 
you can pick them up later. 

When you reach the bot- 






73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 29 




•4 completed picture after RTTY transfer. 



Sample copy of a picture as received over the air 



torn, add your title and cred- 
it line, transfer the finished 
work to your machine, and 
simply type over the copy as 
your reperf records your pix 
You will still make errors, 
but only a fraction of those 
that would occur if you 
typed directly over an 
original print. You will have 
to make slight corrections 
when your print box does 
not hit the letters directly, 
adjusting the print accord- 
ingly When I approach 
more than Vi -letter mis 
match, I throw up the paper 
release and gently grasp the 
paper on either side and 
make the slight correction 
by moving the copy. Prac- 
tice will make these adjust- 
ments a quickly solved 
problem Do not seek a per- 
fect character match as long 
as you do not lose a com- 
plete space on one line of 
travel 

It may be more comfort- 
able for you to operate your 
machine with the cover 
open for closer viewing of 
your tape alignment over 
the typewritten copy. In- 
stead of letting the paper 
flow over the top of the ma- 
chine, hang it up over a wire 
and lightly weight it so you 
will be able to view the print 

30 73 Magazine * September, 



as a whole as it exits from 
the rollers. 

Here are some sugges 
tions: 

• Follow the basic rules of 
pix-making that are outlined 
in most contest rules, 

• Use no more than 73 char- 
acters in one line. 

• Use at least ten line feeds 
at the beginning and end of 
your picture. 

• Use three functions at the 
beginning of every line 
When overt in ing, use any 
combination of carriage re- 
turn, FIGS, or LTRS so as to 
provide three functions 
without using line feed. 

• Don't forget the guy 
whose machine does nut 
downshift on space and 
make sure you add this 
function or his pix may end 
up with a lot of 2s where you 
wanted Ws. 

After you have made your 
tape, print your first plav 
back. Take a red pencil and 
mark off all the hits and 
glitches that need correct- 
ing. Rerun the tape and cor- 
rect each error as you are 
punching your new tape 
Unlike the typewritten copy r 
this time you will have to re- 
punch another tape for any 
error that you let slip 

If you are going to enter 

1963 



any contests, it is best to 
make sure you do not have 
any hidden errors that do 
not appear in the print such 
as unnecessary shift func- 
tions or going over a line to 
add a missing letter. This 
could cost you points with 
some judges You will have 
to watch for these errors vi- 
sually as the tape is being 
run, I have a friend who 
picks these up on his com- 
puter, but this is sneaky. 

Finally, when you have all 
your corrections made, 
stand back from your print. 
It will never appear as great 
as your original typewriter 
copy, as the outlines of your 
drawing will no longer ap- 
pear, but it will develop a 
character of its own. If at 
this time you decide that 
there is either not enough or 
loo much contrast between 
sections, make another tape 
and add or subtract charac- 
ters to these areas, 

When you arrive at your 
final copy and wish to make 
a print for display, you need 
not settle for the paper 
available for teletype ma- 
chines. Your local art shop 
has good bond paper in 
large sheets that you can cut 
in lengths the same width as 
your paper roll providing 



you have friction feed 
Sprocket feed will limit you 

to sprocket paper. Roll-feed 
machines have a fine-grade 
white paper available at sta- 
tionery supply houses that 
will produce fine prints for 
contests and display. 

Use a new or re-inked rib- 
bon for final prints. If your 
reperf produces a chadless- 
type tape, try to get a chad 
tape made by a friend for 
easier storage and mailing. 
Send your contest print en 
tries in a roller container or 
neatly rolled in a shoe box 
to avoid folds. Wrap your 
prize-winning tape in news- 
paper to prevent shifting in 
transit. Of course, you 
should keep a master copy 
as there will be no return of 
your tape or print 

Stop printing everyone 
else's pix, Make one of your 
own that will have your call 
letters on the final line It is 
worth the effort Discover 
your own little pix tricks. 
When you create that win- 
ner, you can display it on the 
shack wall with pride You 
may even want to copy it on 
high-contrast line film and 
make your own unique pho- 
tographic QSL cards Let's 
see your pix on the page 
soon ■ 




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^See Ltst of Aavet users cut pag$ t m 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 31 




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32 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



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Se* Ust of Advertisers on page t U 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 33 



Leon Fletcher N6HYK 

1360 fosseiyn Canyon Road #46 

Monterey CA 93940 



How to Increase Your QSOs 

N6HYK'$ seasoned advice will add spice to your CW contacts 

even if you aren't a Novice. 



Ten students were in the 
_ fall, 1981, 10-week 
course at Pacific Grove 
Adult School in California, 
studying to take the tests for 
licensing as Novices. The in- 
structor, Paul Herrschaft 
KQ6G, presented excellent 
instruction — 70% of his 
students passed the FCC test 
on the first try; the rest 
passed soon after. 

But today, more than a 
year later, only one of those 
students is on the air, Why? 

There are several reasons 
of course. But many Novices 



tell me there's one big prob- 
lem that stands out above 
all others in keeping them 
off the air: the lack of practi- 
cal, specific tips on just how 
to handle CW contacts. 

That's no criticism of 
KQbG's course, nor, proba- 
bly, of other typical Novice 
classes offered around the 
country. Rather, there is a 
severe shortage of the spe- 
cific information every Nov- 
ice needs immediately after 
he or she has passed the FCC 
tests: the tips and tech- 
niques about actual on-the- 
air operation. 



But Novices are not the 
only hams who can benefit 
from the following details. 
I've heard many General- 
class operators, and even a 
good many Advanceds and 
Extras, making basic oper- 
ating goofs, sounding as if it 
were their first day on a key. 

Yet the tips in this article 
are seldom seen in print or 
heard from fellow hams. 
Search, as I have, the stan- 
dard operating manuals, 
handouts, instructional 
guides, and such, and you'll 
find very little of this kind of 
information, Mostly all 



A0MAT 




This is my shacL Here I learned the hard way, through on-the-air experience, the bask tips 
and techniques presented in this article, not to be found in existing manuals, guides, etc As I 
operate, I can glance at stick-on notes posted as reminders; "7,228: Hawair Storm Net"; 
WA6IRZ Stan Bringer sked, 3900, 10 pm"; "V£ districts needed. . . " 

34 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



you'll read in the publica- 
tions and hear from other 
hams are generalities. "Be 
patient." reads one. Another 
suggests, "Be persistent" 
Such vague words are of lit- 
tle real help. 

Here, then, are nitty-grit- 
ties about how to search a 
band, how to increase the 
number of your QSOs, and 
how to be a better operator. 
Here are 11 practical QSO 
tested techniques. 

These tips are based on 
two sources Most came to 
me the hard way, from my 
own on-the-air experiences. 
But I'm not passing myself 
off as an expert operator 
Rather, I'm a Novice who's 
disappointed with the limit- 
ed help available to begin- 
ners and aware of the need 
for experienced hams to be 
better operators. So, as I 
began operating my station, 
I took detailed notes of the 
problems —and solutions— 
I met 

That system paid off. It 
took me just 53 days on the 
air to contact all states. The 
last one, Domenico Procida 
KAQMEI, in McLaughlin, 
South Dakota, came on the 
15-meter band at 1929 UTC, 
shortly before noon my 
time, in California, on Tues- 
day, November 2, 1982. 
Now, I'm not suggesting 
thafs any kind of record. 
Rather, I offer such specifics 
to show you that by using 
these techniques you can in- 
deed improve your own on- 
the-air successes. 



ALL ITEMS ARE 
GUARANTEED OB SALES 
PR*CE REFUNDED 

PRICES FOB. 
HOUSTON 

PRICES SUBJECT TO 
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ITEMS SUBJECT TO 
PRIOR SALE. 



SIGNAL ONE 

Milspec 1 030 $4995.00 

ROBOT 800 _, 447,00 

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ST5000 , 209.00 

TOKYO HYPOWER 

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HC2000 Tuner . . . . 289.00 

HL10160V Amp . . 289.00 

HL301 60V Amp f 249.00 

BELDEN CABLE 
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8214 RG8 foam 39$/ft 

8237 RGS 36<t/ft 

8235 300 Ohm kW 

twinJead 20$/ ft 

8000 14 Ga. 

stranded ant ......... . ,.10e/ft 

8267 RG213 46^ft 

8448 rotorcable , . , . . 27€/ft 

9405 heavy rotor cable ..45C/ft 

KDK 2030 2M FM 259.00 

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ST7T.. 230.00 

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ROCKWELL KWM380 . 3995.00 
QSL Holder or Coax Seal2.00 ea 

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Chrome singlefever ,45.00 

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RG8X .14e/tt 

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Resistors 1/4, 1/2, 1. 

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Tubes. Schematics. Meters, 
Switches, Coils, Connectors, 
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difference, fob Houston 



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HOUSTON, TEXAS 77010 




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Houston COM-VENTION 83 

The 1983 ARRL 

National 
Oct 7-9, 1983 

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Explorer 14 .,,,,,,♦.,,,. .269,00 

7 or 10 MHz Kit , .... 79.00 

HD73 Rotor 99.00 

Ham 4 Rotor .19900 

[To ALPHA 

Great prices - caW 
Example of a great deal: 76PA for $1690 

Alpha worfc and all mods by our Factory Technician. 

COMPUTER CORNER: Call our techs on 
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operating your Madison purchased computer 
items. We offer service after the sale for 
everyone. 

AEA CP1 $199.00 

Software in stock (10% discount) 

With CP1 purchase - 

MFJ 1 224 Interface S79.95 

Kantronics Interface 1 39.00 




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Full line of Yaesu accessories 

in stock! 

SP107 (limited) ........ ...... 20.00 



DON'S CORNER: 

Everything in life seems a big mystery to 
us T including the world of the ham. Kids 
have less fear of the unknown than us, so 
why not introduce some youngster to the 
fascination of ham radio. It's a good 
feeling. I know. I've done it 

Don't shrink away from the idea of buying 
a new radio because you're sure a new 
one will come out next week. The options 
and quality has never been as good as it is 
now. The new crop of radios amazes me. 
Bells and whistles galore, and yet our 
warranty repair load is a fraction of just a 
year ago. There was this CB'er who 
brought in his rig for repair after getting so 
mad at it that he shot it , . . honest. 

73, Don 



We will open and inspect 
air equipment at your 
request Accessories 
purchased will be installed 
and tested wiihoiU charge 



IF ITS 

NOT LISTED, 

CALL ME!! 



.■■ii 



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713-658-0268 



We stock what we advertise, and much more. 

TOLL FREE - ORDERS ONLY 
1 -800-231 -3057 






See Ust of A0¥erttser$. on page m 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 35 












ptfTrtV* 




warn* 














, ttr ^ 


«• 


*^ 








m- wS - ' 1 


v* 






PTtP 

I 





A beginner's collection of QSL cards can grow surprisingly 
fast As cards come in, the XYL often gets interested in them. 



The other source for these 
tips was the 96-member U.S. 
Naval Postgraduate School 
Amateur Radio Club in 
Monterey, California. At one 
of its monthly meetings, I 
asked members to tell me 
specifics they thought 
would help improve oper- 
ating skills. 

Here's what I learned. 

1) Headphones: This tip 
stands out far above all oth- 
ers for two reasons. First it is 
absolutely essential. Sec- 
ond, it is rarely mentioned in 
any of the usual lists of oper- 
ating tips. 

Get yourself a really good 
set of communication-style 
headphones. Tell that to the 
typical ham who's been on 
the air a month or so and he, 
or she, may stare at you as if 
you'd just announced that 
people need air to breathe. 
The need, the value, of 
headphones is apparently so 
obvious it's almost never 
mentioned. But there are 
some rank beginners— I, tor 
one— who need to be told 
about the need for a headset 

Good phones increase the 
volume. They focus your at- 
tention. They sharpen your 
listening. They reduce other 
sounds. They improve, great- 
ly and immediately, your 
operating. They're indispens- 
able. Absolutely. 

How to choose your 
phones is, frankly, beyond 
my technical knowledge. I 

36 73 Magazine • September, 



just went to a major dealer 
of ham equipment and said, 
"Show me your very best 
phones." He offered three I 
found one felt heavy. Anoth- 
er looked like inferior work- 
manship. As I picked the 
third, the salesman said, 
"That's the set I've found 
best/' My selection: Ken- 
wood HS-5. I have no idea 
how they measure up with 
other phones technically. 
But they fit me, sound great 
feel good, and significantly 
increase my operating skills 
The rest of these tips are 
not in any order of priority. 
You should pick out the 
ones which will help you 
most at the level of on-the- 
air operating you're at right 
now, then make mental 
notes to use the other tips as 
the need may arise. 

2) Listen around the "Big 
Guns/' They're those super- 
powerful stations. Often 
they pour out CW at 15 or 
more words a minute, 
somehow expecting Nov- 
ices to answer Once you 
hear one of them, tune care- 
fully, slowly, intently, just 
above and just below their 
signals. A great many times 
I've found those power- 
houses come on the air and 
hide, but not completely 
block, some smaller, less 
powerful, slower CQer 
Often, that modest-sound- 
ing station is much more in- 
teresting to QSO He, or she, 
may often be more eager, 

1983 




Referring to my tog, i find added pleasure in hamming by pin- 
pointing the location of a station soon after completing a 
QSO. This one, }im Wesseling KA9MXO from Spring Grove, 
Illinois, will have a red dot added to the map to help me keep 
track of the spread of my QSOs throughout the nation. 



receptive, and considerate 

of your slower, less skilled, 
less confident operating, 

3} Listen at a ''hangout." 
That's what I call a spot on 
the band where stations 
gather. When 40 meters is 
open, for example, if s usual- 
ly at the very lowest end of 
the band Then, often, up 
around say 7.110 to 7.120, 
there may be a relatively 
open space, followed by arv 
other hangout If there are 
but, say, five or so hams op- 
erating in those groups, you 
might be able to catch a CQ 
quickly and easily. But if ten 
or more stations are working 
the hangout, singling one 
out may be difficult. Ac- 
cording to my ears, they just 
beat each other up, block 
each other, cut out each 
other, and interfere with 
themselves and with poten- 
tial contacts. They may be- 
come a pileup, So I tune 
elsewhere. I search for an- 
other group, but a small, 
responsible, orderly group 
There, often, I can find a 
good station that is contact- 
able/' if that's a word. 

4) Listen where there's no 
action. Chris Thais NQ6Q of 
Monterey, California, told 

me, "When I turn my trans- 
ceiver on, I generally check 
out the overall sound that s 
on the air. If I don't hear any 



traffic, it doesn't necessarily 
mean the band is down." He 
sends out a CQ anyway, 
and, surprisingly often, he 
says, he gets a contact 

5) Consider the problems 
of that old tip, "Send your 
CQ and your call at the 
speed you want to copy/' 
Generally, that's a good 
technique. But sometimes it 
may help to send it slower 
than you can or want to 
copy. If you're cautious, as I 
am, you could figure a slow- 
er CQ may help make sure 
someone hears you clearly 
and correctly. 

On the other hand, you'll 
increase your CW speed if 
you extend yourself a bit 
now and then. At least once 
a day, I give a call to a key 
that's buzzing along three or 
so words faster than my 
present best speed You, too, 
should push yourself into 
copying faster than you feel 
is comfortable, at least now 
and then. Sure, you may 
miss some copy. But you 
don't have to send SOLID" 
after every listen. I find that 
in a few days of copying 
somewhat over my speed, I 
can then move my rate of 
CQing up a bit and copy 
most of what comes back 
with comfort, 

6) When you fumble, slow 
down! Don't let yourself fall 




ICOM 




HF Transceivers: Regular SALE 

IC-740* 9-band 200w PEP Xcvr $ 1099.00 949" 

*ptus FREE PS-740 Infernal power supply & 

Factory Rebate until gone! 



<?\ 



h * * ft « iti#*i 



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PS-740 Internal power supply 

EX- 241 Marker unit 

EX-242 FM unit . 

EX-243 Electronic keyer unit,....,, 

FL-44 SSB filter (2nd IF) 

FL-45 500 Hz CW filter (lstlF)...„ 

FL-54 270 Hi CW filter (1st IF) 

FL-52 500 Hi CW filter (2nd IF} ..,. 
FL-53 250 Hz CW filter (2nd IF)..., 

MB 12 Mobile mount... 

Hi 10 Mobile scan microphone.... 

IC 730 8-band 200w PEP Xcvf */mic , 

FL 30 SSB filter (passband tuning], 

FL-44 SSB filter (2nd IF).. ... 

FL-45 500 Hz CW filter. „ 

EX- 195 Marker unit 

EX-202 LDA interlace; 730/2KL/AH 

EX-203 150 Hz CW audio filter 

EX-205 Transverter switching unit. 
HM-10 Mobile scan microphone.... 
MB*5 Mobile mount *. 



1 



• * . . . . . 



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IC-720A fctand Xcvr/. 1-30 MHz Rcw $ 

FL-32 500 Hz CW filter..... 

FL*34 5.2 KHz AM filter ..„,.«♦«*..... 
HB-S Mobile mount 

IC-7072 transcetve interface, R-70 M 
New Modelt 

IC-751 9-band xcvr/J-30 MHz Rcvr$ 
PS-35 Internal power supply .... 

FL-52A 500 Hz CW filter 

FL-53A 250 Hz CW filter 

FL-33 AM filter 

HM-12 Hand microphone 

SM-6 Desk microphone 

External frequency controller 

High stability reference crystal... 

Accessories: 720/73Q/740 

PS- 15 External 20A power supply...... 

EX- 144 Adaptor; CF-l/PS 15 

CF-1 Cooling fan for PS-IS 

PS-20 20A switching ps w/speaker ..... 

CC-L Adaptor; HF radio to PS-20 

CF-I Cooling fan for PS-20 

Si-5 8- pin electret desk mic 

5P-3 External speaker 

Speaker/ phone patch (specify radio) 

AT- 100 lOOw B band automatic ant tuner 
AT-500 50Qw 9-band automatic ant tuner 
AH-1 5- band mobile ant w/tuner 



$159 00 
20 00 
39,00 
50.00 
159.00 
59.50 
47.50 
96,50 
96.50 
1950 
39.50 

1829.00 
59.50 
159.00 
59.50 
39 00 
27,50 
39 00 
29.00 
39.50 
19.50 

1349.00 

59.50 

49.50 

1950 

112.50 

Regular 

1399.00 

160 00 

TBA 

TBA 

TBA 

TBA 

TBA 

TBA 

TBA 

Regular 

$149.00 

650 

45.00 

229.00 

10.00 

45.00 

39.00 

4950 

139 00 

34900 

449.00 

28900 



149" 



129« 



89" 
89» 5 



649" 
129" 



899" 



SALE 

1259 
144" 



SALE 
134" 



139 >! 



129 s5 
314" 
399" 
259" 



HF Linear Amplifier Regular SALE 

IC-2KL L60-15m/WARC solid state linear 179500 1299 



VHF/UHF Multi-modes: Regular SALE 

IC-251A 2m FM/SSB/CW Xew/AC PS— $749.00 549 s * 

$50 Factory Rebate until gone! 



IC-551D 80w6m Xcvr 

PS-20 20A switching ps/spkr.. , 

CF-1 Cooling fan for PS-20 

EX-lOo r m adaptor .................... 

IC-451A 430-440 SSB/FM/CW Xcvr/ps 
IC-451A/Hi*h 440 450 MHz Xcvr/ps 

AG-1 ISdbpreamp. IC-451A/4S.--,. 
VHF/UHF FM: 
IC * 25A 2m, 25w, updn ttp mic, grn leds 

IC-25H as above, but 45 watts 

IC 25A "82 model: 25w r tip mic, red leds 
1C-45A 440 FM xcvr, lOw, TTP mic 

IC-22U lOw 2m FM non-digital Xcvr.... 
EX- 199 Remote frequency selector .. 

VHF/UHF Multi-modes: 

JC-290A 2m FM/SSB. TTP mic 

IC-290H 25w 2m SSB/FM Xcvr, TTP m*c 

IC 560 lOw 6m SS8/FM/CW Xcvr 

IC-490A lOw 430-440 SSB/FM/CW Xcvr 
VHF/UHF Portables: 
IC-202S 2m port SSB Xcvr. 3w PEP 
IC 505 3/10w 6m port SS8/CW Xcvr 
BP-10 Internal mead battery pack 
BC-15 AC charger... 

tA.-5.4o r" tlfllt 4 ,...,. t ...' 

LC-10 Leather case 

IC-3PS Power supply 

IC-20L 2m amp, lOw PEP or FM 
IC-30L 432 amp, 10w PEP/FM.. 
New models! 

IC-120 1.2 GHz FM mobjfe 

RP-1210 1.2 GHz, lOw repeater 

IC-271A 2m, 25w rnultimode 

IC-471A 430 450 MHz, lOw xcvr... 

RP-3010 440 MHz repeater 



599" 
199" 

112" 

699" 
699" 
79" 
SALE 
319" 
349" 
289" 
359" 

$299.00 249* i 
35.00 

SALE 
389" 

489" 
439 s * 
579" 
SALE 
249" 
399" 



$699.00 

229 00 

45.00 

125 00 

899 00 

899 00 

89 00 

Regular 

$359.00 

389.00 

349.00 

399.00 



Regular 
$549.00 

549.00 

489.00 

649.00 

Regular 

$279.00 

449 00 

79 50 

12.50 

49.50 

34.95 

95.00 

9800 

105.00 

Regular 

499.00 
999.00 
699.00 
799.00 



89" 

89" 
94" 
SALE 
449" 
899" 
629" 
719" 



999.00 899" 




Shortwave receiver Regular SALE 

1-70 lOOKHz 30WHz digital receiver... $749 00 649" 

EX-257 FMimiL 38.00 

IC-7072 Transceive interface, 720A 112.50 

FL-44 SSB filter (2nd IF) 159.00 129" 

FL-63 250 Hz CW filter (1st IF) 48.50 

SP-3 External speaker..... 49,50 

EX-299 (CK-70) 12V option 9.95 

MB-12 Mobtle mount 19.50 




. ....+»,.... . . 



269.95 229" 
299.95 239" 

269.95 229" 
299.95 239" 
Regular 



ICOM Handhelds 

The Transceivers, The IC-2A features 
full coverage of the 2 meter ham band 
The IC-3A covers 220 to 224.99 Mhz 
and the IC-4A, 440 to 449 995 Mhz 
Each comes with BP-3 techargable 
battery, AC waft charger, flex antenna, 
earphone, wrist strap, and belt clip 
Accessories are mterchangable. Slide 
on. removable battery pack allows 
quick change and may be charged 
while removed from transceiver. 

2 meters: Regular SALE 

IC-2A .15/1.5* 2m HT/batt/wall cgr $ 239,50 214" 

IC-2AT .i5/1.5w 2mHT/batt/egr/TTP... 269.50 219 s1 

220 MHz: 

IC-3A 220 HT/batt/wall cgr 

IC-3AT .15/1.5* 220 HT/batt/egr/TTP 

440 MHz: 

IC-4A 15/1 5* 440 HT/batt/wall cgr. 

IC-4AT 15/15w440HT/batt/cgr/TTP 

Hand-held Accessories: 

BC-25U Extra 15-hour wall charger $10.00 

BC-30 1/ IS hour drop-in charger for BP 2/3/5 69.00 

BP V 450ma t 7.2v 1* ext. time battery 39.50 

BP-3 Extra std- 250ma 8.4v i.Sw battery 29.50 

BP-4 Alkaline battery case 12.50 

BP-5* 450 ma. I0.8v 23w hipower battery.... 49.50 
•BC-30 required to charge BP-2 & BP-S 

FA-2 Extra 2m flexible antenna ..... 10.00 

CA-2 Telescoping Ivwave 2m antenna , 10 00 

CA-5 Hwave telescoping 2m antenna 18.95 

CA-3 Extra 220 flexible antenna 9.12 

CA-4 Extra 440 flexible antenna 9.12 

CP-l Cigarette Nghter receptacle chgr for BP-3... 9.50 

0C-1 DC operation module 17.50 

HM-9 Speaker/microphone 34.50 

LC 2A Leather case without TTP cutout , 34.95 

LC-2AT Leather case with TTP cutout 34.95 

ML- 1 2m 2.3/ lOw HT amp. (Reg. $89).. SALE 79.95 
ML-25 2m 20w HT amp. (Reg. S199 50 ) SALE 179,95 
IC-M12 12 ch Marine hand-held,. SPECIAL $199.95 
Misc. accessories: Regular 

24-PP 24-pin accessory plug $ 4.00 

BC-10A Memory backup; 551/720/730/740.. 8.50 
BC-20 Nicads & DC DC charger tor portables. 

BtH Memory back up; 25A/290A/490A 

EX 2 Relay box w/marker; 72OA/730/701... 
HM-3 Deluxe mobile mic, specify radio 
HM-5 Noise canx mobile microphone, 4 pin.. 
HM 7 Amplified mobile microphone, 8 pin.,,, 

HM-fi Touch tone mic; 255A/260A, 8 pin 

HM-10 Scan mic; 2 55A/ 260 A/ 290 A/ 2 5 A.... 

Hi-11 Scan mic, 490/25A/290A.. 

HM-14 Scanning/TTP mic; IC-25A/45A ., 

SM-2 4-pin electret desk microphone; 5510.. 
Si-5 8-pin electret desk mic; 251A/451A... 

Mobile mount, specify radio 

GC-4 World clock..., 



ltd ft***** *-lfrft**ft + ft«ft + 4 



57.50 
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2900 
49,50 
3950 
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73 Magazine • September, 1983 37 



into that bad habit you hear 
often from "Super Fists/' 
those who send over their 
skills, make fumbles, then 
speed up still more. Almost 
always, they just make more 
and still more errors. You'll 
be much more successful by 
slowing down when you 
can't get your key away 
from stuttering. Then, after 
just a half-dozen more 
words or so, at a slower 
sending rate, you'll usually 
get your rhythm back. You'll 
regain your cool and reduce, 
sometimes even eliminate, 
your errors. And then you 
can start to increase your 
speed again. 

7) Make your on-the-air 
time important to you. One 
member of the Monterey 
ham club told me, ''Don't 
try to slip your QSOs in be- 
tween your other scheduled 
chores That will raise your 
tension level and can leave 
you with a bitter taste for 
CW," My experience con- 
firms that advice. Turn on 
your station and operate 
your key when you're re- 
laxed, confident, and ready. 
Consider your time on the 
air as something special — 
which, of course, it is. 

Still, other hams turn to 
air-time when they are a bit 
uptight They find relaxation 
in their QSOs, As in all these 
tips, select what's best for 
you. Try different tips and 
techniques. If they work for 
you, keep them; if they don't 
interface with your own in- 
terests or skills, forget them, 

8) Don't bother with sta- 
tions which "don't sound 
right/' Earlier today I was on 
the air, searching I heard a 
faint CQ, so faint I had to 
struggle to catch the call 
"What the heck/' I told my- 
self, "give the guy a call — 
maybe he'll get stronger/' 
Sometimes they do. And, of 
course, sometimes they get 
weaker. Then the contact 
may become frustrating for 
you. You may get more out 
of your hamming if you let 
doubtful calls go by 

Another example of con- 




Beginning operators, until they get a fair number of QSOs, 
often find k hard to think up the words to use and then spell 
them. To help solve such problems, I refer to a notecard 
prepared with key phrases on it. 

Photos by Steven Ybarrola 



tacts which don't sound 
right is the ham who fum- 
bles his own call more than 
once or twice in a CQ. When 
there's apparently no other 
signal on the air, I some- 
times figure, "Well, maybe 
he'll settle down once we 
make contact." Sometimes 
he does, indeed, become a 
textbook version of good 
sending. But often the errors 
just keep piling up And I 
keep getting more and more 
uncool in trying to read him 

9) Know how to tune up. 
This rs another elementary 
technique, yet from what I 
hear on the air, many hams 
with years of experience 
have stil! to learn how, 

I'd read and believed all 
that literature that says, 
"Never tune up on the air." 
But some experienced oper- 



ators told me, "You have to 
tune up on the air to make 

sure your swr is down where 
it should be/' Finally. Tim 
Wheelis KQ6V. an Extra- 
class ham living in Pacific 
Grove, California, came to 
my shack and showed me 
just how to do it — on my 
equipment. My problem was 
that everyone who was tell- 
ing me what I should do had 
gear that was different from 
mine. KQbV has the same 
Heathkit equipment as I 
have. His tips were clear, 
specific, and relevant. They 
worked! So you, too, should 
avoid using tips about gear 
other than your own 

10) Check the action on 
the other bands regularly, I 
make it a practice to do that 
about every hour I'm on the 
air— after about every two 



rontacts, I might be happy 
with plenty of contacts on 
15 meters, for example, but I 
want to be there when 10 
opens! 

11) Learn to live with 
QRM and QRN A friend of 
mine, a non-ham, visiting my 
shack heard the Russian 
woodpecker, You may not 
have met that bird yet. If s a 
loud, harsh, steady, persis- 
tent pecking sound. It 
comes from some Soviet 
electronics project and is 
not intentional interference, 
I'm told. It may last just a 
few seconds, yet other times 
it may go on for an hour or 
longer Sometimes it settles 
on just a small part of a 
band; other times it will 
range up and down quite an 
expanse of frequencies. On 
hearing that horrible sound, 
my friend asked, "Is he paid 
by the makers of headache 
pills? I doubt that Still, you 
should learn to live with it, 
<md with other interfer- 
ences, static, and distrac- 
tions. Don't become one of 
those operators who CWs "I 
must QRT (stop sending)" as 
soon as listening gets a bit 
difficult Try a bit harder 
and a bit longer when rough 
stuff gets on the air, and 
you'll soon find you can 
copy through a lot more 
QRM and QRN than you 
might have thought. 

There, then, are tips and 
techniques which can help 
every Novice fill up his or 
her logs faster than ever. 
And for you old hands, re- 
viewing such basics just 
might get you, too, into sta- 
tions you've never reached 
before ■ 



Novice or experienced: 
Please send me the tips 
you've discovered, the 
techniques you use to im- 
prove your onthe-air 
skills. Include your call, 
name, and QTH so you 
might be mentioned in a 
future article rounding up 
still more specifics. 



38 73 Magazine • September, 1963 






Without doubt LR-1 is the repeater value leader! Compare its 
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its price. LR-I features include individual die-cast shielding 
of receiver and transmitter plus a separately shielded 
6-stage receiver prefilter for peak performance in 
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all vital functions • CW identifier * Symmetric 
hard limiting for clean natural audio * Low 
power MOS control logic • Even the 
cabinet is included ■- just plug in and go! 



UNKING? The LR- 1 is also available with 
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r n* 



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MICRO CONTROL SPECIALTIES 

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+*See Lt$r of Advertisers on page 1 14 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 39 



Gary Bischotf KB2CA 
1358 C Hommel Road 
Saugerties NY 12477 



Home-Brew an 
Apple Computer— and Save! 

In this 73 exclusive, KB2CA reveals the secrets of Apple* 
construction. From keyboard to motherboard, it's all here. 





Photos by KB2GA 






European 


Domestic 


Component 


Quantity 


Quantity 


555 


2 


2 


558 


1 


1 


741 


1 


1 


2513 


1 


I 


Character Generator 





t 


6502 


1 


1 


9334 





1 


8304 





1 


8T28 


2 





8T97 


3 


3 


74166 


2 


1 


74LS00 


1 


1 


74LS02 


3 


4 


74LS04 


1 


1 


74LS08 


2 


2 


74LS1 1 


1 


1 


74LS20 


1 


1 


74LS32 


3 


1 


74LS51 


1 


1 


74LS74 


2 


3 


74LS138 


4 


4 


74LS139 


1 


1 


74LS151 





1 


74LS153 


4 


4 


74LS157 


1 





74LS161 


4 


4 


74LS174 


2 


2 


74LS194 


2 


3 


74LS251 


1 


1 


74LS257 


5 


5 


74LS259 


1 





74LS283 


1 


1 


74S74 


1 





74S86 


1 


1 


74S151 


1 





74S175 


2 


1 


74S195 


1 


1 


4116 (RAM) (48K) 


24 


24 


ROM Set 


4 


4 



Lately, many amateurs 
have been using per- 
sonal computers in the 
shack. There have been 
many fine articles in ama- 
teur publications describing 
some of the uses of home 
computers as a valuable sta- 
tion accessory. 12 MS 

This article will describe a 
method of obtaining an 
equivalent to one of the bet- 
ter computers on the market 
today at a cost well below 
the normal price Enough in- 
formation will be presented 
to enable you to obtain 
parts and then build and test 
a computer using a pre- 
assembled board. 

System Features 

There are many variables 
that should be considered 
when selecting a microcom- 
puter system. We can over- 
simplify a bit and say that 
the two most important con- 
siderations are functionality 
and price, Or p how can we 
get the most bang for the 
buck? 

As with other station ac- 
cessories, we could consider 
building a computer. There 
are many articles about how 
to make a small computer 
using various microproces- 
sors, but after all the effort 



of gathering parts, wiring, 

assembly, and testing, you 
may be left with a system 
that has no readily-available 
software and is without a lot 
of flexibility. 

An easier way is to obtain 
an assembled board for one 
of the more popular com- 
puters. There are mother- 
boards available for the Ap- 
ple II computer from legiti- 
mate sources.* 17 Since the 
entire computer is on a 
single board, connecting the 
power supplies, an ASCII 
keyboard, and a monitor re- 
sults in an operational sys- 
tem. An ordinary tape re- 
corder can be used to store 
programs. 

Other than the obvious 
cost savings, there are other 
advantages to doing it your- 
self. First, you will have an 
understanding of what is in- 
side the system should it 
ever need service. Second, 
the package can be made 
more RFI tight than the fac- 
tory model All computers 
generate a certain amount 
of rf, and when you are try- 
ing to pull in a rare DX sta- 
tion out of the mud, each dB 
of attenuation around your 
computer [the rf generator) 
is important Third, the 
package can be customized 



Ta6/e 1. Apple integrated circuit list 
40 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



'Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 









to your particular liking 
(Three possibilities are rack 
mounted, table top, or a 
portable package.) You may 
even want to leave room for 
interface circuitry such as a 
keyer or RTTY Also, there is 
the pride and satisfaction of 
doing it yourself. 

Before getting into the ac- 
tual construction, let's con- 
sider some of the advan- 
tages/disadvantages of an 
Apple compared to some of 
the other personal com- 
puters on the market today 
The large base of Apples 
that have been sold means 
that there is a lot of good 
software written for it. Ap- 
plication software is avail- 
able through local users' 
groups, computer stores, 
and via mail order from 
many vendors. The Apple 
documentation is well writ- 
ten, informative, and easily 
available. That Is important 
for a project like this. 

The graphics capability is 
very good — at least as good 
as the other machines in its 
price class. With the addi- 
tion of a disk drive and a 
printer, you could have the 
makings of a small business 
system capable of being 
used for such things as in- 
ventory, accounting, tax 
preparation, and other func- 
tions. A word-processing 
system is one of the most 
useful applications for a 
home computer, and you 
may find yourself waiting m 
line to update your logs as 
one of the junior ops finish- 
es a book report. And don't 
forget the inevitable and 
captivating video games 

Construction 

Obviously, the first step 
in this project is to obtain a 
motherboard. The boards 
are available in three differ- 
ent configurations: a bare 
board, an assembled Euro- 
pean version, and an assem- 
bled domestic board/ 1 r As- 
sembled and tested boards 
can usually be obtained for 
$350 to $450. The bare 
board typically sells for 
$100 to $200. 




Photo A. Front view of the case with the system in operation. The hole pattern to the right of 
the disk drive is for the speaker 



The bare board requires 
installation of the sockets, 
I/O (input/output) connec- 
tors, discrete circuitry, and, 
of course, the integrated cir- 
cuits. The integrated circuits 
(ICs) required are a 6502 mi- 
croprocessor, support ICs — 
mostly 74LS series — and the 
Apple ROMs (read-only 
memories) which contain 
the Basic program and the 
monitor. Table 1 shows the 
required integrated circuits. 

With the available 
documentation, assembling 
a bare board is not much 
harder than building a kit. 
[However, I would not rec- 
ommend the approach for 
anyone without some ex- 
perience with digital cir- 
cuits.) All the IC locations 
and types are silk-screened 
on the top of the board, 
along with the discrete com- 
ponent values. The schemat- 
ic for the domestic board is 
in the Apple II Reference 
Manual. This book is highly 
recommended for all Apple 
users and is mandatory if 
building is contemplated. 
The Reference Manual is 
published by Apple Com- 
puter Inc., Cupertino, 
California (Apple Product 
#2L0001 A). 



This book and the Apple 
ROMs are available from 
your local Apple dealer (the 
ROMs must be ordered spe- 
cial ly by most dealers). The 
books and ROMs are avail- 
able via mail from Applied 
Invention. 6 Electrovalue 
also sells the entire in- 
tegrated circuit package 
(minus the ROMs) for $60.00 
to $75.00 depending on the 
board configuration. They 
also have packages that in- 
clude connectors, the crys- 
tal , speaker, etc. Another 



good source for ROMs and 
other Apple ICs and manu- 
als is Component Sales. 13 A 
set of four ROMs (Integer 
Basic version) can be ob- 
tained for $35 00 to $45.00. 

The European version of 
the Apple board can be used 
without modification except 
for the high-resolution- 
graphics mode. This version 
sells for less than the 
domestic version and may 
be easier to find. If you are 
interested in the hires 







Photo B. Front of the case with the cover removed. Note the 
position of the disk drive and the motherboard. The termi- 
nal strip on the right is for distribution of the ac power. The 
copper-clad printed-circuit material can also be seen. 

73 Magazine • September 1983 41 



IJV Wy — - 



; 



-5V 



l*75> 



GND 



GHD 



//? 









5 


LM&OULP 


z 






"* » 

^ 


] 




S 




















s 22nF 

- |0V 


w^u 








m 







- sv 



GND 



F/g. 7. —5-voIt power supply with zener diode (top) or 
3-terminal regulator. 



*I*V 



6H0 



_L*iQ».r 



•p«6i3 



-out 



sL >o^F J_ 






. 



\2V 



GMD 



Fig. 2. Typical circuit for generating — 12-volt supply using 
dc4o<$c converter. (* Available from Power Products, 1400 
N.W> 70th St, Fort Lauderdale FL 33309.) 



graphics, modifications can 
be made. This requires 
about twenty cuts to the 
printed circuit board and a 
similar number of jumpers 
to be added. Specific in- 
structions for this modifica- 
tion are available from the 
vendor, (Again, you should 
have some experience be- 
fore attempting the modifi- 
cations.) Without making 
the modifications, the board 
is still usable for most ap- 
plications. Note: If a Euro- 
pean board is obtained, test 
the board for operation in 
Basic and low-resolution 



graphics before making the 
modifications for hi-res. 

If you obtain an assem- 
bled and tested domestic 
version, connect the correct 
power supplies and a moni- 
tor and you will be "on line/' 

Power Supplies 

The standard Apple uses a 
switching power supply This 
supply as well as other 
switching supplies are avail- 
able from various vendors," 
Other than the disadvantage 
of taking more space and 
some more power, linear sup- 
plies are perfectly accept- 



KE*3QAflD 



, 5 eoTH ict 



BIT T 




KEYBOARD 

I/O ItfHNEOtOfl 



DATA BIT 7 



911 



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-• 



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DATA Bit A 



II 



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■10 



B -!H 



>>C^ *"' P"-i -, 5 



BIT | 




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Fig. J. Inverter circuit schematic. 
42 73 Magazine • September, 1 983 



able. They are more readily 
available and have less high- 
frequency noise on the out- 
put than the switchers, 

Table 2 lists the voltages 
and current requirements 
for the supplies as well as a 
typical commercial supply. 
There have been a lot of arti- 
cles in this magazine cover- 
ing the design and fabrica- 
tion of 12-volt regulated 
supplies for use with mobile 
2-meter equipment, and also 
articles describing 5-volt 
logic supplies. Also check 
your local surplus outlet; I 
was fortunate enough to 
find suitable 12- and 5-volt 
supplies. 

Another good source of 
reasonably-priced supplies 
is Jameco Electronics, 1355 
Shoreway Rd. ( Belmont, Cal- 
ifornia 94O02; (41 5>592*8097, 

If you are contemplating 
adding expansion boards 
and other circuitry, consider 
using supplies with extra 
current capability. A word 
of caution: Linear supplies 
with more current capability 
can be used, but beware of 
multiple-output switching 
supplies with more capacity 
than needed. Some models 
require a certain minimum 
load on one or more outputs 
to operate correctly. 

The power supplies get 
connected to the mother- 
board using a six-pin con- 
nector. The connector is an 
Amp #9-3502fr1. The con- 
nector is available from 
Electrovalue or can be 
ordered specially by your 
local Apple dealer. If you 
can't wait for the Amp con- 
nector, solder six wires to 
the back of the board and 
put another connector be- 
tween the supplies and the 
board. I used a Cinch six* 
prong connector pair. The 
connector coming from the 
board should be the male. 
The connector is wired as 
follows: 

Pin Function 

1 CND 

2 GND 

3 +5 V 

4 +12 V 

5 -12V 

6 -5 V 



Since the -5-volt supply 
requires very little current, it 
can be generated from the 
— 12-volt supply using 
either a zener diode or a 
three-terminal regulator as 
shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). 

The —12-volt supply can 
be obtained with a line* 
operated regulator, but low- 
current supplies are not as 
common as the higher cur- 
rent models. Look for dual- 
output + 5- and -12-volt 
units. Another alternative is 
to generate the —12 from 
the +12 or +5 volts using a 
dc-to-dc converter. A sche- 
matic for a typical circuit is 
shown in Fig, 2, The device 
specified is capable of sup- 
plying 80 mA, so caution 
should be used if the system 
is expanded using function 
cards. 

Several alternative meth- 
ods have been presented to 
obtain the necessary power; 
the choice depends essen- 
tially on what is available or 
can be obtained easily. 

Keyboard 

Almost any ASCII (Ameri- 
can Standard Code for Infor- 
mation Interchange) -encod- 
ed keyboard can be used 
Keyboards can be obtained 
from several supply hous- 
es.* The keyboard must be 
wired into a sixteen-pin DIP 
connector The pinout is 
shown in Table 3. 

Some older keyboards 
have inverted outputs. The 
Apple board looks for a high 
output when the data is true. 
For example, when the B key 
is pressed, the output should 
be 1000011— where a zero 
(0) is ground and a one [1 ) is 3 
to 5 volts. If necessary, two 
hex inverter chips can be 
used to convert a negative- 
output keyboard into an 
Apple-compatible unit. A 
schematic for an inverter 
circuit is shown in Fig. 3. 

Monitor 

Some type of video dis- 
play is necessary to inter- 
face with the Apple. There 
are several alternatives^ A 
surplus monitor would cost 
some $25.00 to $100. A 



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INNOVATORS IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 




black and white TV could 
run from no cost to $90.00. 
A new monitor is around 
$1 00 to $1 50 A portable col- 
or TV will cost $100 to $400. 
A color monitor runs from 
$300 to $500. 

Monitors can be found on 
the surplus market. Most of 
these will be black and 
white. Any monitor compat- 
ible with the Electronic In- 
dustries Association (El A) 
and National Television 
Standards Committee (NTSQ 
standard will work. A one- 
volt (adjustable) composite 
color video signal is avail- 
able at the rear of the board. 
This signal can be fed to the 
monitor via a cable, usually 
with two RCA-type jacks. 

The new monitors on the 
market today are usually 
green on black and are 
much easier on the eyes 
than the black-and-white 
versions. The graphics dis- 
plays also are much more 
vivid. These can be obtained 
from most computer supply 
outlets,* 

A regular television set is 
suitable for use as a moni- 
tor. Since the Apple can 
generate color graphics, 
many users prefer a color 
TV. The display on a TV is 
not as sharp and crisp as a 
monitor. Of course, with a 
TV you can disconnect the 
computer and watch Mork 
and Mindy or Lnverne and 
Shirley. (Note; Some may 
consider that feature a 
disadvantage.) 




Photo C The case with the rear panel removed. The mother- 
hoard is on the left and the expansion connectors for pe- 
ripheral cards can be seen. The power supplies are on the 
right; the supply mounted to the bottom is + 12 V at 1.5 A, 
and the supply mounted above and to the upper right of the 
case is the +5~volt supply. The dc-to-dc converter circuit 
for the — 12 is shown mounted to the case of the + 12 sup- 
ply. The components on the right are a line filter, circuit 
breaker, and an ac fine outlet. 



An rf modulator must be 
used between the computer 
output and the TV The 
composite video signal 
modulates the output of the 
modulator in one of the two 
lower VHF television bands: 
61.25 MHz (channel 3) or 
67 25 MHz [channel 4). Mod- 
ulators are available from 
your local computer dealer 
or Radio Shack (part 
#277-221 ). 

The best monitor, and 
naturally the most expen- 
sive, is a color monitor de- 
signed for computer use. 
The display is clear and sharp 



like the monochrome moni- 
tors and the colors are vivid 
The resulting color graphics 
are superior to those pro- 
duced on a color TV, 

Choosing the monitor is 
mostly a matter of taste and 
the thickness of one's wal- 
let It is easiest to start with a 
system using any available 
TV and then upgrade at a 
later date. 

System Test 

Before putting the system 
in a package, it is best to test 
it on a bench, Assuming an 
assembled motherboard is 



available, connect the pow- 
er supplies as described ear- 
lier. Double-check the wir- 
ing before turning on the 
supplies. Connect a known 
good monitor or TV as de- 
scribed. Note that we do not 
connect the keyboard yet 

Now for the first test 
Turn on the power to the TV 
or monitor, and then the sys- 
tem supplies. The screen 
should be filled with a 
bunch of random charac- 
ters, letters, numbers, ques- 
tion marks, anything. This is 
the random turn-on pattern 
of what is in the screen-dis- 
play memory. At the bottom 
left of the screen should be 
an asterisk. If all is well, skip 
the next three paragraphs 

If the screen does not 
show random characters, 
turn off the power supplies 
and check the connections 
and output voltages again. 
If everything is OK, turn on 
the power to the board. 
Check the power to the 
board by measuring the 
voltages on the board with 
respect to power ground, 
Check for obvious faults 
such as bent IC pins, shorts, 
loose components, etc. If 
there are no mechanical 
problems and the power is 
correct make sure that your 
monitor or modulator and 
TV and connecting cables 
are operational by hooking 
them up to a friend's com- 
puter. (It is not necessary to 
use an Apple; several other 
systems use a video output) 






Voltage 

+ 5V 



-5V 
+ 12V 



-12V 



Apple 

Supply 

Capability 

2.5 Amp 



250 mA 
t.5 Amp 



250 mA 



Actual Current 

Required 

(System 1) (System 2) 

1.5 Amp 1.8 Amp 



10 mA 12 m A 
400 mA 1.2 Amp 



15 mA 



80 mA 



Recommended 
Supply 

Power/Mate EM- 
SB or equlv, 5 V 
at 3 A 
See text 

Power/Mate EM* 
12B orequiv; 12 
Vat 1.5 A 
PowetfMate MM- 
12A orequiv. 12 
Vat 100 mA 



Notes: (1) System 1— 48K Apple with no peripherals. 

(2) System 2— 64K Apple with disk drive and controller, printer inter- 
face r and a 16K RAM card. 

(3) Power/Mate Corp., 514 S, River St., Hackensack NJ 07601; 
(20lH4O<3l0a Will sell small orders. 

Table 2. Voltage and current requirements. 
44 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



Pin Function 

1 +5V 

2 Strobe 

3 Reset 

4 No connection 

5 Data 5 

6 Data 4 

7 Data 6 

8 Ground 

9 No connection 

10 Data 2 

11 Data 3 

12 Data 

14 No connection 

15 -12V 

16 No connection 



Notes 

Power supply lo keyboard (120 mA 
max) 

From keyboard, 10 microsec min 
From keyboard, shorted to GND 
when reset 

Part of seven-bit ASCII output 

Ditto 

Ditto 

System electrical ground (GND) 

ASCII output 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Power supply to keyboard 



Table 3. Keyboard connector pinout 



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73 Magazine * September, 1983 45 




Photo D. This photograph shows the case buttoned up f 
ready for travel 




Photo £ The benchtop wooden "enclosure" described in 
the text 



If the problem still per- 
sists after the above tests, 
suspect a bad IC. The solu- 
tion to this problem is sub- 
stitution. You will need ei- 
ther a known good Apple 
from which you can substi- 
tute ICs one at a time or an 
extra set of components. 
Another troubleshooting 
step is to put the board into 
a known good Apple and 
try it out 

To narrow down the possi- 
ble IC faults to some degree, 
try the following substitu- 
tions. If nothing appears on 
the screen, something is 
wrong with the clock-divider 
chain. CheckBl P B2,C1,C2, 
and D11 through D14. Also 
check the video-generator 
section, A3, A5, A8 r A9, A10, 



B4, B8> B9, and B10 If the 
screen is covered by a block 
pattern which changes in a 
random fashion each time 
^ower is turned on, a data 
ine or memory chip is prob- 
ably bad Check the first 
memory bank r C3 through 
C1G, and the memory data 
latches, B5 and B8. Check 
the RAM address multiplex- 
er, CI 2, Ell, E12, E13, and 
El 4. Verify that the RAM se- 
lect chips, CI, CI 2, E2, F2, 
and J1, are operational 

If the monitor comes up 
with a random character 
pattern, it indicates that the 
CPU is working, the clock 
gets divided down correctly, 
the address and data tines 
work, and so on. Turn the 
power oft and connect the 



LIME 
TILTER 



CIRCUIT 

BREAKER 

2A 



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SWITCH 



M5VAC 



e 



^ 




cor con 

58i OR 
EQUIVALENT 



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3 



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SUPPLY 



PET 



1.2 










W h 



-? . 



I 



KEYBOARD 
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SEE TEYT 



keyboard. Turn the power 
on and in response to the as- 
terisk prompt, type a Con- 
trol B. The unit will come up 
in Basic. If the ROM con- 
tains Integer Basic, a > sign 
will appear For units with 
floating-point Applesoft Ba- 
sic, a ] prompt will appear, 
Once this happens, you 
probably have a working 
system, Write a small test 
program to further verify 
operation 

There are several books 
on Basic. The Apple II User's 
Guide" is an excellent refer 
ence which also covers oth- 
er topics of interest such as 
differences between the two 
Apple Basics, hardware in- 
terface, etc. 

To store programs for 



APPLE 
WrMERSOAAD 



OUT 



14 



-3 



SCfl CABLE 



VJMO 
OUTPUT 

CONNECTOR 



tfON'TOfl 



«r 



-» 



«r 



4> 



M*Z 



VMW 



TAPE 
RECORDER 



IMMATURE 
PHONE JACK 
I* REQUIRED! 



XI 



■ . i - r . = 



Fig, 4. Interconnection diagram. 
46 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



later use, some type of mag- 
netic storage medium is re- 
quired. An ordinary cassette 
tape recorder can be used 
for program storage and 
also can serve as a way of 
using commercially-avail- 
able software. The Apple II 
Reference Manual describes 
the interface and operation 
The first peripheral to 
consider should be a disk 
drive. After working with 
cassettes, the convenience 
of a disk drive will be appre- 
ciated. Disk drives and con- 
trollers are available from 
several sources including 
Applied Invention. 8 

Packaging 

As we briefly discussed 
earlier, there are several dif- 
ferent ways in which a unit 
such as this could be pack- 
aged. I was fortunate enough 
to obtain at a reasonable 
price the case shown in the 
photographs. The case is 
open only at the back and 
front so that access to the 
board and power supplies is 
limited, but it is sturdy and 
portable. Snapping on the 
front and rear covers com- 
pletely closes the case and 
provides a carrying handle, 

A few trips to the local 
surplus outlets might turn 
up a similar bargain, Unlike 
most Apple installations, I 
chose to have the disk built 
in rather than sitting on top 
of the box. Using a hacksaw, 
I cut an opening in the front 




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73 Magazine • September, 1983 47 



_ 



panel for the front of the 
drive as shown in Photo A, 

The drive is screwed to the 
bottom of the case. 

Since the case is not met- 
al, I also took the extra pre- 
caution of covering the en- 
tire inside with double-sided 
copper-clad PGboard mate- 
rial All the separate sheets 
of material are electrically 
tied together using solder 
and ground braid. This 
proved to be a considerable 
help in curing the TV in- 
terference caused by the 
system 

If the unit is going to stay 
in one location, consider the 

approach taken by Jules 
Madey K2KGJ. Photo E 
shows this packaging 
heme. The motherboard 
sits on the bench and is cov- 
ered by an inverted 
U-shaped wood structure. 
The wood cover supports 
the monitor, disk drives and 
various interface circuitry. 
The power supplies are 
mounted below the bench 



and connected via a cable. 
The keyboard is mounted in 
another wood box in front of 
the system. Everything in the 
system is very accessible, 
and the packaging can easi- 
ly be finished in one eve- 
ning. This method could 
also serve as an interim 
package until a suitable 
case could be located. 

Some manufacturers 
have cases available with 
sloping fronts, With the larg- 
er models, the motherboard 
and power supplies could be 
mounted on the bottom and 
the keyboard fastened to 
the sloping front through an 
appropriate cutout. The key- 
board would then be at the 
correct angle for typing. 
This package would be very 
similar to a factory-built Ap- 
ple, Two companies that 
make that type of enclosure 
are Buckeye Stamping Co, 11 
and Hammond Manufactur- 
ing 12 (Ask for the 'Desk Top 
Consoles " catalog from 
Hammond.) 



Suitable cases and enclo- 
sures show up at hamfests 
and surplus houses, so keep 
your eyes open. 

Conclusion 

This article presented 
some ideas, thoughts, and 
actual hardware implemen- 
tations of hom^built com- 
puters. The techniques used 
by most of the manufactur- 
ers is to put everything on 
one board. These boards are 
sold also to OEM manufac- 
turers for use in computer- 
based products. This makes 
full-f unction computers 
available if one does a little 
digging. Most of what was 
discussed here can be ap- 
plied to computers other 
than the Apple I hope this 
article inspires some other 
home^built computers 



References 

1.G Papas. "Got an Apple? 
Want RTTY?'\ 73. October. 1982. 

2. M. Richardson, "CW and the 
Apple II," 73, November, 1982. 



3,T. Johnson. 'OSCAR Path* 
finder/' 73, March, 1982, 

4. P. Zander, "Computerized 
Contest Duplicate Checking/ 1 
OST, June, 1981, 

5-G. Vatt, M Computer-Arded 
UHF Preamplifier Design/' Ham 
Radio. October, 1982. 

6. Electrovalue Industrial Inc., 
PO Box 157-F, Morris Plains NJ 
07950; (201^267-1 1 1 7. 

7.XICOM, 801 E. Ogden Ave., 
Suite 1085, Naperville IL 60566; 
(3121-369-6125. 

8. Applied Invention, RD2 Ht 21, 
Hillsdale NY 12529; (518J-325- 
3911. 

9. Electronics for Communica- 
tions, 1358 C. Homme! Rd*, Sau- 
gerties NY 12477; (gi4)-24fr6B58. 

10. L Poole, M. McNIff, and S. 
Cook, Apple it User's Guide, Os- 
borne/McGraw*Hill, 1981. 

n.Ttie Buckeye Stamping Co., 
556 Marion Rd, Columbus OH 
43207; (614)445*433. 

12. Hammond Manufacturing 
Co., 1690 Walden Ave. r Buffalo 
NY 14225; {716^894-5710. 

13. Component Sales Inc. 778A 
Brannan St., San Francisco CA 
94103; (415)461-1345. 



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48 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



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-'See L'&t of Advertisers on page tt4 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 49 




In a Hurry ol activity, the FCC recently 
made several modifications in the ama- 
teur regulation*. The change which has 
most likely affected amateur he hits is the 
deletion of all logging requirements in 
Part 97 As of June % no transmissions 
had to be logged, unless specific ally re- 
quested by the Commission. Trnrd party 
Traffic is also exempt from any logging re- 
quirements. 

The FCC also engaged in some house 
cleaning in an effort to clear up ambig- 
uous regulations and delete outdated 
rules. Among those deletions was the 
requirement of a CW ID for amateurs 
using video and some common digital 
codes. 

Finally. In an NPHM. the Commission 
proposed an expansion of the IOmeter 
repeater sufaoand citing the recent rapid 
growth in Iftts area. 

Here are the final orders and the MPRM 
as they appeared in the Federal Register 



Appendix 

Parts and 97 or Chapter I of Title 47 
of the Code of Federal Regulations are 
amended as follow*: 

PART 0— COMMISSION 

ORGANIZATION 

A.l. Section 0.314 ia amended by 
adding new paragraph [*) as folio war 

f 93 1 4 Addfflontj nrtfwrmr d«l*g*tedl 



[*} When deemed necessary by the 
Engin est- in -Charge o f a Co m m i a a ion 
field fad lit y to assure compliance wilh 
the Rules, a elation licensee ahull 
maintain a record of such operating and 
maintenance records ns may be 
necessary to resolve conditions of 
interference or deficient technical 
operation 

PART 97— AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE 

B.l In 5 07.79, paragraph (bj is revised 
to read as follows: 

§ 97 70 Control operator requirements* 



{b| Every amaleur radio station, when 
in operation, shall have e control 
operator The control operator shall be 
present at a control point of ihe station, 
exr.epl when the station is operated 
under automatic control (Automatic 
control is only permitted where 
specifically authorized by the rules of 
this part.) The control operator may be 
the station licensee, if* licensed 
a ma lew radio operator, or may be 
another amateur radio operator with ihe 
required class of license and designate i 
by the station licensee. The control 
operator thai! also be responsible, 
together wnh the slaiion licensee, for 
the proper operation of Ihe station [For 
purposes of enforcement of the rule* of 
th 5 part, the FCC will presume that the 
station licensee is, at all tiroes, the 
control operator of Ihe * tdiinn. unless 
documentation exists to the contrary.} 



'n | 97 AS, a new paragraph fgl i§ 
added to read as follows 



S97JS 



fjjj Each station m repeater operation 
transmitting with an Ai*t i:ii ve radiatt d 
power greaser ihan i«J waits on 
frequencies be I ween 29 5 and 420 MHz. 



or 400 watts on frequencies between 420 
and 1215 MHz. shall have Ihe folJnwircg 
information included in the station 
records during any period of operation: 

(1) The location of the station 

nsmttUng antenna marked upan 
topographic map having contour 
in tcrv a 1a and having a scale of 1:250,000 
(iIlupxps and ordering information Tnr 
suitable maps are available from the 
OS Geological Survey. Washington. 
DC 20242, or from the Federal Center, 
Denver, CO 00255}; 

L] The transmitting antenna height 
above average terra in fsee Append! *. 5); 

(3] The effective radiated power in the 
horizontal plane for the main Jobe of 
antenna pattern, calculated for the 
maximum transmitter output power 
which occurs daring operation: 

[4 J The maximum output power which 
occurs during operations; 

151 The loss in the transmission Jme 
between the iransmilEer and the antenna 
I including devices such as dyp lexers, 
cavities or circulators J, expressed in 
decibels; and 

1 6) The relative gain in the horizonlaj 
plane of the transmit ling antenna. 

3. In I ST.Ra, papragraph (a) is revised, 
and new paragraphs (f) And jgl are 
added io read as follows: 

5 97, ea Operation of a station by rsmots 
control. 

fa] A photocopy of the license for tl 
remotely controlled station shall be 
posied tn a conspicuous place al the 

station local ion . 

* * ■ * * 

[f)The station records shall include 
dunng any period of opera lion: 

|1J Th*i names, addresses, and call 
sijJinB of all persons authorized by the 
station licensee to be control operators/. 

[2\ A functional block diagram of the 
control Link and a technics! explanation 
sufficient to describe its operation, 

(r) Each remolely controlled station 
eihail be protected again si unauthorized 
sibbon operation, whether caused by 
activation of ihe control Iirik< or 
otherwise. 

4. Section 97.90 is added to read us 
Fuihivvs: 

$ S 7.90 System network diagram required. 

When a station has one or more 
associated stations, that is. stations in 
repealer or auxiliary operation, a system 
m^woTk diagram (&ee § 97 3f*|S shall br 

luded in the station records during 
any period of operation. 

5. Section 97.92 is added to re*id as 
follows 



$ 57.92 Record of 

When deemed necessary by the 
Enflineer-ui-Charge (FJC) of a 
Commission field facility to assure 
compliance with the rules of ibis part, a 
station Licensee shall maintain u record 
of giaimn operations containing sm-h 
items of informal] on as the EtC may 
require under Section 3i4|x). 

5*7» (Amended] 

8. In 5 97.99. paragraph |cj is removed. 

* 97 103 Undesignated treading 
[tie moved ] 

7. Section 97.103 and the undesignated 
heading M Logs" which precedes 5 97 , 103 
are removed to their entirety, 

4 97.10S I Removed I 
ft Section 97 J 05 [3 removed. 

§97.417 I Amended] 

9. In 5 97 417, paragraph [dj ta 
removed. 



PART 97-1 AMENDED I 

Part 97 of the Commissions Rules and 
Rpfnilaiionn, 47CFR Part 97. Is amended 
a§ follows; 

1. tn ft 97.13. paragraphs |c| and (d) 
are revised to read as follows: 

4 97.13 Renewal or iiMMMuatlon of 
opflf^or Mean™. 



(c| Application for renewal and/or 
modification of an amateur operator 
license ah a II be submitted on FCC Form 
610 and thall be accompanied by ihe 
applicant's license or a photocopy 
thereof, Application for renewal of 
unexpired licenses must be made dunng 
the license term and should be filed 
within 90 days, hut not later than 30 
days prior to the end oF the License 
term, In any case in whtrh the licensee 
has, in accordance with the provisions 
of this chapter, made timely and 
sufficient application for renewal of an 
unexpired license no license with 
reference to any activity of a continuing 
nature shall expire until such 
application shall have been finally 
determined 

fdl If a license \§ allowed to expire, 
Hp plication for renewal may be made 
dunng a period of grace of five years 
after the expiration date, During this 
five-year period of grace, an expired 
license is not valid. A license renewed 
during Ihe grace period will be dated 
currently and will not be backdated to 
the date of its expiration. Application 
for renewal shall be submitted on FCC 
Form 610 and shall be accompanied by 
the applicant's license or a photocopy 
thereof 

|97 + 33 [Amended! 

2 In i 97.32, paragraph (f) is removed 
in its entirety. 

$97,91 f Amended | 

3 In | 97.61. the parenthetical phrase 
in paragraph (e| it revised to read as 
follows: 



(e)' 



• ■ 



| when type Fl or A2J emissions are 
employed in these bands, the radio or 
audio frequency shift, as appropriate, 
tthal] not exceed 1000 Hz] 

4. In 1 H7.HH. paragraph (a)(3) is 
removed In its entirety and paragraphs 
fa)(2] and (b)(3) are revised to read as 
follows: 

f 97+49 Oftfltal communications. 



(a|* * * 

(2) When type A2, Fl or Pz emissions 
are used on frequencies below 50 MHz, 
ihe radio or audio frequency shift (the 
difference between the frequency for the 
"mark" signal and that for the "space" 
signal], as appropriate, shall not exceed 
1000 Hz. When these emissions are used 
on frequencies above 50 MHz, the 
frequency shift, in hertz, shall not 
exceed the sending speed, in baud, of 
the transmission, or 1000 Hz. whichever 
is greater; 

M * * ' 

(3 J The International Radio 

Consultative Committee (COR} 
Recommendations 476-2 and 476-3 
(commonly known at AMTOR): 



provided that the code, baud rale and 
emission timing shall conform Io the 
specifications of CC1R 478-2 (lBTaj or 
LCIR 476-3 (19aZ|. Mode A or Mode B 



5. Section 97.S1 is revised to read as 
follows; 



I97.ii Autherfeed 

(a) An amateur station license 
authorizes ihe use. under control of the 
licensee, of all transmitting apparatus at 
the fixed locaiion specified in the 
siation license which ii operated on any 
frequency or frequencies allocated to 
the Amateur Radio Service, and, in 



addition, authorizes the use, under 
control of the licensee, of portable and 
mobile transmitting apparatus operated 
at other locations, 

(b) The apparatus authorized for use 
by paragraph fa] of this section shall be 
available for inspection upon request by 
an authorized Commission 
representative. 

ft. In I 97,84. paragraph [g| is revised 
to read as follows: 

5 97.14 Station UentMcatftofL 

* • • • • 

(g) The identification required by this 
section shall be given on each frequency 
being utilized for transmission and shall 
be made In one of the following 
manners: 

(1 } By telegraphy using the 
internationaJ Morse code (if this 
identification is made by an automatic 
device used only for identification, the 
code speed shall not exceed 20 words 
per minute]: 

(2} By telephony using the English 
language (the Commission encourages 
the use of a nationally or internationally 
recognized standard phonetic alphabet 
as an aid for correct telephone 
identification}: 

(3) By telegraphy using any code 
authorized by f 97.99(b). when the 
particular code is used for transmission 
of all or part of the communication or 
when the communication is transmitted 
in any digital code on frequencies above 
SO MHz; or 

(4) By video using readily legible 
characters when AS emissions are used, 
the monochrome portions of which 
conform, at a minimum, to the 
monochrome transmission standards of 
§ 73.B82(a}(6j through f 73,6tt2(a)|l3j, 
inclusive (with the exception of 

ft 73.eS2(B)(9|(iii) and ft 73.W£(s)[9](ivl). 



7, Ln ft B7.99, the introductory 
paragraph is revised to read as follows: 

J 47.94 Stations used only for radio 
control of remote model crafts and 
vahlc+ee. 

An amateur radio station in radio 
control operation with a mean output 
power not exceeding one watt may, 
when used for the control of a remote 
model craft or vehicle, be opera led 
under the special provisions of this 
section, provided that a writing 
indicating the station call sign and the 
licensee's name and address is affixed 
to the transmitter. 



8. fn ft 97,173, paragraph [d) la revised 
to read as follows: 

$ 97. 1 73 Appttcatkxi for RACES station 

Bosfteai 



[dj If the application is for a RACES 
station to be in any special manner 
covered by ft 97.42. those showings 
specified for non -RACES stations shall 
also be submitted. 



PART 97— { AMEMDE0] 

It is proposed that Part W of the 
Commission's Rules. 47 CFR Part 97. be 
amended as follows: 

Section 97.61 paragraph 
fcl would be revised to read as follows: 

§ ar_«i Authorized frequencies, and 



50 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



fc) All -amateur frequency bands 
above 29.0 MHz are available for 
repeater operation, except 50.0-52.0 
MH*. 1M.0-144.5 MHz, 14S.5-t4d.0MHi, 
Z2O0-220.5MHZ* 43MM33JQMH& and 
4354)-i38.0MHz. Both the input 
(receiving) and output (Transmitting) 
frequencies of a station in repeater 
operation shall be frequencies available 
for repeater operation 



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73 Magazine » September, 1983 51 



Build This Super Switch 

The only thing this switch wont do is brew your coffee. 

It's the lazy man's delight 



R. K. lofsyth K4Y5 
101 2 West Street 
Rocktedge FL 32955 




The lazy man's switch box. 
52 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



Although I've often heard 
that necessity is the 
mother of invention, I be- 
lieve that in my case it was 
just pure laziness, And that 
is why I designed and built 
the switch box to be de- 
scribed, It does all of the 
following things with just 
one flip of a switch: 

• Connects your transmit- 
ter to your dummy load for 
initial tune-up. 

• Connects your transmit- 
ter through your antenna- 
matching unit to your anten- 
na for final tune-up and 
transmit 

• Disconnects the center 
lead of your antenna coax 
from your equipment and 
grounds it to your coax 
shielding when you are fin- 
ished transmitting 

• Provides a simple, visual 
rf power-output monitor 
from your transmitter, 



The switch box did not 
just develop at one time but 
came about as the result of 
an analysis of problems 
common to most amateurs. 

Although many amateurs 
have dummy loads, often 
they are not used because 
disconnecting your coax ca- 
bles from your tuning unit 
and connecting your dum- 
my load for an initial tune- 
up takes time and is incon- 
venient. But there are some 
real advantages in first tun- 
ing up into your dummy 
load that should be consid- 
ered in more detail 

First, you eliminate un- 
necessary QRM, which is im- 
portant in our already over- 
crowded bands. And there is 
another technical advan- 
tage By tuning up your 
transmitter into your dum- 
my load initially, you are as- 
sured that your swr is 1:1, 
which prevents the possibili- 
ty of excessive rf currents or 
voltages damaging your 
equipment After you are 
properly tuned up into your 
dummy load, you should 



not do any further adjusting 
of your transmitter rf con- 
trols. Then when you switch 
over into your antenna sys- 
tem, you have only to adjust 
your antenna-matching net- 
work. And by either remem- 
bering approximately where 
the dial settings of your tun- 
ing unit are for the various 
frequencies or using a sim- 
ple chart or graph to set the 
dials, you can again keep 
your swr down to a reason- 
ably low level until you fine- 
tune the controls for an swr 

This technique, which ac- 
tually is only good engineer- 
ing practice, reduces your 
tune-up time and protects 
your rig as much as possible 
from dangerous tune-up 
conditions, Attempting to 
tune up your equipment 
without first going through 
the dummy load step just 
outlined means that you are 
trying to adjust both your 
transmitter and tuning-unit 
dials at the same time This 
can lead to dangerous im- 
pedance mismatch condi- 
tions until your swr reaches 
its final lowest value. This 
haphazard procedure is not 
to be recommended if you 
value your equipment. 

The provision of discon- 
necting the center lead of 
your antenna coax from 
your equipment and ground- 
ing it to the coax shield 
when your station is shut 
down is a common-sense 
precaution that will drain off 
any static voltage buildup 
and eliminate any effects of 
induced voltages from a 
nearby lightning strike. In 
my own case, I had a diode 
in my swr meter burn out a 
couple of years ago when 
my antenna was not ground- 
ed and lightning hit nearby. 
That one experience made a 
believer out of me, and now 
I never leave my shack with- 
out first making sure that my 
equipment is disconnected 
from the antenna circuit 

It should definitely be 
pointed out, however, that 
just disconnecting the cen- 
ter of your antenna coax 
and grounding it to the 




COAa CABLES 



TRANSMITTER 



^ 



COAX CABLES 



SWR 
METER 



7 




OWTtVT 



HATCHING 
UNIT 



INPUT 



CHASSIS 90 X 

5 t/4" X 3" I I i/t' 



Fig. t Schematic diagram. pjS—SO-239 coax jack. S- 275-652, 6-A DPDJ switch. 
Bulh—PR2, 238 V, 500 mA. Mounting hardware— 20 #4-40 Y2-inch round-head machine 
screws and nuts. Grommei^bag of assorted sizes. AH parts from Radio Shack. 



shield is not a lightning-pro- 
tection device! When light- 
ning hits your antenna sys- 
tem directly, it can easily 
travel down the shield and, 
because of the extremely 
high voltages and currents 
involved, cause all sorts of 
damage. In a heavy light- 
ning storm it is best to com- 
pletely disconnect all in* 
coming antenna leads to 
your shack and ground your 
antenna outside directly 
through a really heavy cable 
to a good ground. At least 
that is the procedure I've 
been using here, particularly 
since Florida has more light- 
ning storms than any other 
state in the Union. 

The rf-monitor circuit is 
nothing more than a simple 
small incandescent bulb 
shunted down with about 
three inches of number 28 
wire in series with the rf out- 
put of the transmitter. The 
size of the bulb and the 
shunting wires are depen- 
dent, naturally, upon the 
power you run In my case, a 
PR2 lamp from Radio Shack 
rated at 2 38 volts, 500 mA, 
worked just fine with my 
Ten-Tec Omni D. The friend- 
ly blinking light makes it fun 
to operate in a partly dark 
ened room, as I often do in 
the evenings. And it is al- 
ways reassuring to have a 
continuous monitor to te 



you that everything is work- 
ing as it should, As shown in 
the photograph, the bulb is 
just pushed into a rubber 
grommet, which makes for a 
good, neat, and insulated 
mounting 

Actually, the basic idea is 
as old as ham radio and 
makes me remember many 
years ago when a single turn 
of the wire soldered to a 
flashlight bulb was one of 
my most valuable tools, It 
was useful in neutralizing, 
tuning up the transmitter, 
and checking output when 
placed near the antenna 
coupler. 

As seen in the diagram, 
the circuit is simple and the 
wiring is straightforward 
The layout is not critical, 
and the project is simple 
enough to be, perhaps, an 
amateur's first attempt in 
getting acquainted with the 
fun of building his own gear, 

After all the holes were 
drilled, a coat of gray enam- 
el was used to paint the out- 
side of the box. It was dried 
overnight and then baked in 
the oven at 250° F for fifteen 
minutes to provide a hard, 
good-looking finish. The 
decals added the final touch 
and ensured that I got my 
cables hooked properly. 

Because the chassis box is 
of split construction, a wire 
was connected from J1 to J 2 



inside of the box so as not 
to have to rely upon the 
chassis contact for an rf 
path. Although a six~Ampere 
switch was used, I did try the 
unit at a friend's station with 
a linear amplifier, and the 
unit worked fine without the 
switch heating or any arc- 
over. However, ten-Ampere 
switches are commercially 
available for amateurs who 
may be running a California 
kilowatt. All other parts 
were obtained from Radio 
Shack, which simplified pro- 
curement problems. 

Tests showed that, as ex- 
pected, insertion of the unit 
changed the original set- 
tings of the antenna-match- 
ing unit slightly. (This gener- 
ally happens whenever you 
change the configuration of 
your coax cables, probably 
because of such things as 
induced currents in coax 
shields or other minor sec- 
ondary effects.) As in all rf 
projects, keep all cables and 
connections as short as prac- 
tical and be sure that your 
coax jacks are well ground- 
ed to the chassis. 

The real value to me has 
been the ease with which I 
can now tune up first into 
my dummy load and then, 
with a flip of the switch, 
into my tuning unit and an- 
tenna. It sure is a lazy man's 
switch box! ■ 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 53 






lohn M. Franke WA4W0L 
1310 Boiling Avenue 
Norfolk VA 23508 



The Amazing Cylindrabola 

This microwave antenna is easier to build than a dish. 

But it works just as well. 



w 



hen you mention mi- 
crowave antennas to 



f>*4pi 




Fig. 7, Parabolic curve. 









± 1" 


0.05" 


± 2" 


0.2G" 


± 3" 


0.45" 


± 4" 


0.80" 


± 5" 


1^5" 


± 6" 


1.80" 


± r 


2.45" 


± 8" 


3.20" 


± 9 M 


4.05" 


±10" 


5.00" 


±11" 


6.05" 



most amateurs, the image 
that comes to mind is a large 
circular dish antenna, I have 
nothing against this type of 
antenna and use it at work 
and at home. However, I 
feel that many amateurs are 
turned away from micro- 
wave frequencies when they 
see the constructional dif- 
ficulty of building a three- 
dimensional parabolic sur- 
face, 

When maximum yam is 
needed, the full parabola is 
necessary, but there are 
times when it is not. After 
all, most amateurs just start- 
ing out on the high frequen- 



cy bands do not initially 
erect rhombics. In recent 
months, I have been asked 
to build antennas for moni- 
toring a studio microwave 
link for a local television sta- 
tion and for intercepting 
synchronization pulses from 
a radar site. In each case, 
the requirements were for 
moderate beam width, 
medium gain, and low cost. 
The last requirement was 
the primary goal Each re- 
quest was solved with the 
same antenna — a cylin- 
drical parabola. 

The cylindrical parabola 
is easily fabricated by hand 




Table 7. X and y values used 

to make 22-inch-wide, 5-inch 

focal length cylindrical pa- Fig, 2, Box construction with cutaway view of the lower sur- 

rabola antenna. face support rib, 

54 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



with sheet metal formed in 
only one plane. The pro- 
totype unit described here 
was tested initially with an 
MDS receiver The MDS 
signal offers several benefits 
to antenna work. First, the 
wavelength (14 cm) is short 
enough to permit reason- 
able-sire antenna dimen- 
sions. Second, the signal is 
far enough away (3 miles 
from my location] to ap- 
proximate a far field sourc 
Third, the signal is available 
24 hours a day — they main- 
tain it not I And fourth, the 
bandwidth is large— 6 MHz 

The major shortcoming of 

a cylindrical parabola ts the 
unequal E- and H-plane 
beamwidths, The beam- 
width is smallest in the 
plane of the curve The 
smaller beamwidth is the 
same as for a dish antenna 
of the same diameter, while 
the larger beamwidth is 
essentially the beamwidth 
of the feed 

The antenna consists of 
two parts: the reflector and 
the feed. Both of the tasks 
to above were 
ith the same 
but with a dif- 
ference in the size and type 
of feed. The studio-link 



referred 
handled 
reflector 



monitor used a slotted 
dipole like the one to be de- 
scribed, The radar monitor 
used a waveguide-to-coax 
transition as a feed 

The equation for the 
shape of a cylindrical 
parabola is identical to that 
for a circular parabola: y 2 = 
4px, where y = distance 
measured tangent to the 
vertex, x = distance mea- 
sured perpendicular to the 
vertex, and p = focal length 
of the antenna, 

Fig. 1 is a graph of a 
parabola, The table gives 
the x and y coordinates of 
the curve used for the anten- 
na shown in the photo. It has 
a focal length of five inches 
and a width of 22 inches. 
The height of the surface is 
one foot — just over two 
wavelengths Increasing the 
height has little effect on the 
gain due to the rapid fallotf 
of the radiation pattern of 
the dipole feed The same 
effect is noted with corner 
reflector antennas 

A thin aluminum sheet 
was used for the reflector 
surface because I had some 
aluminum flashing left over 
from a home-improvement 
job. Hardware cloth or 
coarse wire screen could 
also have been used; as long 
as the largest opening is less 
than one-tenth wavelength. 
no degradation will be 
noticed The aluminum 
sheet was fastened to the 
ribs with number 7 sheet- 
metal screws spaced 2 inch- 
es apart (If wire screen were 
used f it could be stapled in 
place) 

The metal sheet was 
spray-painted flat white 
before final installation The 
paint improves the antenna 
appearance but more im- 
portantly it serves as a fire 
preventative. The natural 
aluminum surface forms a 
good reflector for visible 
and infrared solar radiation. 
The intensity at the focus is 
sufficient to ignite a small 
stick in seconds. 

The parabolic shape is 
maintained by two ribs 

^See U$l of Attv*rii$en on page If 4 



made from half-inch ply- 
wood The curve was laid 
out on graph paper, plotting 
the curve for y— to y = 11. 
The curve was transferred to 
the plywood by tracing over 
the curve with carbon paper 
placed between the graph 
paper and the plywood The 
graph then was flipped over 
and the other portion of the 
curve traced out. The two 
ribs were clamped together 
and cut simultaneously on a 
bandsaw. (No, \ do not have 
a bandsaw, I use one at the 
Naval Air Station hobby 
shop, a benefit of being a 
weekend warrior.) The over- 
all construction is shown in 
Fig. 2 and in the photograph 

The slotted dipote feed is 
similar in design to the one 
described in my article on a 
short backfire antenna 
published in the October, 
1982, issue of 71 

1 do not have facilities for 

determining antenna gain 
directly, but I can make gain 
comparisons by placing an 
attenuator between the 
MDS converter and the 
receiver and noting how 
much attenuation must be 
added or subtracted to 
maintain a constant signal 
level when different anten- 



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73 Magazine • September, 1963 55 



Introducing The SRT-3000 
A High Performance RTTY 
Communications Send- 
Receive Terminal 




^""^ SRT-3000 

List Price $ 995.00 
INTRODUCTORY PRICE $ 795.00 



• Built-in demodulator & AFSK modula- 
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Baudot, 110,300 Baud ASCII, 5-99 WPM 
Morse • 1000 character text buffer with 
BREAK feature • Ten 80 character mes- 
sage memories with battery backup • 

Selectable display formats, 24 lines x 72 characters (2 pages), 24 lines x 36 characters {4 pages), 
16 lines x 36 characters (6 pages) • Split screen operation • On screen status line displays a 
tuning bar, mode, speed, shift, tone pair, normal/reverse, USOS, WRU, SELCAL, buffer mode 
and buffer count • Cassette interface for long "Brag Tapes" or unattended message storage • 
Baudot and ASCII printer outputs • Built-in audio monitor • Built-in 110 VAC power supply • 
Other features— PTT control, WRU, SELCAL, sync idle, CW ID, USOS, autostart, full or half 
duplex, scope outputs, weight control, intercharacter spacing, reverse video, RS-232, word wrap 
around • Compact size only 13.3 x 10.3 x 4 inches • Made in USA, 



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or Phone 315-629-2785 



56 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



I 



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The only multi-band amateur radio antenna designed 
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• Non-magnetic stainless steel mast with nickel-chrome plated 
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• Four amateur bands without changing coils- -10, 15, 20 and 40 
meters. PLUS, add the Spider™ Adapter collar and special resonators 
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• Less than six feet high so it can be stern-mounted on the transom 

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73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 57 



Colorful RTTY: An Advanced 
System for the TRS-80C 

It's all here — a TU, program, and modem to turn 
your CoCo into a professional-quality RTTY terminal. 



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?3 Magazine • September, 1983 



Clay Abrarrn K6AEP 
1756 Comstock Lane 
San lose CA 95124 



G> 



_v OPTIONAL 

^ SCOPE hark; 



One of the most power- 
_ ful low-cost com put- 
ers available to date is the 
Radio Shack TR5-80C Color 
Computer, affectionately 
called the CoCo, The CoCo 
computer has grown in pop- 
ularity over the past few 
years due to its low price 
and ease of expansion. It's 
hard to imagine how such a 
powerful computer can be 
sold at such a low cost. 

Cost however, is not the 
major attribute of this tittle 
computer Tandy made a 
wise choice in selecting the 
6809 processor for use in the 
CoCo. This processor is one 
of the least understood mi- 
crocomputers available to 
date. It has many features 
which do not exist in any 
other microcomputer. Since 
my topic here is really ama- 
teur radio teletype, I'll show 
how this processor stands in 
a class by itself later in this 
article, 

I would like to reach a 
couple of objectives in this 
article: to provide a small 
RTTY program which can be 
used as is or modified to add 
any features desirable, and 
to discuss a simple RTTY in- 
terface which can be pur- 
chased or constructed to get 
you on the air at minimal 
cost. But first, a little back- 
ground on how this program 
was written. 

Program Background 

Back in 1976, I wrote my 
first crude RTTY program 
for the South West Techni- 
cal Products 6800 system. 

Do a few of you old-timers 
remember this computer? 
One can be seen from time 
to time even in flea markets. 
It became obvious in those 
early days that computers 
were the way of the future. 
The only big challenge to 
manufacturers was to drop 
their prices to a reasonable 
level. 



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TO £2lOHl 



3tli9Q4 




OOK 



.01 



,J *^^N. TO 

40ntV^ > 5K COMPUTER 

MtA hsJM mPUT 
I KEEP 5*0«TT) 



Fig. 1(b). Detector and tuning outputs for RTTY modulator/demodulator. 



After a few years of exper- 
imentation and further de- 
velopments, I succeeded in 
writing a total of six RTTY 
programs for the 6800. In 
this period, I learned a lot 
and made a lot of mistakes. 
In 1980, I upgraded to the 
6809 processor, which was a 
big step, But after a few 
months it became obvious 
that this processor was de- 
signed to be friendly and 
easy to program — unlike 
the 8080, 8088, Z80, 9900, 
and the 6502. 

Probably the biggest mo- 
ment in the history of the 
6809 was Tandy's announce^ 
ment of the CoCo in late 
1980- As you might have 
guessed, I had one of these 
computers a few weeks af- 
ter the announcement. In 
those days, a 4K computer 
was the norm, and one of 
my first challenges after de- 
veloping some SSTV soft- 
ware was to write a RTTY 
program which would run 



on a 4K CoCo. I was very sur- 
prised to find that the CoCo 
was ideal for amateur radio 
applications. It was free 
from RFI susceptibility, even 
with 1 kW, and no birdies 
could be found on the HF 
receiver on any band. After 
the horror stories I heard 
about the TRS^80 Model I 
and other popular, expen- 
sive, well-known computers, 
I was very happy 

In this article you will see 
the results of my early RTTY 
efforts. Since this time, 
other RTTY programs have 
been written with greater 
features, but the basic 
principles are the same. 

One point which must be 
emphasized is that if you 
desire to write programs for 
real-time high-speed appli- 
cations, you should use ma- 
chine language. A few RTTY 
programs have been written 
in Basic, but you can never 
achieve satisfactory results 



with it. Basic interpreters are 
too slow. The use of FORTH 
or the C language should 
work almost as well as ma- 
chine language. 

When designing a RTTY 
application program* a few 
fundamental decisions must 
be made even before start- 
ing to flowchart the code. 
These decisions are related 
to the hardware you use. In 
hardware selection, you 
have two possibilities The 
first is to design the hard- 
ware to perform all the se~ 
rial-to-paraHel RTTY conver- 
sions. This requires the use 
of relatively complex hard- 
ware and relatively easy-to- 
write software. The advan- 
tage of this technique is for 
the manufacturer. The hard* 
ware costs can be passed 
along to the consumer and 
the manufacturer will not 
have to spend as much time 
writing software This type 
of system has other advan- 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 59 



Fig 2. Program listing. 



SYMBOL 


TABLE l 


















«SCM 


FFFE 


AKI3 


0AF9 


ASC I [ 1 


0AFB 


ASC I I 2 


AB01 


ASCI 13 


ai-un 


ASCIIS 


#1*1*? 


ASCI 16 


031 D 


ASqio 


0AC0 


ASCI 01 


PACE 


ASCIOZ 


PAD*" 


as del 


k'AEF 


ASDELi 


0AF3 


BAUD 


FFFD 


frAUDfl 


*>C4E 


BAUDR 


064Z 


BftATD 


B 1 , ^4 , 


BRATAl 


#c«a 


brat n 2 


J1C4A 


*S 


(36fcF 


BS1 


A67T 


buf 


■t\* H#^ 


HUP* 


#C6# 


Bur i 


f»D5*" 


BUF2 


&E5E 


CDELI 


*■" f ' - r 


CDLl 


WPfrfy 


COLS 


0060 


CODE 


FFFF 


CQPVP 


■746 


Cf» 


tt9#4 


V-Vr'19 


04*77 


CURS) 


#670 


CURS2 


#683 


CM 


#B4£> 


cut 


PB4A 


OC 




CHDCU 


0*40 


CWL 


#B9D 


CWL.I 


BBAC 


CWLZ 


#BD7 


CWL3 


#6EB 


CwL4 


•PCC 


Ctau.3 


bvjsc 


CHL6 


#BE3 


DASH 


#B77 


DEL 


i***37 


del: 


#93# 


0CL2C 


#634 


DEX3 


■93D 


DEL1C 


#636 


DELA 


#946 


DEL4C 


#638 


DEL3C 


063A 


DEL6C 


»^cr^ 


DEJL7C 


»63E 


DELA1 


nop 


DEi 


#B#3 


DOT 


#883 


£"Dl 


PBS* 


FTF2 


#9B7 


Fir - 


•■»P6 


F|F4 


#9EF 


FIF^J 


•9CF 


FIFfc 


#9F4 


FIFO 


#94F 


FIFOl 


0936 


FIFOS 


#978 


F I F 06 


#979 


FIF07 


#9SS 


FIFOS 


#993 


riNDA 


•B2A 


FTNOAt 


0339 


F r*DA2 


■042 


FlHt3A3 


#B54 


F1NDA4 


*B41 


FIND!" 


#7DC 


FW4T 


BrrMa 


IN 


#64* 


IN1*« 


»<iD7 


-(■"OOP 


#bB9 


t«6»4 


(**■■; " 


iMM<e 


•68D 


IW 


#63# 


INEEE 


#64C 


LAST 


FFFL 


LEt 


•814 


LF 


#6*8 


LOU 


F*T8 


LOU! 


#762 


LO** 


- ?-- 


MAINE 


#831 


9^^^*9 ■ ^^^™ a 


nss 


tNC3 


0B5T 


HAP* 


#BS9 


MA^K 


Fcpq 


MENU 


06DP 


hewui 


•ac* 


WENLT2 


WfH^" 


-tV." 


0C17 


WEMJ4 


•715 


HEMUS 


#73 1 


HCMUfr 


•AS3 


HONiT 


•61 7 


NE*T 


#631 


OL " 


0664 


OUTi 


•66E 


CWtEEE 


•tsc 


#IA 


FF20 


"=IA2 


ffz: 


DUE 


•MK 


FECtl 


ME* 


AH 


#80B 


«f 


•«*0C 


REE~4 


P92JV 


REETT3 


t*-ii 


RECTP 




RECT0I 


09SC 


RECTB2 


#914 


RE r TBI 


#9tB 


RECV 


•697 


PfcSTAA 


A#2T 


RtTA 


#834 


RETA1 


•a*# 


RETA2 


P81E 


«SIN 


A### 


PSOUT 


a##2 


gp 


vetv 


SPACE 


#B7(| 


SPACE 1 


B870 


S^EEB 


#609 


SIEEDI 


#6«»E 


SPEED2 


#*- 


SPEED! 


#604 


START 


#6W 


STATt 




STATBt 


fflOC 


ST0TB2 


PAfl" 


STAT&3 


•AB1 


5TATBA 


■w 


STATBC 


.. , -?.- 


STAT** 


amri. 


5TAT07 




ToaCH 


•8F3 


TABMT1 


#C#D 


TR2 


i»5i* 


fH3 


#86B 


TR4 


•963 


TR3 


1*674 


T**T1C 


#*FA 


7*«fTCl 


#A#4 


TR* 


#ese 


IRTTVI 


#661 


m 


*"FFR 


LD1 


#7^B 


UL. 


•893 


ULI 


039 D 


UL3 


#AAP 


ul- 


•BAA 


UL4 


#BA£ 


UP 


!?5-i. 






■ 

i RTTY 


Frogr 


a* for tht R*4ft 


O Sh#c* 


fRS-QK 








■ Color Computer f4# 


or laraer at tad cvtcuttr ' 





v lililiiittiilltlitltiliiiiiiiiirniiiiMriiiiiiiiMii 

• Clayton H. Afc^»«s CK6AEP) 

• :" ? SS LOMttDO Lane 

• San Jo**, Calif. 
i 93134 

ttf •■■■ltiii<»llttltt«ttt«fttttlltltc«ttiltttiitlltlliat 

• CQPvHRfTE MOTICt 

I UH o4 tfclm prograa) t* luthgrizcd for wtcur r liiio 

• r>on prafjt purpntt. TN# progroai KHirce aay h» iodiMrt, 

• ropfOOUCOd am long as zrtdit for the onqinil aorK I* 

• qlvfH to thl* autnor* 
iifiilltlllltMtlltllllltlltdllltlllltMtiiiiiiltlllltll 

i <C» Clayton U. Abrmi, l^Sl 

OPT FAQ 



OKG «4»6tW 
■ 
i Progra* Eq^ata* 



I J 2i 

FF22 

6J## 

RWa 

A027 



PIA 
PIA2 



FOU tFF20 
£0U 6FF22 



RS 2J2 Port 
PS 232 Port 



1 OUTPUT J in TRS-6«C 
(INPI/TH tn TRS-9#C 



PS IN FOU fAPirtf 
PSDU1 EQU 4A002 
RESTAR EQU *A#27 

• 

I F'roqrin virtfbln 4 

t Al i ftftrincil are 

■ thr u*mr •tacti 

• 



TftB-S#C input a character vector 
TRS-S#C Output a character vector 
Basic restart vector 

or temporary stor*ga 
made relative to the 



-If' 
nil 

MIL 

F-FFC 
FFFB 

FFFA 

f i r <> 



CODE ESU -1 

AGCH EOU -2 

BAUD EDU -1 

LAST EOU -4 

LOU EDU -3 

UO EOU -6 

MAS* EQU -7 
■ 
■ tnltaU^atiOn 



Baudot coded cnar to be translated 

ASCII coetad Char to b» translated 

Tranalatad Baudot Coda 

Last BAUDOT shift 

Current BAUDOT shi-Ft 

Current shi + t code to be Kimtted 

Program i r> ASCII or BAUDOT, 0-BAUDOT 

ihpataiji for the program 



060# IF 
06#2 32 
0603 6F 
0607 17 
06#A 3# 
C160E 6D 
0610 17 



EC 



43 

EG 

39 

0#AF 

3D #133 

34 

038A 



START TFR S,U Find current system stigt 

LEAS -20i S Place syatem stack below s±%mr stack 

CL# MAS* ,U Bat wp for BAUDOT 

LBSP IN60 Initilize for 60 *4PM 
LEAl CCPYR.PCS Display COPVyRJ TE NOTICE 

BSR OUT Output It to Screen 

f* CIA. R«t for CM ID message 

■ 

■ Normal main line return when program 

• |s i-Kutlnq 



0613 


'.*» 


BD 0#C6 


HQN IT 


LEAK MENU.PCR 


Di spl av Tai n 


line moni tor 


06i r 


BD 


4p 






*Sft OUT 


Put put l t 




061"? 


BD 


"1 






B5R LNEFE 


Set an input 


character 


0610 


HI 


tc 






CPIF'A i*0C 


If CLEAR t-ey 


return to BASIC 


06 ID 


27 


12 






BED NEXT 






06 IF 


ei 


sr 






C*tPfl a ' R 


Receive RTTV 




0621 


1027 


#292 






LBEC RECV 






0623 


81 


38 






CHPA » - i 


(nit RTTV 




*627 


1#27 


#32* 






LBE8 FIFO 






062B 


81 


5^ 






CMF'A |'S 


Select spaed 




•62D 


2' 


3A 






BED SPEED 






062F 


20 


£2 


• 
• 
• 

hi 




BRA MdNlT 


Lool* For another key 








Go D 


acfc to basic 






#631 


7E 


fl#» ' 


■KT 


JP#- RESTAR 


TR58#C BASIC 


restart 



#634 0A28 
#636 0E#0 
063S IT500 



•63A .- 

#803 



#642 #47F 



#644 34 
•646 AD 
064A 39 

#64C 34 

•64E 30 

#63# AD 

•6M 2 7 

•636 BD 

•638 80 

#63A 33 

#63C T 4 
#63£ AD 
#662 T5 

0*»A6 81 
•66R 77 
066A 3D 

W UU l^ #ilP , 

0o6E '9 

#66F 34 
06? 1 B6 
#673 BD 
#673 33 

#677 34 
0679 B6 



067D 34 
067F B6 

06 Bt 20 

0633 34 
06G3 Bh 

tf6 B7 20 



0639 
06BQ 
068F 
#691 
#693 
#693 
#697 
0699 
•690 

069E 



• f 
BD 
BD 
Bl 
27 
*F 
Bl 
27 
16 

6C 
16 



14 
9F 

94 

t4 
27 
9F 
FA 
17 

.«: 

94 

14 

9F 
94 



04 
F0 

F6 



02 

rtB 

E7 
82 

ay. 

F0 
F6 

02 
BF 
FW 

02 
9F 
EA 



■ Program: delay constants 
i 6# WPft BAUDOT 



DEL2C FOB f0A20 

DIL3C Pf# 

DEL4C FOB 

t 

t l## 

0CL3C 

DEL6C 

08JL7C 

I 

I Cat DEL 

t 

CVDEL FD8 »I 

■ 

• ASCII 110 BAUD DELAY 

■ 

BAUDR FOB «#47F 



BAUDOT 
98633 
FOB 408D7 
FDfr »#71A 



CONSTANT 



Data hi! 
Stop ait 
l '2 data 



Data btt 
Stop tut 
1/2 data 



del ay 
delay 
bit delav 



d*lay 
delvy 
bit delay 



Aopro- laataly 13 laPTt 



Data bit delay 



* 
IM 



I/O fitXlT|NE5 THPOU»« 

TRS-80C bas:: 



P&e «,B 
JSP CRSIN3 
PULS 1*0, PC 
WAIT FOP K /0 ENTftY 



Input a characcar 

Inp-Lit character 



do 

■ 



not wait 



PSHS I.B 



J3R IRS1 



D'splav 4 

Input Chi 



-acter vi 



Bam space 

Dutp'jt tcho the ch*ract< 



Baatc output vector 



Get character fro» string 

J* it tH» nuaber 4 

Jf so and 

Output the character 



FID 0i^B@ SPEED 

D3 

hi- 

4L 

#9 

39 

42 

0E 

0F73 



INEEE 

CURS 

CftSIMJ 

IHE 

BG 
&3P OUTEEE 
PULS I* 8, PC 

t OUTPUT A BYTE 
OUTEEE f^iHB 1,1 

JSR tRSOUTl 

PULB i,P t Pr 

• OUTPUT A STRING 
OUT LDA 0, t- 

CrtFA 44 

BED OUT1 

PSP OUTEEE 

BiRA OUT 
OUT I 8T6 
I OUTPUT A BACKSPACE 
BS PSHS A 

LDA *tt0B 
BSl &5R OUTEEE 

PULH A f PC 
< OUTPUT A CUftSORiSLACr 1 
CURS PSHS A 

LDA **F0 Bl acV cursor 

BRA BS1 

• OUTPUT A CURSOR? RE Q> 
CURS I PSHS A 

LDA **BF Rad cureor 

BRA est 
I OUTPUT A CURSOR (VEL LOW) 
CURS2 PSHS A 

LDA «*9F vellw curaor 

BRA 051 
■ 

I SELECT ASCII OR BAUDOT 
t 

LEAF WENU4.PCR A* I* for th» mod* 



Backspace 

Output it 



character 



39 
FF70 



BSR PUT 
BGR INEEE 
CtlPA 4' A 
BED SPEED 1 
CLR KASKpU 
Cp*A a'P 
BEO SFF.FD2 
LB«A rtDNIT 
I Sat up for ASCII 
SPEED I IMC MASK.U 
LBRA NDNIT 
4 SELECT BAUDOT 5FEED5 



Output menu 

Get response 
Is it ASCII 110 Baud ? 

Set haudot mask 
1* It baudot 



Set rtiftSr to ASCtf 



tages, like hardware time 
and date clocks and the 
ability to print text while 
receiving RTTY. 

The second hardware 
choice is to do all the serial* 
to-parallel decoding in soft- 
ware and allow the comput- 
er to be attached to any 
available TU This technique 
is the best for the consumer. 
The costs are much less in 
this choice, but the burden 
of the system's performance 
is placed on the back of the 
programmer This type of 
programming is very diffi- 

60 73 Magazine * September, 



cult and separates casual 
programmers from profes- 
sionals. To do this type of 
programming requires the 
patience of a saint and the 
determination of a bulldog. 

I will describe here a pro- 
gram which uses the simple 
hardware concept and dem- 
onstrates some of the tech- 
niques which can be used in 
more elegant software, 
Hopefully, this article will 
perform three functions: 

1) Be a teaching tool to 
show how simply RTTY can 
be programmed. 

1983 



2) Demonstrate some of 
the programming techniques 
which place the 6809 pro- 
cessor in a class by itself. 

3) Allow a ham with a lim- 
ited budget and a minimum 
computer to get on RTTY for 
the least cash outlay 

The System 

To receive RTTY on to- 
day's crowded ham bands 
requires some sort of hard- 
ware interface with good in- 
put filtering. This type of in- 
terface to the computer is 
called the TU, or terminal 



unit This interface is used to 
remove adjacent channel in- 
terference and general 
background noise. The only 
requirement for this inter- 
face is that its output and in- 
put are compatible with 
standard RS-232 levels. 
RS-232 has no meaning oth- 
er than that the voltage lev- 
els are greater than plus or 
minus 8 volts. The program 
listing assumes that the TU 
has RS-232 compatibility 
and attaches to the CoCo 
through its RS-232 port 
Later in this article, a sche- 



OfcAS 30 


3D 00BA 


0AA7 ao 


M 


0ftA9 0D 


A| 


**AB 8) 


31 


06A& 27 


tq 


0AAF 00 


M 


04B1 Ifc 


FF^F 


0604 00 


21 


0606 16 


FF3A 



]« it II* WPH 

If not 1»9 Wtl it ouet be 60 UPtl 

Set tip 10* atffl 



0&B9 


S0 


ao 


FF77 


0600 


31 


5: 


#567 


06C1 


Cn 


07 




06C3 


»4 


•4 




Po£3 


EC 


SI 




*6C? 


ED 


Al 




06C* 


33 


.** 




06CB 


S* 






06CC 


26 


F3 




06CE 


EC 


ao 


FF70 


06D2 


ED 


» 


**37B 


■6DA 


:■» 






B6D7 


3f 


BO 


FF5F 


060* 


20 


ED 





IftiDD 


0P 








06DE 


52 


54 


34 


59 


0faE2 


20 


50 


52 


4F 


0*Et 


47 


52 


4| 


4 1- 


0dEA 


0D 








0£EP 


5D 


3D 


5? 


49 


9bEF 


43 


45 


4«? 


56 


06F3 


45 


2C 


SB 


3D 


B6F7 


34 


52 


41 


4E 


06FP 


53 


40 


49 


34 


Wrf 


0D 








?7PC 


41 


4T 


45 


4] 


•704 


32 


3D 


4J 


41 


07*6 


53 


49 


43 


2C 


■70C 


53 


3D 


53 


50 


0710 


45 


45 


44 




#713 


0D 


04 






#713 


•D 








#716 


41 


3D 


31 


31 


#716 


3# 


2# 


42 


41 


•7l£ 


55 


44 


2# 


41 


#722 


53 


4J 


4 5 


49 


■ T2b 


0D 








#T77 


42 


3D 


4? 


41 


072B 


55 


44 


4# 


54 


#7* 


#D 


04 






#731 


to 








#732 


31 


3D 


31 


3D 


0*736 


3# 


2* 


57 


5# 


*??- 


40 


2C 


36 


3D 


#73£ 


34 


30 


2# 


37 


07*2 


■a* 


*D 






•744 


00 


04 






0746 


#0 








0747 


28 


43 


29 


20 


074B 


45 


4C 


41 


59 


074F 


54 


4F 


4E 


2V 


07H3 


57 


20 


4 1 


*2 


0757 


52 


41 


9b 


53 


073* 


2C 


31 


39 


38 


V*75F 


31 








e»7i# 


0i D 


04 







#762 *C 00 C4 04 

#766 0C A4 

076B 00 EG CC 94 

076C 04 » 

076E E0 E4 F0 CD 

•772 88 D4 

•774 AC FB 8C C0 

#770 90 A# 

77 A A0 00 00 ## 

077E 0# •• 0# 

0TB I EC h4 Bfl EB 



SPEED 2 LEAK HENUS , PCP A*V for Baudot speed 

BSR OUT 

BSft 1PCEE 

Cftf»fl *■ I 

BEQ 5PEED3 

FSR 1N6# 

LBRA f04lT 
SREED3 BSR IN10P 

LfiftA MONtT 
l 

l INITALIZE SPEED CONSTANTS 
■ 

t BAUDOT 60 WfwASttl 1 10 
• 

1*6* LEAK 3GL2C, PC« [tt chtncttr it table 
lHb*0 LEA* BfMTRlfPC* Location to at Kt CtfMtdtl 

LD# 0? Tllree cdnitinti to ecwe 

1N6#A PSHS B 

LDO #,»*- 

STD l,V** 

PULE B 

DECfr Do It again 

VHC ■ n# | J&^#9 1 

LDD BfluCfl.PCR 11# Baud ASCII 

BTD BAUEJAjPCR 

RTB 
• BAUDOT 10# b*>Ff 
IN100 LEAK DEL5C,PCR I " «t Chif«CtV in IW «P" ttblo 

BRA IM60B 
t 

I MENUS FDR BASIC SELECT TONS 
1 C0PVWHITE AND SPEED 
I 
MENU FCB 40D 

FCC 'RTTY PROGRAM/ 



FCB *0D 

FCC /R-RECElVEp i'TRANBtllT^ 



FCB 400 

FCC 'CLEAR*BAS!C,S«5FEE0/ 



FCB 40C t 4 

FCB »#0 

FCC /A-I10 BAUD ASCII/ 



FCS 4iffD 

FCC /B-BAUSaTS 

FCB *D # 4 



FCC /l*l#« HPtl t fr-6# «PM/ 



FCB *0D»4 

CGPVR FCB *t0B 

FCC /(Cf CLAVTDN W ABRAMS, 1^81 / 



FCB *0O t 4 
lt**»***t*t*****«f**t««4t**«UI 

i 

I ASCII TD BAUDOT LODKUR TABLE 

• L»tt.rsi ABCDEFGHlJt-LnNOPORBTUVUIXVZ 
I 

L0U1 FCB 99C»4B« i ,*C4 p t84 l t0C*4A4 

FCB tEn?,*EQ, *CC, 494,404,400 
FCB «E0,*E4,.*F0 i 4C8 v 48e,fD4 
FCB «AC.mFe.»ec,4C#,»»8.«A» 
FCB «AB t «B8, #••,•,•,• 

• Fiqurni ' -0*X4V f ? • + ,-./•! 234567091 | 

FCB 4EC,«A4,*Ba t 4EB f •#«. 400 



0703 04 00 

0787 00 94 B4 OB 

#780 0# 04 

#7BD E4 00 E# A0 

0791 C8 00 

#793 98 BC D4 FB 

0797 A6 BC 

•799 CC F0 C4 C0 



#790 


40 


51 


55 


iV L 


#7A| 


4A 


57 






#7A1 


41 


58 


44 


39 


• 7A7 


33 


42 






#7A9 


44 


5A 


43 


56 


i7Afi 


43 


5# 






07AF 


49 


47 


52 


4C 


#783 


#A 


40 






0703 


4E 


48 


20 


4F 


0709 


00 


34 






#700 


#0 


00 


26 


31 


070F 


37 


00 






07CI 


2C 


~: 


2D 


2F 


•7C5 


21 


36 






07C7 


#7 


3F 


24 


22 


•7€S 


33 


30 






BJ7CD 


3A 


38 


3B 


26 


07DV 


34 


29 






•7DT 


#A 


ZE 


rc 


3H 


0707 


20 


39 






0709 


010 


33 


00 


t 
t 



•7DC 34 
•70E A6 
•7E0 81 
07E2 27 
0714 H) 

•7E6 27 
07EB Bt 
07EA 37 
•7EC 81 
07EE 27 
•7F# 84 
#7T3 24 
07F4 A6 
#7F6 04 
07FB C6 
#7T A t7 
07FC 30 
08*0 A6 

•804 06 



86 
Z0 



16 

3E 

00 
2# 



28 



FCB *!>0,C94 P «S4 P *DB 1 # T # 

FCB *E4,# T 4E0»*A0i*C8,tB8 

FCB 496,40^404, *F0 t 4A8 f »BC 

FCB *CC,*F0,*C4,»Ca 
■ 

• BAUDOT 70 ASCII 

■ LOOK UP TABLE 

• "afil* ordiTi »OU JMAIFv0007.EvCFte«Lt]f. IfW 

■ fEp»Ulfr.>T 117 ■J-;'aibtlli^-jjtiWWMlM. ( B 

• 9ttr.)3 
• 
_I1 | 44B.43l,*35 t > 44A l »57 

FCB 44 1. 458. *46» *59, 453, 442 
FC0 444 ,43A # *43 4 436, 443, *5« 
FCO •49,m47 1 *52»4*C,»#A.»4I> 
FCB *4£ f «40,42*,44F r 4«D.B34 
FCB 0,0.428, 43L,437 # » 
FCB «2C, 432. 42D.42F ,421,436 
FCB 407* »3F, 424.422,433.430 
FCB *^A,43#, 438, 426,434, 429 
FCB 40A,42E,»2C l *3a l 42B,»37 
FCB •eiO,i33.0 



« FIND 0AUDOT CDDE 

* ASCN=ASCII COd« tO DO COflVfrttd 

I BALlO'BAuDDT Cnd* which hmm been converted 

t 

FINDS PSHS x.ft.B 

LDA ASCH,U 

CUP A 0400 

BED CP 

CMP A 060A 

BEO LP 

CHPA 043F 



CMP A 0420 



2# 



g»t Che UDdf 

I* tt C4wrri4qe rttmrn? 

im It line feed 7 

1* It * ? 

lo It m tp4ct ~* 

tOOt «or ICitvr 



0810 86 

•812 20 
0814 A6 

#816 04 
061 B 30 
#0 I C A6 
001 E 6F 
0038 A7 
#H22 33 
0824 C6 
0826 E7 
0B2B 20 



3P 
#1 
3D 

00 FFfcJ 

66 
1C 
F4 
1C 

DC 

IB 

■8 

14 
EC 
0A 

3E 
3F 

BO FF45 

u 

50 
3D 
96 

flt 
5B 
F6 



BK LET 

LDA A5CH,U 
JH0OA 04TF 
LDB 01 
6T8 L0U.U 



it bo * 
vu*t tilt 

Itvf it 



uppw bito 



LEJU LOUl-l.PCft B«tt» addrnt c* t«Olo ikmii ocyo 



CR 

LF 



SP 
LET 



LDA A, I 

BRA REtAl 
LDA «*i-4 
BRA RETA 
LDA 04DC 
BRA RETA 
LDA 0«0# 
BRA RETA 
LDA 44EC 
BRA RET A3 
LDA ASCH.U 
AMD A 443F 



« i nfl code indexed into te&le 
return %aa calling routine 
ccrfiagi rttiirr Etftudcrt code 

lino *ood boudoc codo 

q^tttion Hrk baiidat code 
•B4co b*udot codo 



•82A A6 


5F 


00?C 44 




#82& B4 


IF 


0D2F 27 


15 


#831 Bt 


#4 


#B": 27 


17 


0835 I 


5A 


#037 26 


#9 


0839 30 


60 FF3F 


•830 Af, 


86 


083F A 7 


5D 



get back OOCCll character 
44*h Out upper bits 

LEAK L0U1-1.PCR table bate address 

LDA A,x «md codo offoot mto toblo 

RETA2 CLR LDU,U c 1 OOT Curr#nt fhiH code 

RETA1 ST A BAUDpLJ lit ore baudcit code 

PULS X,A»0,PC return to calling routine 

RETA LD0 41 shift ende 

BTB LOU, IJ liva in .-urgent ahi^ 

BRA REtAl 
t 

• FIND ASCII CODE 

* BAUDOT code i* plueod In CODE «t atart 

> ASCII cad* 1« placed Into BAUD in completion at and 

f 

FINDA LDA C0DE,U got b#UOot code 

LSRA Align byte 

ANOA 041 F mat.k OWt 0*r barge 

BEO LOW i* fero got out 

Cf#*A O04 i» it a *h| + t ■» 

BEO L0 1 

LO0 UOtU 

SIC F1NDA2 
FlftDAl LEAK UDl^l.rCR faaee addrni o* table 

LDA A,» i|nd a** set into table 

«T« 0AUD.M atora remulto 



matic of a simple TU will be 
discussed which can be 
home-brewed at a low cost 
The only other necessary 
feature for the system is that 
the CoCo must have 4K or 
more RAM. Extended Tandy 
Basic is not required since 
the program is written in ma- 
chine language, Attached to 
the computer must be a TV 
set for display and a tape 
recorder to save or load the 
program. 

The Software 

My seventh attempt at 



developing a RTTY program 
is shown in the program 
listing. This program can be 
keyed in directly from the 
fisting in object form or 
keyed in in source form and 
assembled to create an ob- 
ject code. The object code is 
the actual machine-lan- 
guage programming which 
causes the computer to do 
its tricks. To key in a pro- 
gram, the left-hand column 
is the address in memory 
where the instruction is 
stored The following bytes 
are the actual bytes in mem- 



ory. For example, the RTTY 
program's first instruction is 
1 F and is loaded into memo- 
ry at address 0600. To key in 
a program like this requires 
the use of a second program 
called a. monitor. You can 
obtain a monitor program 
from commercial sources or 
write your own in Basic. One 
of the most important fea- 
tures of the RTTY program is 
that it can be saved any- 
where in the CoCo's memo- 
ry without changes. This 
means that you can key the 
program into address 1000 

73 



or 2000 hex and it will run 
without changes. The 6809 
microprocessor is the only 
computer which allows you 
to do this All other proces- 
sors require that the pro- 
gram must be reassembled 
at another address to make 
it run, This feature is called 
Position Independent Code, 
To understand how to 
write a program to take ad- 
vantage of this feature is a 
little difficult. I'll try to point 
out how it is done as I pro- 
ceed through the program 
description. 

Magazine • September, 1983 61 



*S4| 39 






FIN0A4 


PT 5 


p#turrt to editing ^outlTI* 






■ 








0B42 a A 


20 




FINDA2 


ORA "420 










t RECEIVE ROUTINE 






#844 70 


Fl 






BRA FINDAJ 










t 








0046 6F 


3A 




LOW 


CLR UD«U 


lOMtr cue 




0BE9 17 


FD5S 


RECTI 


LBSR IN 


tool- for • hvyboardi input 




#848 6F 


30 






CLR BAUO.U 






rOEC *_ & 


LE 




BNE RECT3 


t* any/ arnj rfctivf 




#84A r# 


F3 






BRA F1M0A4 






0BEE B6 


FF22 




LOA p: 


Q4t RS-232 input 




8B*C B6 


FF - 




18* 


LOA 4SFF 


%*pp*r c»* 




88F1 84 


•1 




ANDA 41 


*44<b Out g4a'b4rga 




#84£ A7 


3A 






STA UD.ti 






88F3 76 


F4 




8*41 RECTI 


14 nothing look far heyboard 




#OS# 6F 


3D 






CLR BAUD.U 










t so** 


thlft^i h44 b**n rtciivtd 




■ess r* 


E0 






BRA F 1*0*4 






•8F3 6F 


3F 




CLR GOOt.L 


Ctaajp conversion byt* 




MS* *** 


30 




RIleBAS 


CLA BAtiDpU 






88F7 BD 


4D 




BSR 0EL4 


delay 1/2 data bit tin* 




•est z# 


E* 




8 


ppfi FIWDA* 






08F9 C6 
88F8 BO 


86 
18 


RCCT7 


lDB 46 
86R AECT8 


mi* bit* 
input 4 byt* 










4 THA#fSrl] 




08FD 30 






TSTB 












• Thi* 


routln* t*k*S 


i 4 CharKttr in AS&f 




0VFE 38 


FB 




PME WECT2 


I* iro do it again 










4 and frmi«itti it 


vt4 th# RG-232 port or> t«» 


0*#0 17 


FF27 




LBS*. FJHD* 


conwt byt* to ASCII 










■ CQBfrute*" 






#9*3 A6 


5r 




LOA #AUP V U 


result* in A 










i 








#983 L7 


FOS4 




LBSR OUTEEE 


output; it 




#898 *p 


39 




TRTTY 


t 5 . WmS* 1 4 U 


|« Lt A Witt or BAUDOT 


8988 8D 


33 




86R DEL3 


■top bit dalay 




8BSA 1026 «*r 






L»*E ABCJQ 


if It 4 4 nflt lira l t 


»"0j ASCtt 


#98A 28 


00 




88* RECTI 






Mac it 


FT 70 






LBSR F 11408 


find triv Ci.'dit cekce 




890C 39 




RECT3 


RTS 






#861 80 


32 




TATTY* 


BSR (JL 


1oa4e far u«3pt-*- Iijwlii 


case shift 






■ 








IHBv 3#^ 








CLAB 


cl»»r (h»t counter 








• jwtrr a tAUoa Bvte 




8864 48 






TR2 


ASLA 


«h|4t fc«|t bit jnto I 


:#ry 






I 








«*63 23 


04 






PCS TR3 


i# cmrrr ii «*t n«|t 


a mp«c« 


090D Bb 


FF22 


RECT0 


LOA P]A2 


get RS232 input 




*B.b? 80 


28 






BS8 HAAf 


14 C4rry o<( *»it « i 


mmrh 


#910 54 


81 




AMDA «1 


»a*k out other bit* 




eat? 20 


•2 






BRA TR4 






0912 27 


•fl 




8E0 RECTBl 


if on shift in 4 bit 




08a & BD 


10 




TFT 


BSR SPfcQE 


KMlt * 4fl4C* 




#914 68 


3F 


RECTB2 


A5L CODE,U 


ihi*t th* Mhol* a*** l»#t 




gmhv sc 






TR4 


INCE- 


incf»i»»rit bit counter 


8916 3A 






DECS 


dac r« merit hit counter 




0Q6E CI 


06 






CHPB 46 


1* it «ik bits 




8917 27 


•2 




BEO RECT83 


t*«t bit 




«V97# 27 


02 






BEG TR5 


14 *o *vnd »top bit 




8919 BD 


13 




PSR DEL2 


delay a data bit tie* 




0H72 20 


F* 






BRA TR2 


do it «l I over *g*m 




091 B 39 




RECTB3 


RTS 






»BT4 e* 


02 




TR5 


LDA 002 


pl4cs R8-232 low 




891C 6C 


Zfw 


RECTB1 


TNC CDD€ t U 


add a bit to byt* 




0876 B7 


FF20 






STU PEA 


■HtCUtt 




09 IE 2B 


F4 




BRA RECT82 






887 * IT 


00C1 






LBSR DEL 3 


d*l*y itop bit time 








1 








GflTC 39 






t 


FTB 










• RECEIVE ASCII 












A EFACE 






0920 17 


FD21 


RECT4 


LBBR IN 


1 DOh for h*ybo*rd input 










t 








0923 26 


0B 




BNE RfCTS 


If * k*y h** b**n *truch gat out 




0B7D T4 


06 




SPACE 


PSHS A* 5 






0923 17 


01D1 




LBSR ABC It 


g*t ASCII charactre 




087F 66 


#8 






L&A 00 


Hiak« RB-232 high 




tfl92B 1? 


FD31 




LBSR DUTEEE 


d j apt ay it 




8881 B7 


FF78 






STA Ptfi 


IKKUrf 




0<?2B 20 


F3 




&RA RECT4 


do it *ll OV*r agln 




8884 17 


#0AO 






LBSR D€LT 


dalay a bit ttH 




-092D I 6 


0B1F 


RECT3 


LBRA FIFO 


now go to transmit mod* 




8887 33 


86 






FULS A,B,PC 










4 














■ 












■ OELAV ROUTINE 












• KHIT 


A MARK 










f DEL4 


-1/2 DATA BIT 












■ 












* 0EL3-SfOR BIT 






0&S? 54 


M 




HAW 


*SM5 A,B 










■ 0EL2*0ATA BIT 






8886 6* 


•a 






LDA *: 


«^v* R8-232 tow 








* 








80*30 v* 


FF28 






STA FJA 


■iicute 




0930 1* 


#4 


OEL2 


PSHS B 






88W 17 


##«£ 






L8SR DCL2 


0'lav 4 t3it tnw 




0K?32 10*E 


BO 0311 




LDV 8*ATRi f PCH 




8893 33 


86 




i 


FUL5 A»B v f»C 






0937 
09T9 2h 


FC 


OEL 


LEA* -l t V 
BNE OEL 












t UPPER LOMER CASE SwjFT 

■ 




#938 33 


B4 


■ 

OEl" 


FU.S 8, Ft 






8893 E6 


38 




■ 

UL 


LOB LDU.U 


QRt tufrfflt »hl*t *t 


5t'Ji 


09311 34 


•4 


PSHS 8 






•89 7 £8 


3C 






EOR8 LAST.U 


zomomrw It Pith tne 


1 lit Ititul 


097.F 10AE 


BO 834)6 




LPY i#lATR2«PCR 




0B*9 26 


82 






PC ULl 


t*»»r «fl dlMermt 




•94* 24^ 


PI 




BAA DEL 






8898 28 


#F 






E0cA 'JL4 










i 








#8*3 86 


40 




tl_l 


LOA 0048 


t*ftt 4 or l*tt«r 




0946 34 


04 


DEL4 


P9*i8 8 






00*F A3 


3E 






BtTA ASCH.iJ 






#948 1#AE 


BO #2FF 




LDV SRATD.PCW 


t 




88A1 26 


0C 






80C l*-2 


j * net branch 




#940 20 


EB 




BAA OEL 






#8*3 86 


98 






LOAA »*»0 


Ittttr »hi4t 








■ 








•BAS SF 








ES-RSj 










■ 








PBA6 80 


■C 






B9R TR2 










4 TRAMSHI 






0BA6 B* 


01 






loa m: 










• 








80AA A7 


3C 




UL3 


STA LA5T.U 


W80AI9 n*M l44t 




#94F 38 


8D 8#BC 


FIFO 


LEAN t92NU2,PCR nttlt botu 




88AC A6 


3D 




WL4 


LOA BAUD 4 U 






•933 17 


FD0E 




LBSR OUT 


output It 




08AE 39 








RTS 






#93* 17 


FCEB 


F1F01 


L8SR IN 


Iftok for ^lybDird Input 




0BAF 86 


•8 




14 7 


LOA 4»B(i 


' I QuT* thi f t 




#939 27 


FO 




BED FIFQ1 


if nan* dc It *g*lri 




#B*1 30 








0LH8 






tf95B Bl 


J>I 




CHPA 448D 


1* It * c*rri*g* return 




0GB? 80 


00 






BSR TR2 






8930 27 


IE 




BEO FIFOS 


i * to go to 




*9K* 4F 








CLRA 






893F 61 


PC 




CUP A 4*0C 


!■ it CLEAR hey ? 




BBSS 70 


F3 




1 


BRA UL3 






09il 1827 
0965 Bl 


FCAE 
3C 




LBEO HON1T 
CFIPA 493C 


go to main line monitor 

t* ■■ key **rid CM ID 










t RECEIVE RTTY 






BJ967 1027 


! 01C6 




LBEO hAtNC 












t riAIN 


i LINE 






096ft 61 


2P 




CI9?A »t7B 


if * laid station buffer* 










I 








09 6D 1027 


' P0F7 




LBEO ETATB 






08i7 30 


BD 801 


RECV 


LEAH HENUliPCfl! rtCtlvl (*«Mu 




rf971 Bl 


3E 




i;.MPA 443E 


if > xmit station buffer 




*BBB J 7 


FDA6 






LBSR QUT 


output tilvnu 




0973 27 


42 




BEO FIF2 






*HBE 60 


59 






TBT MABK.U 


tilt for ASCII 




*975 Bl 


3D 




CMPA 4*3D 


i + - send HVRY 




>*bc« 1826 taesc 






LBNE RECT4 


rKllvi ASCII 




0977 27 


8F 




BEO FIFO? 






08C4 8D 


23 






BSR RECTI 


rictivl 4nd dikplay 


char4C.t4r« 


•979 60 


2B 


FIFD6 


BSR FXrtT 


Hfilt a Character on RTTY 




9BC6 L6 


fl«B6 






LBRA FIFQ 


nam trmnmm.lt 




09 7B 20 


09 




BRA FIFOl 












t 












I Cirnig* Rpturn ham b«n lent 




8BC* 00 






P1ENU1 


FCB »0D 






0*70 B6 


88 


FIFOS 


LOA 060A 


line f**d 




08CA 32 


43 43 


43 




FCC /RECETVE 


RTTY/ 




09 7F A7 


3£ 




STA ASCH,u 






08CE 44 


36 43 


20 










0^B1 17 


FED4 




L8SR TRTTv 


-mi t It 




•0&2 33 


34 34 


5*? 










0984 86 


80 




LOA 4400 


carriage return 




•006 00 








PUB *8D 






•986 28 


Fl 




BRA FIF06 






0807 41 


4E 39 


28 




FCC ^ANV IKET' 


-TRANSPUT/ 








• x#ut 


IS RV T « 






080* 48 


43 3*1 


30 










•988 Gta 


#a 


F-IFQ7 


LOA 440A 


lln* f**d 




88DF 34 


37 41 


4E 










09 OA A7 


5E 




STA ASCH.u 






08E3 33 


4D 44 


34 










#9BC 17 


FEC9 




L0SR TRTTV 






88E7 8D 


84 






FCS »0O.4 






09BF &6 


,»: 




LOA 644TD 


cam age ret ur n 



























Program Description 

The program was written 
to perform three functions: 
receive RTTY, transmit 
RTTY, and issue a CW ID at 
the end of a transmission. 
Each of the functions can be 
broken down further into 
smaller parts which change 
RTTY speeds, allow for pro- 
gram option selections, and 
do general housekeeping. 
Before jumping into the de- 
scription of these various 
functions, let's discuss how 
the program achieves posi- 



tion independence. HI next 
go into each of the func* 
tional program parts. 

Posit ton Independence. 
The RTTY program uses two 
means to achieve program 
position independence. The 
first technique is use of the 
user stack, or U register. The 
user stack is similar to the 
system stack, but it can be 
used in the 6809 for two pur- 
poses. One use is as a third 
index register. The U stack 
can also be used as a pointer 
in memory for the storage of 
program variables. This is 



how U is used in this 
gram. When the program is 
first executed, the system 
stack is placed slightly be- 
low the user stack This sys- 
tem stack position is deter- 
mined by Tandy Basic and 
varies as a function of the 
size of memory. Typically, it 
is in the upper 256 bytes of 
available memory. If pro* 
gram variables are referred 
to by this pointer, their posi- 
tion in real memory can be 
variable. Some of the vari- 
ables in the RTTY program 
use this technique 



The second technique is 
the use of the LEA or Load 
Effective Address instruc- 
tion. This instruction allows 
for an index register to be 
loaded with the address of a 
program variable relative to 
the program counter (PCR) 
wherever it may be in mem- 
ory. For example, the LEAX 
MENU,PCRwill load the ad- 
dress of MENU into the X 
register. The PCR portion of 
the instruction means that 
the load is relative to the 
location in memory where 
the program is currently exe- 



62 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



?991 


BO 


13 


fc<*?3 


£6 


BF 


0«?*?5 


34 


04 


B*?97 


06 


52 


0999 


BP 


i<B 


B99B 


GA 


39 


099D 


bq 


07 


099F 


39 


04 


B*Al 


a* 




09 A 2 


26 


Fl 


I'M! 


20 


BP 


09A& 


A7 


S£ 


09*8 


17 


FEAD 


fl'JAt 


17 


FCC I 


09 AE 


At 


3E 


MM 


17 


FCA9 


L--E-" 


17 


FCC7 


B^Bt 


39 





B&R FKrtT 
LDB OlS 
FIFO0 PSHB B 
LDA *r- 
BSR FXKT 
LDA »'V 
BSR FtWT 
PULS 8 
OCCB 

B*C FIFOS 
BRA FtFOl 

* GENERAL TTY fcriJT 
r|MT ST* ABCW,U 

LBSA T»TTV 
LBOT PS 
LDA AStM, u 
LBSR OUTEEE 
LBSA CU«S1 
RTS 
■ 

• STATION BUFFER KftIT 

FIF2 LEA1 n£Nu**F-CR itation *uf*er 



15 thir«cttrt 
imii R 

HMtt tt 
41CII V 
mmht it 



go beck to polling routine 



d it on *-tty 
output a baOsp-ac* 

•■CI I cmncttr last unit ted 
Output e Euri 



•90S 17 


FCA6 






L8SR OUT 


»»" a i t out 


bvbe n 


FCBB 








R 1MEEE 


g»i trvput chATflctor 


«9ci ai 


33 








D9^A 0*3 


t* it Mgfti^ thw 3 


09C3 72 


F2 








SMI 


FIF2 


14 «d not vil id 


09C5 Bl 


SB 








CMPA ••# 


i* it **ro 7 


09C? 27 


2B 








BEO 


FIF6 


g*t »u4 4*r *tfdr** 


00C | f B* 


0F 








AN&n »MC 


«*»k Out hjgh o* bu*fH" n 


?*:* 30 


00 


0391 






LEAl 0UF0 p FCR 


&u<+*^ bi*i iddr-pli 


»9CF 30 


89 


00FF 


FJI 


LXA 


f 253* t 


find tfdrHi o-f buffer 


09O3 *A 










OECA 


dicrmnt nutfj«r 


0904 26 


F^ 








MM 


r 1 ' • -• 










■ 


IN IT 


SUTFEF *^LECTE0 


•90* A* 


80 




F|! 


LM 


0,1* 


get bu«er byte 


0900 34 


02 










I A 


uvt |t 


09OA A7 


5E 








STA 


A9CH.U 




090C 17 


FC70 






LBS* OUTECE 


dtspley it 


09OF 80 


14 








Pa" 


TRTTC 




09£l 17 


^C6* 








1 IN 


too* for input (JieiCtfr 


•WE* 26 


09 








Mi 


FIF4 




09E6 33 


#2 








PUCS 




•9EB St 


IB 










1 0010 


it it tn* buffer end ? 


09CA 2b 


CM 








0NE 


FIF3 




09EC 16 


92. 


FIF4 


LBRA F1F01 
PULS A 




0H*F 33 




09F1 16 


FF*2 






LBRA FtFOI 










• 


SELEC BUFFER 




09F* 30 


9C 


B2&8 


FIF 


LEA* 0UF 0,01* 


*44rnt of buffer 


09FB 20 


DC 




• 

• 
T* 




BRA 


F[F3 










IF ONLV A CR IS INPUTTED A LF **ILX K ISSUED 


P9FA *6 


HE 




ITTC 


LDA 


A0JCH,U 




09FC Bl 


■0 








CMF*A **0 


Is It * CP 


09FE 27 


04 








MB. 


TRTTC1 




0*00 IT 


F£5S 






LB8R TRTTV 




0AB3 34 










RTS 






0A04 17 


^E^l 


TRT 


LttR TRTTY 




0A07 B& 


0A 








UQ0J 


0«A 


LF 


0A09 A7 


S£ 








STA 


P0JCH.U 




BABE 17 


FE4A 






LiSF 


1 TRTTV 




0A0E 39 






t 
• 
1 

m 




ATS 












ncmu 


FOR 


TRANSttI TT 




0A0F BD 






:nu2 


FC8 


«0D 




0A1B 54 52 


41 


4E 






FCC 


/TRANBMIT 


«TTY f CLEAft-ftONl T / 


0A14 33 4C 


4 EJ 


54 












BAtB 2B 52 


54 


34 












0AIC 59 2C 


43 


4C 












i»A2fl 45 4) 


52 


3D 












0*24 40 4F 


4E 


49 












BA2B 54 
















0A2? 0D 










pea 


401) 




BA2A 3C 










FCB 


»m: 




0A2B 3D 43 


57 


2B 






FCC 


/-Crt ID»/ 




0A2F 49 44 


2C 














0A32 2B 










FCB 


t2B 




BA33 3D 4C 


4F 


41 






FCC 


/-LOAD fi BUF/ 


0A37 44 20 


53 


20 












BA3D 42 55 


46 














CA3E BD 










FCB 


«0D 




BASF 3£ 










FCB 


*3E 




0A4B 3D 5B 


4D 


44 






FCC 


/-xniT B BUF,/ 


0A44 34 20 


33 


2B 












BA4H 42 55 


*fc 


:: 












0A4C 3D 










FCB 


•3D 




BA4D 3D 52 


39 








FCC 


/-R¥/ 




0A5B 00 










FCB 


•00 




0A51 20 04 






i 
Ml 




FCB 


120.4 




0A53 00BD 






HU6 


FOB 


000 




0A35 53 43 


4C 


20 






FCC 


/5EL PUFFER 0-1 -?/ 



0A59 42 55 4* 46 

0A5D 43 52 20 30 

BAAl 20 33 20 3F 

0A63 0D 0A 04 



17 
81 



0A6R 3d 
0A*B 17 
0A6E 
0A7» 
0A73 22 
0A73 81 
0A77 27 
•A74 84 
0A7B 3d 
IF 
3? 



26 



CI 
0A8A 27 
C4 
17 
II 3* 
0A93 A7 
•A95 17 
0A98 33 
0A4A A7 
0R4C Bl 
0A9E 27 



0AA1 27 
81 

27 



8* 
0AAB A7 
10 



20 



0AB4 C6 
BASS 2d 



0A8D 5C 



0AC2 A6 

0AC4 OF 
0AC5 F7 
0AC8 C6 
BACA 34 
0ACC EC 
0AD0 83 
0AO3 26 
0AD3 *4 
0AD7 59 
0AOB 39 
0AD9 F7 
•ADC *A 
BADE 2* 
0AE0 32 
0AE2 BD 
0AE4 CL 
BA£6 F7 
«"AE4 BD 
BAEB BD 
BAED 33 



BAEF EC 
0AF3 B3 
0AF* 2* 
0AFB 39 



BAF9 34 

C" "r" H OD 

BAFE 47 
BAFF 24 
0BB1 Bo 
B&B4 4 7 
*BP5 23 
0807 EC 
0B8B 44 



•0,0a, 4 



t STATION BUFFER LOAD 



BC EB 
FBF* 
FBPB 
32 

F3 



STAT0 



L.EAK 



HEWLKi.P'CR Mhu for ttfttlon buffer Loed 



37 

BD 01E1 
89 

84 00FF 

F9 

02 
2A 



■ NOW 



lb 
5E 

FF02 

■G 

09 



13 
E-i 
IB 
IF 
FE9F 

BD 01AC 
D4> 

7D 
04 

IE 



OUT 
1MEEE 
CMPA ••* 
PHI STAT8 
CtVA B"0 
BEQ STATB4 
ANDA ■»0F 
LEA* BUT^ACR 
TFR A t B 
BTATB3 LEAK 75S* I 
OECA 

BME STATB3 
LOAD THE 
03 

STfiTB* 
8TAT03 LDB e254 
STATB1 LBSR INEEE 
FSM^ *,*»* 
STA ASCH«U 
kBSR TRTTC 
F-ULS A,B T » 
STA 1* 
CHPA eedC 
BEO STATS2 

net 

8TAT8Z 



8TAT82 



output ihAu 

get h*ybo«rd Input 

i« it buf-fer 2 or highv 

la it buffer 



■*■* out 
buffer 



hign bit* 
ftbdree* 



find buffer eddreei 



ie it the enort buffer ~* 

iDid thit one 

buffer *.;« 

■5*t character to be input ted 



crveck f. 



CR 



LF 



Pt 



i 
t 



BED BTATB7 
t-BA STAT01 
LOA e*lB 
ST* -1 T I 
FIFO 
BUFFER 
LEA! KJFd,FOt iddri 
0SA ST4T03 
BUFFER 2 SffORT 
LOB e]25 enort 

STATB l 
LAST CHflft FROM 
LEA* -2,1 
INCB 
INCB 

STAT01 



OUTPUT AN ASCI) BVTE ON RTTY 



pwt it »n RArt 

ll it l CLEAR key 

if eo lereinete entry 

dier pien t tyte counter 

jf l*»t by*-» no 

i m it a bacisgace 

i' bd Hhipa out charjctir 



*r# l eet byte tereinetor 
r ftn t location counter 
beck to vm line 



4 SET l 

ST AT** 

• HAKE 
STAT8* 



of buffer 



B 
STATB7 



buffi 
FER 



17 



FF20 

06 

B* 

80 BITE 

0*01 

FB 
E4 



FF20 

61 

EC 

62 

BB 

#3 

FF2K1 

84 

02 
97 



8D BlSti 
FB 



* t W t «k f £.C 

LOA ASCH.U 

CLR8 

STB PlA 

LOB *8 

PBHB B*A 
A&CtOl LDD BAUDA.FCR 
ASCI02 SUBD *1 

BNE ASCI 02 

LBR 0,5 



ROL0 

STB PI A 

DEC 1,5 

BNE ABC 1 01 

LEAS 2,B 

BBP ASDEL 

LDB »2 

STB PI A 

BSR ASDEL 

BSR AS DEL 

PULS PC, x,B,A,CC 



gst characttr 
cleer bit counter 
*top bit on PI A 
8 bit ASCII 

bit delay 

dtcrftwnt it 

do it *g*in 

■■tift emcti byt* on tbe ■teck 

put »ht*t;#d bit in 

R5-232 Output bit location 

ah lp it to inter-Faca 

decrement bit counter 

it it the Iddt bit ^ 

if SO un IcrfW 

delay bit time 
atop bit 
■»inp it to pi a 
delay bit time 
twica for atop 



stack 



bit 



i ASCI I DELAY 

t 

AS DEL 

AEDELi 



13 
FF22! 

FA 

FF22 

FA 

80 0143 



L0D BAUDA.PCR 

SUBD «1 

BNE ASDEL1 

RTB 
* 

I INPUT AW ASCII BYTE 
• 

ASCII 
ABC! II 



bit delay 



PSMS K.B.CC 
LOA P1A2 
ASRA 

BCC A5CIT1 
ASCI 12 LOA F1A2 
MM 

PCS ASCI 12 
LDD BAUPA,PCR 
LBRA 



1 a on 



flet input frM RB-232 

Lonlr to ace if interface 

Jf io*« keep looking 

Loo k a lj a 1 n 

Shift received bit into cairry 

Bit tiP*# dalay 



cuting. This programming 
technique allows the pro- 
gram to be moved around in 
memory. 

Genera/ Housekeeping. 
When the program is first 
executed, the start routine 
sets up RAM delay con- 
stants, places a message on 
the screen, and asks for a 
CW ID to be transmitted. 
The CW ID can consist of up 
to 15 characters. As each 
character is entered into the 
keyboard, it is translated to 
CW and ptaced in a buffer at 



the end of the program 
called BUR Next, the 
primary menu is flashed on 
the screen of the CoCo. This 
menu allows for the selec- 
tion of receive, transmis- 
sion, or speed selections. 

All communications to 
and from the program are 
through INEEE, OUT, and 
OUTEEE routines. These rou- 
tines use the standard Radio 
Shack I/O vectors in the 
Basic ROM. It would be pos- 
sible to change these vec- 
tors to any 6809 system and 
the program will function, 



RT7V /?ece/ve RTTY can 
be received by the program 
as either 8-bit ASCII without 
parity or 5-bit Baudot- Either 
mode can be selected by the 
SPEED routine When the 
program is first initialized, a 
speed of 60-wpm Baudot is 
selected This is accom- 
plished by the 1N60 routine 
which adds the appropriate 
constants to BRATR1.2 and 
BRATD, 

To receive RTTY, the 
mainline routine RECV is se- 
lected. When selected, the 

73 



routine first checks to see if 
ASCII or Baudot is chosen 
This is accomplished by 
checking MASK. If this val- 
ue is zero, the mode is 
Baudot; if anything else, the 
mode is ASCII. 

The mainline Baudot re- 
ceive routine is RECTI, and 
ASCII is RECT4 These rou- 
tines continuously receive 
RTTY and display the results 
on the screen until a key is 
struck on the keyboard. The 
ASCII routine has a little ab- 
normality in that once it is 
selected, either a signal or 

Magazine • September, 1983 03 






•bdc 39 








NU 


oivid* bit t(H by 2 


08*1 81 


08 






ChFA 040D 


I* it a raturn 7 




fHD 83 


00*1 






SUBD 01 




0BB3 27 


37 






BED Q0L3 


If h tarainat* antry 




*B1# B3 


•001 


we 


SuBD 01 




0883 C4 


30 






AND0 0*30 


|« it a iniitin 7 




0813 2E 


FB 






BGT ASCI 13 




PPB^ CI 


3* 






CT*-B 0*30 






•Bi3 C4 


08 
06 






lDB 40 
P0HE B,fi 


Sat for B fait ASCII 

Put bit count iJtliY do ataC* 


f^Bfl 85 


IC 






bed am. 7 

ER DECODE 


II aa go to wnatiar 1 




•017 34 


LE1TI 




*8l* EC 


BD 0131 




CI 13 


U» BAtffiA,rCR 


3*t oalay t»oa iQii" 


•0*8 01 


2* 






C»4»A 4420 


la It a tp»ct" 




•BID 83 


0**1 


A9C 


BUBO 41 


Count It OO-ft 


0FBD 27 


24 






BED 00-4 


Entar a apaca 




0830 3* 


FB 






0HE ASCI lb 




0**F 01 


r^ 






CT0»* *a2F 


la it a alaaJh"* 




0*33 13 








0(0* 


Equ*lu* tl«H 


0BC1 37 


» 






0ED C04.3 






•TCI F& 


FF32 






LDB P1A2 


Sat input 4ftln 


0VC3 3t 


•D 002C 




LEAV TA0CH»PCR Daaa iddmi o# conation tania 




0B26 3* 








Lin* 


1* tha input off or on 


00C7 84 


IF 






a#0DA 04 IF 


ptaalt out tugh bit* 




0077 b6 


E4 






ROR 0,S 


*M«t tha Cftfry on to th* »t*cfc 


0BC9 4A 








DEC* 


Adjuat Idt look up taftl* 




•039 *A 


61 






DEC 1,8 


Dicrtwit th. bit counttr 


#BCA Aai 


0* 






LDA A»y 


Find CM ch#r«t^ 




0B2B 26 


EC 






BNE ASCU3 


1 * not D do It all m*r agal n 


0BCC A7 


80 




MM 


STA m, I* 


Saw it in bu««ar 




0*30 33 


06 






FULS B,A 


A** tor* th« it«» 


08CE 35 


04 






PULS B 






BB2F 35 


■re 






PULS PC.X t B,CC A rag hav rKtivtd byta 


08D0 30 








DEC* 


BicmrnT tha char acta*- count 








• 








0BD1 27 


19 






DEO CML3 


If lut tarainat* 








1 


ROUTINE TO EMIT 




0BD3 34 


04 






PStai * 










• 


CM ID 




0005 20 


03 






BRA C10L1 


Bat rwxt char ac tar 








i 














■ Mt09JO 






0B31 30 


BD PUB 


MAINC 


LEAK RJF.PCR 


Chi ID iHanu 


0BD7 04 


0F 




CML3 


ANDA 0*0F 


Naak out all but sign ifiti ant bit* 




0B33 A6 


Bei 


MAT NCI 


|_DA 0,K + 


Get a byta frofl th* bu+4>r 


0BD9 01 


09 






CfV^A 49 


1* it 9 or ASCII 39 




0B37 27 


IE 






BED MAIMQ2 


If uro lnui M CM ip*cw 


fl&SP 22 


08 






DHI CML4 


If graatar it la not • numbar 




BS39 B* 


FF 






CMPA 4iFF 


14 l»mt rtturn ta main 1 i n» 


BBDD 31 


BD 002C 




LEAT Tfl&HP, 


PCR Baaa adfSraaa of nuabar 




0038 1*37 


FAD4 






LBEG liONlT 




*BC1 A6 


*i 






LDA A t y 


Find CM charactar 




0B3F 6D 


03 






BSfl CW 


Sand trim CM charactar 


0EE3 2* 


E7 






8RA CML4 






tf 1*4 1 1 7 


FB3F 






L0SR CURS2 


Placa tha nn Curior an th* ur«n 








> SPACE 






004* 30 


EF 


• 




BAA NAI*Cl 




0B€3 4F 
0fE6 3* 


E4 




CML6 


CU»A 
BRA CML.4 


Piaca a spaca in th* bufr ar 








■ 


ntii 


CM 










« slas*- 










i 








08EB *A 


*3 




CaUS 


t_DA 1*<T3 


Plac* a alawh in th* buffar 




0S4« IF 


89 


CM 


i 


TF0 A,e 


Saw* * coov of char in B 


08EA 2* 


E# 






BRA Cat. 4 






0040 C4 


07 






ANDB 4*07 


Sat to * o* bit to -ait 








* EJ03 


DF EMTRtS 






0B4A 46 




CHI 


A5LA 


Shift *alt bit to carry 


08EC B6 


fr 




p*_a 


LDA 00FF 


Laat antry iota tab la 




004 25 


2A 






DCS DASH 


If on its ■ dash 


08EE 07 


a* 






STA a. I 






0B4O BD 


St 






DB* DOT 




0E^0 16 


FA3* 




LBRA f*3«lT 






•B4F 3A 


•2 


CW2 


DECS 
DEO EMDl 


Qacr ipint Dlt» to *a*t 
If I00t and 








• CM CHRAACTE* LOOk 

t chaa.ttri! 0*CO 


UP TABLE 




0F30 27 


EF8H1 Jia-rtHOPOWSTuvMiirl 




0052 2* 


F6 






BAA CM1 


" a#g pattttng 


0BFT 42 


04 04 


03 


TA*CH 


FC* *47.0»4. 


**4 * 083, *** , *24 f *C3 * 404 




•054 an 


•a 


END 


PSB DELA1 




00F7 01 


24 C3 


04 










0P36 39 




• 




RTS 




08F0 02 


74 AJ 


24 




FCB 0*3,474, 


•A3 ♦ »24 t *C3 t *83« 4E3 » 4*4 














0*FF C2 


ar ei 


64 










0B57 BD 


17 


«AI 


*5* SPACE I 


ia)it a apac* 


0C0- 04 


*3 03 


01 




FC* aD4,*43 ( 


403 , 4B1 , *23 , »14 . *63, 094, 404 , 4C4 




003? 20 


DA 


■ 

• 


DASH 


BRA HAlNCl 
DELAY 




0C07 23 
0C0B 04 


14 43 

C4 


94 


ML00J 


CM TABLE 






0B5B at 


03 


DELA1 


LDA 43 


Daah 3X that of a dot 








■ charactarai 0123436789 




0B3D BD 


•7 


CDO- I 


BSR CDL1 


Dot dalav 


0CBD FD 


70 3D 


10 


TABNU0 


i FCB 4FD.47D, 


•3D , « 1 t 480 , **3 f 483 , *C3 




093F 4A 








DECA 




0CJ1 BD 


83 03 


C9 










0B60 26 


FB 






BNE CDEL1 




0C15 E5 


F3 






FCB *E3,4F3 






BB62 3? 




• 


DDT 


RTB 
DELAy 




0C17 00 






« 
HEMJ3 


FCB *0A0D 






0843 BD 


0] 


DEL 


BSR COL I 




BClB 43 


37 20 


49 




FCC /CM 10 LOAD, TYPE CALL/ 




0063 3? 








RTS 




0C1C 44 


20 4C 


4F 














t 


DELAY LDOP FOP CM 




0C20 41 


44 2C 


2* 










0066 10AE 


BD FAD3 


CDL1 


LOY CNDEL,PCA 


CM da lay con at ant 


•C24 34 


39 30 


45 










0060 31 


3F 


CDL2 


LEA* -t,¥ 




0C28 28 


43 4| 


4C 










0*60 36 


FC 






0HE CDL3 




0C3C 4C 














*0*F 19 




* 


0TB 
SPACE DELAY 




BC2D 0D 
0C2E 31 


33 3* 


43 




FCB 00A0O 
FCC /15 CH0J 








1 HAT. ENTER TQ END/ 




0070 BD 


E9 


BM 


050 DELAI 


D*t*r T tiaar* aa lonq aa *ot 


0C33 4B 


41 33 


20 










0*73 BO 


87 






0*0 DELA1 




0C36 40 


41 3* 


2C 










0074 BD 


80 






**R PELA7 




0C3A 09 


4E 34 


43 










0*76 39 




« 




0TB 
I TfMMCniSSIOH 


■ 


0C3E 32 
0C42 20 


20 54 
43 4E 


4F 
44 










0*77 34 


?i 


Da fix 


PSHB A,D 




0C46 00 


04 






FCB 400,4 






0079 B6 


FF20 






L DA *0 

BTA PIA 


Turn 00-232 on 








tfllltlltlllllllJIii 




0*7B B7 


IF THIS P0QPJM* 


1 18 TO BE PLACED OH EPROH 




007E BD 


DB 






bSR DELAl 


0*1 ay 4a*h tlaa> 

■a 1 am M| b»^ j- ■■ 








t AH 00* SKXJLD BE ASSEMBLED iPfTO THE PWOOfwVl 




•000 86 


02 






LDA 02 


Turn 00-233 off 








TQ PLACE T*C*E . 


COMSTANTS '■■ mfaiaai ihud nam 




00*3 07 


FF3* 






3T A PIA 










10*01000 100 1 01 000 001 li tit B0«0t*0 1100 t0ttf 0*40010**4 




0B83 BD 


DC 






080 DELA2 













ORG III! FOR ERROR OPERATION 




0007 33 


06 






PULB A.B 










* 








0B84 20 


C4 


• 


DOT 


BRA CW3 
TRANSMISSION 










t RAH 

t 


CONSTANTS 






00BB 34 


96 


001 


P5HE A,B 




1?C4e 0000 




PRATRI 


1 FOB 


Baud rata con at ant a 




0BBD 8b 


00 






LDA 00 


Turn on 


0C4A 0«0P 




BRATR2 FOB 8 






0BBF B7 


FF20 






&TA PJA 




0C4C 0000 




BRATD 


FOB 






•B92 BD 


CF 






BSR DELA2 




0C4E 0000 




BAD DA 


FDD 8 






0094 66 


02 






LDA 42 


Turn off 








1 








0B96 B7 


FF20 






STA PIA 










CH CHARACTER BUFFER 




•B49 BD 


l8 






B5» DELA2 










■ 








0090 33 


86 






PULB A.B .PC 




0C50 






BUF 


MB 14 


CM naif buffar 








1 














STATION DUFFED* 










■ 


LOAD CM BUFFER MI TH 


0C60 ID 






aurm 


Ft* 418 


End Of Ouf far 








■ 


STAT I On ID 




0C61 








RH0 234 


Buffar ana 








■ 








0D3F 10 






BUF l 


FC* 410 






0*90 3* 


80 0*76 


CHL 


LEA* nENU3,0CH tnu 


0060 








fWD 334 






•0*1 17 


FAC* 






LBS0 OUT 


S*nd tt Out 


0E3E 10 






DUF3 


FC* 010 






wm* 30 


BD 0040 






LEA I BLF,PCA 


Gat but tar baaa addraaa 


0E3F 








flPB 129 






0*M C4 


0F 






CD* 013 


H*m huHtr ait* 

















•MA 24 


•4 






PS**3 D 












END START 






0**C IT 


PA9Q 




mli 


10WI I*EEE 


Gat keyboard input 
















0DAF IF 


8"* 






TFR 0.0 


Sav* a copy in B 


ERHOAISJ DETECTED 











more input data will allow 
deselection of the routine 
while pressing a key. 

The receive routines func- 
tion by sampling the RS-232 
input and looking to see if 
the port is high or low. If 
software delay is executed, 
you can sample, delay, then 
sample again for all data 
bits If the bit is off, it is a da- 
ta bit; if on, it is not a data 
bit. As each bit is received, a 
data byte is formed in which 
the results are stored. When 
complete, this data byte can 
be displayed on the screen 

04 73 Magazine • September, 



or converted to ASCII from 
Baudot and then displayed. 
The Baudot-to-ASCII con- 
version routine is located at 
FINDA. The routine expects 
the Baudot code to be 
stored in CODE. The routine 
takes the Baudot byte, 
masks out the highhorder 
bits, and adds the results to 
an address located in the X 
register The address in the X 
register is the base address 
of UD1, which is the look-up 
table. This table is organized 
to allow the byte to control 
program flow based upon 

1983 



the Baudot code received. 

After completion, this rou- 
tine places the resultant 
ASCII code in a variable 
called BAUD. To add a few 
complications to this pro 
cess, some tests must be 
made to determine if the 
Baudot is uppercase or 
lowercase. This is accom- 
plished by checking the UD 
value in RAM. This value 
determines whether the 
Baudot character is a figure 
or a letter. 

Transmit RTTY. If you 
understood receive RTTY, 



then transmit should be 
easy. This technique is the 

opposite of receive. The 
mainline routine for trans- 
mission is FIFO. This routine 
normally stays in a polling 
state looking for a keyboard 
input If the input is a 
special character, any one 
of five different functions 
can be selected If the key- 
board entry is a standard 
character, then it will be 
transmitted The five possi- 
ble functions are: 
• Clear key — Return to 
mainline routine. 






Qty. Item 

1 LM317MP regulator 

2 LM1458 op amp 
2 LM348 op amp 

1 401 1 B CMOS 

1 XR2206 function generator 

1 XR221 1 AFSK demodulator 

2 2N3904 transistor (see options) 
1 2N3906 transistor (see options) 

3 LED light-emitting diode 
7 1N4148 signal diode 

4 1N4001 rectifier 

6 120-Ohm resistor 

1 220 

3 330 
1 620 

4 1k 

1 2.2k 

1 £7k 

1 5.1k 







Parts Lis! 




2 


62k 




1 


10 


10k 




15 


1 


15k 




1 


1 


18k 




2 


1 


22k 




1 


2 


39k 




12 


1 


47k 




1 


5 


51k 




1 


1 


62k 






7 


100k 




1 


1 


180k 






7 


220k 




1 


2 


470k 




1 


1 


1 meg 






6 


100-Ohm trimpot 


4 


3 


5k trimpot 




1 


10k trimpot 


1 


1 


-001 -uF 


ceramic 


1 


1 


.005-uF 


ceramic 




1 


.01 -uF ceramic 


2 



.047oi F ceramic 
.1-uF ceramic 
1-uF 15-V electrolytic 
10-uF 15-V electrolytic 
470-uF 25- V electrolytic 
,01-uF mylar™ 
♦G22hjF mylar 
.047-uF mylar 

0-50-uA meter (see options) 

SPOT switch (power) 

SPST switch, center-off (data) 

RCA style jack (input, output, optional scope) 

12*V 250-mA wall transformer (Jameco AC250) 

Box, Radio Shack 270-218 

cable strain relief for RS-232 and power wires 




Front view of interface. 





Inside view of interface. Assembly was done using smalt- 
style capacitors and the resistors are mounted vertically. Wir- 
ing is point-io-point. Perfhoard material is similar to Vector 
CIRCBORD 8(X)2. 



Rear view of interface, lacks for optional scope monitor are 
not installed. 




i 



> 



» • 



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73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 65 



• Less-than key — Xmit a 
CW ID. 

• Plus key — Load station 
buffers. 

• Greater-than key — Xmit 
station buffers, 

• Equal key — Xmit 15 RYs. 
Let's continue on the 

RTTY transmit before dis- 
cussing the other functions. 
When a character is to be 
transmitted, the FXMT rou- 
tine is called. This routine 
places the ASCII character 
from the keyboard entry in- 
to ASCH and then calls the 
TRTTY routine. This routine 
first determines if the 
character is to be transmit- 
ted as ASCII or Baudot. If it 
is Baudot, the FINDB routine 
is next called. This routine 
functions in a similar man- 
ner as FINDA. Once the 
Baudot character is found, a 
test determines if an upper- 
or lowercase shift should be 
made, This is accomplished 
by the UD routine, A 
comparison is made with 
the last shift sent and, if 
necessary, another shift is 
made to the opposite sense. 
Upon completion of this 
test the Baudot bits are 
shifted into the carry and 
transmitted as RTTY. Be- 
tween each shift, a delay is 
made to adjust to the cor- 
rect speed. 

If ASCII characters are to 
be sent, the ASCIO routine is 
called and the ASCII key- 
board entry is transmitted 
directly as RTTY. 

Returning to the five op- 
tion selections, they can be 
summarized as follows. The 
CW ID is transmitted by the 
CW routine. This routine 
functions similarly to trans- 
mit RTTY, The CW byte is 
loaded into the A accumula- 
tor and the data bit is shifted 
into the carry and sensed as 
a transmit mark or space. 
The lower three bits in the 
CW transmit byte indicate 
the number of CW bits to be 
transmitted. Various delays 
are made in the software to 
proportion the relationship 
between the dot and dash. 

The plus command loads 
three station buffers with 
characters, These buffers 



can be preloaded with mes- 
sages and saved on tape 
with the program. Two of 
the station buffers have 254 
bytes; the third has 125 
bytes. This restriction was 
due primarily to the RAM 
limitations of a 4K comput- 
er. The buffer sizes and 
numbers can be changed to 
suit individual taste. You are 
limited only by the size of 
RAM in your computer. One 
feature of the load com- 
mand is that RTTY is trans- 
mitted as the buffer is 
loaded. 

The greater-than key is 
used to transmit station 
buffers which have been 
loaded previously. 

The equal-to command is 
used to transmit a series of 
RYs to test out the equip- 
ment at both ends of the 
path. 

Program Assembly 
and Saving 

As discussed earlier, the 
program can be loaded di- 
rectly into memory and 
saved as a binary file on 
tape by a machine-language 
monitor or from Extended 
Tandy Basic. The best way is 
to key the source into the 
computer using a text 
editor, then use an assem- 
bler to generate object 
code. This technique will 
allow for ease of modifica- 
tion at some later date, A 
good idea might be to load 
up the station buffers with 
text which you normally 
send on RTTY and save the 
complete text and program 
on tape. 

If you wish to load this 
program on Tandy disk, it 
must be placed above ad- 
dress $OF0O and then saved 
on disk. The program can 
also be placed on EPROM. 
This will require a change to 
the program. The text buf- 
fers and the program RAM 
constants must be changed 
to a location in RAM and the 
program assembled at the 
ROM address. This is 
another advantage of using 
an assembler to create the 
object code. The program 
uses 1609 bytes of code, 



which means that it can fit 
on one 2716 EPROM. The 
program can then be placed 
in a ROM cartridge if assem- 
bled at location $C000. The 
RAM buffers could be 
placed at $0600 and loaded 
or saved from tape. 

RTTY Interface 

Almost any RTTY TU 
interface will function with 
this program. Numerous ar- 
ticles have been published 
in many magazines on this 
subject. The only require- 
ment is that the input and 
output from the computer 
be through the RS-232 inter- 
face on the rear of the com- 
puter. All that is required is a 
4-pin DIN connector, a ca- 
ble, and a TU, The CoCo is 
quite tolerant; it will accept 
standard TTL voltage levels 
or RS-232 levels. A number 
of commercial firms pro- 
duce interfaces which are 
advertised in this magazine. 
For some of you devoted 
home-brewers, see Fig. 1, a 
schematic of a simple RTTY 
interface which was provid- 
ed to me by Dynamic 
Specialities. 

RTTY Interface Circuit 

The interface is quite 
straightforward and uses 
easy-to-obtain components. 
The interface can be con- 
structed on perfboard or a 
pluggable prototype card 
and placed into a cabinet. 
On RTTY receive, the circuit 
uses two bandpass filters of 
2125 and 2295 Hz respec- 
tively to filter the RTTY 
tones. The filtered tones are 
connected to a simple AF5K 
detector which consists of 
an XR2211 and some drivers 
which are connected to the 
RS-232 input of the CoCo. 

A switch is provided on 
the buffer circuitry after the 
XR2211 demodulator. This 
switch is optional. Once the 
correct polarity of the signal 
is determined, the circuit 
can be hard-wired, thus 
eliminating the polarity 
switch. 

The tuning meter on the 
output of the filters is re- 
quired due to the sharp re- 



sponse of the filters used. 
When adjusted correctly, a 
mark tone will swing to 20 
microamps and a space to 
40 microamps. During nor- 
mal RTTY reception, the me- 
ter will read 40 microamps. 
To transmit RTTY, the in- 
terface uses an AF5K modu- 
lator. This modulator con- 
sists of a single XR2206 IC 
This IC takes an output from 
the RS-232 interface on the 
CoCo and converts the volt- 
age to an audio tone. This 
tone is either 21 25 Hz (mark) 
or 2295 Hz (space]. To adjust 
the AFSK generator, ground 
pin 9 of the XR2206 and, by 
use of a counter, adjust the 
output to 2125 Hz. Next, 
place 10 volts on pin 9 and 
adjust for 2295 Hz. 

Next, connect the modu- 
lator output to the TU input 
and adjust the mark and 
space filters. 

To connect the TU to a 
ham transceiver is a simple 
process. Connect the trans- 
ceiver's headphone output 
to the TU's input. Connect 
the AFSK output to the mi- 
crophone of the transceiver. 
Switch the transceiver to 
lower sideband. Presto, you 
are now on RTTY. 

Conclusion 

The RTTY program de- 
scribed in this article was a 
lot of fun to develop. Its per- 
formance leaves a lot to be 
desired in features and usa- 
bility. A very desirable func- 
tion is split-screening of the 
buffers and receive data. 
This feature is very tricky to 
program and requires the 
use of interrupts. If you are 
interested in more advanced 
RTTY, SSTV, WE FAX, or CW 
amateur radio software, 
drop me a line for informa- 
tion on its availability, 

I would like to thank Dy- 
namic Specialties for pro- 
viding the TU circuit. An ad- 
vanced version of the TU is 
available in PC board form 
and includes a state-of-the- 
art automatic digital filter 
Contact Dynamic Special- 
ties, PO Box 20903, San jose 
CA 95160, for more infor- 
mation. ■ 



66 73 Magazine * September, 1983 




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Each month t 73 brings you 
amateur radio news from 
around the world, in this collec- 
tion of reports from our foreign 
correspondents , we present the 
latest news in DX, contests, and 
events, as welt as keep you 
abreast of the technical 
achievements of hams in other 
countries. 

tfyou would like to contribute 
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Technical Journal, Pine Street, 
Peterborough NH 03458, USA, 
Attn: Avery L Jenkins W&3JLG. 




BANGLADESH 

M Sattud Datiar Snanid 
President BARL 
GPO Box 3512 
Dacca, Bangladesh 

BARL ADMITTED TCMARU 

The Bang lades n Amateur Radio League 
tSARLi applied for membership in the In- 
ternational Amateur Radio Union some 
time back. In a special issue of IARU 
Calendar ino. 100, December 8, 1961), the 
headquarters made a proposal concern 
mg the admission of BARL Calendar no 
111 (March 24, 1982) published the results 
of the election of BAR l 

II Is very encouraging to note (hat all of 
the 4§ votes received by the IARU head- 
quarters were in favor of BARL admission. 
Bangladesh is the ilSlh member society 
of this International body. 

BARL JOINS IARU 
REGION 3 ASSOCIATION 

After joining the IARU. G ARL applied for 
membership in the IARU Region 3 Asso- 
ciation In the Fifth Conference of the 
Region 3 Association, held in Manila. Pmi 
tppmcs. this application was considered, 
BARL has now been officially informed by 
the Region 3 Association thai it has been 
accepted as the I8ih member of the 
Assoc i a ton 

IARU VP VISITS DHAKA 

Cart U Smith W&BWJ and his XYU 
Terry, visited Dhaka recently, In his report. 
the IARU vice president mentioned thai "a 
continued organizational development of 
the BARL was noted in Bangladesh.'' 

This is the second lime an IARU officer 
visited Bangladesh. In 1961, 8ARL had a 
visil from Davtd Rankin, then- secretary 
and present chairman of the Region 3 As- 
sociation Ounng his v*sU. David met with 
the high official* of Ihe TAT Board and the 
Wireless board, the Minister for PT&T the 
State Minister tor Science and Technolo- 
gy, and the Prime Minister A TV interview 
of Davtd was also recorded for broadcast 
on April 26. 1981. 

These visits certainly contributed to the 

promotion of amateur radio activities in 
Bangladesh. 



BARL PRESIDENT VISITS 
USA AND SRI LANKA 

BARL President Sail Shahid. during his 
visit to Ihe USA in April, 1962, made con- 
tacts a I the IARU headquarters al the 
ARRL. He spoke with Victor C. Ciark 
W4KFC and David Sumner K1Z2 about the 
development of amateur radio In 
Bangladesh. 

On a separate visit. Saif Shahid and 
Tanq Hasan, another member of BARL, 
visited Sri Lanka to attend a two- week- 
long seminar on microcomputers. During 
their stay (hey were invited by John A ma 
ratunga 4S7JA (A SSL president) to a din- 
ner followed by a visit to 4S7EA s snack 
for a demonstration ol a RTTY OSO on a 
VOU. BARL looks forward loa long-tasting 
friendship with RSSt_ 

BARL APPLIES FOR 
CLUB STATION LICENSE 

BARL has applied to the Wireless and 
Frequency Allocation Board for issuance 
Of an ad hoc amateur radio license for a 
BARL headquarters club station. It \n un- 
derstood that the appllcailon is under ac 
Live consideration by various government 
agencies, BARL expects to hove Ihe club 
license in time to enable II to participate 
in various activities during World Commu- 
nications YeaT 

In rhe second Bangladesh Electronics 
Symposium, a paper tilled "Role of Ama 
leur Radio >n Bangladesh was presented 
jointly by Saif Sharud and Niiam Chowd 
hury. The technical session was chaired 
by Air Vice Marshal Sultan Mahmood, 
Chief of Air Force Staff The paper high- 
lighted the various a sped sot amateur ac- 
tivities and the prospects of such ac- 
tivities In the technical advancement of a 
developing country like Bangladesh 




CANADA 

Gary Honeywell VE3ABS 
PO Bo* 261 Q. Station D 
Ottawa. Ontario K1P5W7 

By Ihe time most of you read this, the 
summer will be gone in some places in 
Canada Ihe summer is measured m days 
raiher than months. This does not stop 
clubs and organizations from holding 
their annual flea markets and hamiesis 
Most of ours cannot match the Dayton or 
Rochester ham tests, but for Canada, they 
come close, 

In the eastern part of the country, the 
big ones are held near the Toronto, On- 
tario, area: The Whitby area holds one in 
late April or early May, while Guelph holds 
theirs in the first week of June, July sees 
the Southern Ontario Hamfest. held al 
Milton, (ust west of Toronto. One of the 
biggest hamfests in Canada is the RSG 
convention, hetd each fall. This year. To- 
roolo hosts this event 

In the contest area, the CARF-spon- 
Sbred Canada Day Contest was held on 
July 1. this being Canada's birthday 
Although not as well advert >sed this year, 
the event made most bands very aciive 
with Canadian stations 

In my August column. I was discussing 
TRC24, the syllabus for amateur examina- 



tions, and how the efforts of the amaleur 
community were wasted. Well, it seems 
the DOC heard our cries of anguish Short- 
ly after a meeting between CARF officials 
and the Director Genera! of Telecommuni- 
cattons (or the DOC, both CARF and the 
Canadian Division of the ARRL were asked 
to submit proposals to amend the issue 
CARF President Don Slater VE3BID and 
ARRL Canadian Director Tom Atkins 
VE3CDM agreed on a method of obtaining 
a consensus before the June 10th dead- 
line which the DOC had specified The co- 
operation between the two groups was 
well under way when the Canadian vice di- 
rector Harry Maclean VE3GRQ 1 inter- 
vened and asked for the DOC to extend 
the deadline. So much for cooperation. 
The mailer issiiii upm theair, and I will let 
you know how things develop, 

On other matters, me Canadian Ama- 
teur Radio Federation held its Annual 
General Meeting during May At the meet 
ing. two new directors were introduced: 
Robert Sondack VE2ASL of Si Luc. Que 
bee. welt known in AMSAT ctrcies in that 
province and at so a director of the Quebec 
provincial amateur association, RAOI, 
and Leigh Hawkes VE1ZN of Danmoulh, 
Nova Scotia. Leigh is also well known in 
Canada as one of the most prominent 
workers on cable television interference. 
These gentlemen join Craig Howey 
VE3HWN of Waterloo, Ontario; Geoff 
Smith VE3KCE of Aurora, Ontario: Norm 
Waltho VE5AE ol Moose Jaw. SasKatche- 
wan; and Peter Driessen VE7AB of Surrey 
BC In the job of directing Canadian 
amateur affairs for the federation Two 
departing directors. Nate Penny V01 NP of 
Shoal Harbour, Newfoundland, and Ray- 
mond Mflrcure VE2BIE of Hull, Quebec, 
were congratulated on a job well done and 
wished good kick. Alt other positions in 
t^e federation remain me same. 

I would like to hand out a couple of lau- 
rels this month First to Bui Deacon 
VE3BDO Bill has been writing a superb 
senes of articles called "Life on ihe 
Ocean Wave for TCA over Ihe past few 
months. A steady stream of letters has 
been coming in to the editor of TCA (me) in 
support of this assessment. The Society 
of Wireless Pioneers is preparing to 
reprint ihe sencs soon, and I hope more of 
you will get the chance to read these 
memoirs of a radio operator In the pre- 
WWII era of radio. 



My second laurel goes down east 
Across Canada, we have many QSL bu- 
teaus, both outgoing and incoming, The 
best known outgoing bureau is the CARF 
Nanonai QSL bureau at Box 35, Islington, 
Ontario. The best known incoming bureau 
is m Halifax. Nova Scotia, and is run by 
Britt Fader VEfFQ For many years the 
Canadian Division ARRL s centra! bureau 
was run by Bntt and even though his is on- 
ly a provincial operation now. he still 
receives and forwards many QSL cards, A 
tip of the hat to Britt Fader VE1FQ 

By the way, If you are wondering why 
the CARF QSL bureau Is not In the Call 
book, ihe answer is simple. It is not ihe 
ARRL bureau. 




BRAZIL 

Gerson Risstn PYlAPS 
PO Bon 12178, Copacabana 
20O00 Rid de Janetm. Rj 
Brazil 

BRAZIL WtNS ITU TROPHY 

The ITU Con to Si is Sponsored every sec 
ond and third weekend of May to com 
memorate the World Telecommunications 
Day {May 1 7| h). The ITU Trophy goes to I he 
country wilh the highest aggregate score. 
• Brazil's total was 442, 825, ) This is deter- 
mined by the top five single-operator 
scores plus the top mulli-operalor scores, 
both on phone and CW The trophy 
mams m the possession of the represen 
tative national association of that country 
for one year It *s retired by the country 
winning three consecutive times or five 
intercalated times. (See bo* for scores) 

01 her trophies won were as follows 
Single operator; Gold— RX7CF tor CW 
and UP2NK lor phone: Silver— PYlDOQ 
for CW and OE3ITU (.OE2VEL) lor phone. 
Bronze— EAZi A for CW and HA5WET lor 
phone; and Sliver Plates for multi-opera- 
tors LZ1KDP for CW (257,096 points) and 
UK0QAA for Phone (364.984 points). 

WORKED ALL PF AWARD 
Sponsored by LABRBGoias, Ihe WAPP 







1932 ITU CONTEST RESULTS 






Single Operator 






Muhi Operator 






(All Bands) 






(All Bands) 




CW 




Points 


CW 




Points 


RX7CF 




23M19 


LZ1KDP 




257.096 


PYIDQQ 




190 104 


UK2PRC 




185.702 


EA2IA 




168,760 


UK2PCR 




142.120 


UP28AO 




97.779 


UK2BBB 




126.936 


UAfiLLT 




94,146 


RK7PAL 




69.444 


EX5UKW 




88,910 


UK2BCR 




61.846 


ON6TW 




81,039 


UK4WAB 




43,600 


I02DMK 




76,938 


HA3KSF 




31.671 


F6DKV 




57,150 


UK5AAA 




31,125 


PR7CM 




37,520 


HAQKAX 




23,232 


Phone 




Points 


Phone 




Points 


UP2NK 




268.919 


UKftOAA 




364,964 


OE3ITU 




224,964 


UK2PRC 




209,150 


HAS WE/7 




126.W4 


LZ1KDP 




200.6S8 


PP22DD 




121.088 


UK2BBK 




120.460 


DL7RT 




96,320 


LXflRL 




71.307 


V35TE 




36,156 


UK5IAZ 




47.926 


ZY1NE7 




31,185 


Y03KWJ 




2.568 


YBfiVB 




*o,892 


JA1ZGP 




552 


DA2QS 




23.652 


VK2ATZ 




497 


LZ2AF 




23,163 












SWL 








CW 




Phono 








OK2-9329-Dus< 


»n Hanafc 


AP-0101- 


-Farrukh Zia 











70 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



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city of Qoiania. in Goias State 

At I contaci a must be made during 1983. 
on any band and any mode. Send GCR log 
of stations worked (caJJ, date, time, band, 
mode, and report) and 10 IRCs for mailing 
expenses, to LABRBGoias— Coordena- 
dor De Diplomas, PO 8ox 676, 74000 
Goianie, GO. Brazil. 

There are no special endorsements for 
the WAPP Award. 

SWL Same rules. 

CWRL AWARD 

Sponsored by the Lakes Region of the 
Rio de Janeiro Radio Club, the CWRL 
Award is available to all licensed amateur 
(Of confirmed contacts wuh la) PVt sta- 
tions whose first suffix letters lorm the 
phrase: Ar&ruama— onde soloassa m- 
vemo (meaning; "Araruama— where the 
sun spends the winter), and (b) three 
CWRL members (any prefix or suffix) 

Contacts mast have been made after 
January 1. 1983, on any amateur band. 
Only two-way CW mode- 
Send GCR log of stations worked (call. 
date, time, band. mode, and re pony and 10 
tRCs (or mailing expenses, to CWRL 
Bureau. PO Box 91, 28370 Araruama. RJ. 
Brazil. 

There are no special endorsements tor 
the CWRL Award. 
SWL: Same rules, 

CWRL members are PV1AEE T PY1AFA, 
PY1ASI, PY1AZG, PY1BPI, PY1BUG, 
PY1BVY, PY1CC, PY1COA, PYtDEA, 
PY1DFF T PY1DGB, PY1DJY. PY1DMG T 
PY1DMX, PYIDPQ. PY1DQV, PY1DWM, 
PY1EBH, PYtEBK. PY1ECL, PY1EWN, 
FYtGO, PYlTCJ. PY1TZ. PY1VMW, 
PY1VEH. PY1VTN. 




The transmitting frequencies are: 
CW-2fl r 025; 21.025; 1 4,025; 7.025; 3,525; 
and 1.825 kHz; phone— 2S.595; 21.295; 
14 195; 7.085; 3,795: and t,825 kHz, Also, 
there will be extensive experimentation 
via satellite on 1 46460 MHz. The OSL 
manager will he internationally famous 
Beto Rojas HK3DDD. 

Though an inscription limit was locally 
set till the end of May, 1983, written appli- 
cations from foreigners (an a restricted ba- 
sis) are welcomed by the League via PO Box 
584, Bogota. Colombia, South America, 




COLOMBIA 

Abelardo (Lato) Santos V. HK3EOJ 

PO Box 68937 

Bogota 

Colombia 

MALPELO(HKtTU) DXPEDITION 

In the second week of Octobe* 1963. for 
five days, there will be a DXpedition to 
Colombia's Maipeio island, located at 3 * 
59 07" lalilude north. 81* 34* 2T longi- 
tude west, in the Colombian Pacific 
Ocean territorial waters. The DXpedition 
is jointly sponsored by the Colombian 
Radio Amateur League (Liga Colombiana 
de R ad ioa lie ion ados) in cooperation with 
the Colombian navy, which will supply the 
transportation and the required logistics 
support. 

The main goal of this extremely inte 
eattng DXpedition (MaipeSo Island being 
the fourth most ♦important valid country 
for the DXCC award! *s to publicize Colom- 
bian radio amateur operations. This year 
the Liga Colombiana de Radioahaona- 
dos is celebrating Its 50th anniversary 

Because of the roughness of the ter- 
rain ^ I he DXpedition organizers required 
all participants to have perfect health. 
good physical fitness, and. if possible, 
previous experience in this kind of DXpe- 
ditton. They also have to be younger than 
46. However, as is well known, so me of the 
"oldies"' am tougher and better perform- 
ers in the held. A main team of 15 Co- 
lombian operators is being carefully se- 
lected by the League 

72 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



FRANCE 

Claude Gvee F1DGY 
1 1 Rue Bmtte Labtcfte 
281 QQ Qf&ux. France 

TERRESAUSTRALES 
FRANCAISES AWARD 

For three contacts with these different 
lands, or four contacts to receive the 
golden star 'EXCELLENCE ' award: 
FBBFX iKergueten Island), FBEZ (St Paul. 
Nouvelte Amsterdam island}* FB6VV 
(Crozet Island), and FBflV <Terre Adehe 

Only contacts after April t. 1946, are 
vattd The fee is 10 iRCs 

DEPARTMENT ET TERRITOtRES 
D OUTREMER AWARD 

For contacts with Ihese nine different 
prefixes: FM7 (Martinique^ FG7 (Guade- 
loupe—St. Martin, SI. Barihelemy), FY 
[Guyana), FR (Reunion— Glorieuse, 
Europa, Tromelin, Juan de Nova). FP (St. 
Pierre et Miquelonj, FK (Nouvelte 
Caledonie— Pins, Chesterfield, Huon, 
LoyauteS). FN (Co mores), FW (Walhs- 
Futuna) and FO (French Polynesia}. 

Onh/ contacts after January 1 , 1982. are 
valid, The fee is 10 tftCs For these two 
awards, the manager is Aiam Duchauchoy 
F6BFH. 21 Rue de la Republique, 76420 
Bihorel. France. The usual conditions ap- 
ply to these awards (certified log extract, 
no OSL requirement), 

OTHER NEWS 

At this moment, there are about 12,000 
French radio amateurs. Despite the fact 
that France was once very advanced In 
this hobby, this one is not as popular as <t 
should be! Especially if we compare our* 
selves wffh other countries 

Besides the conventional traffic on the 
HF bands, the upper bands are more and 
more used as follows: 



• 2 meters with repeaters mainly, but also 
SSB, satellites. HTTY, SSTV and CW 

• 70 cm with repeaters also (many prom- 
ising projectsi. fast scan TV, SSB 

• 23 cm — the new frontier— some 
repeaters are scheduled. Currently, most 
activity is on FM, SSB, and fast-scan TV. 
Aerials are generally F9FT 23-element 
beams. 

• 10 GHz— This band had its heyday 
some years ago with Gunn diodes. 
Nevertheless, fans are numerous and 
there are regular skeds on FM. SSB (fasl 
scan TV also). 

• Otherwise, microcomputing is now a 
very active branch lor hams. Many radio 
clubs are the first school tor newcomers 

• Two associations help the French ham. 
They publish (wo magazines: fteseau des 
Emetteurs Francais (REF) publishes 
ft ad to REF t and the Union des Radio 
Clubs (URGI publishes Qnties Comes in- 
fQffTiB lions. 




CYPRUS 

At is Kaponfdes 584JE 
POSox 7723 
Limassoi. Cyprus 

AN OVERVIEW: 
AMATEUR RADIO IN CYPRUS 

At the present there are about 280 
amateur radio licenses with the 5B4 prefix 
and a dozen or so wllh the ZC4 one. The 
584 | icenses are issued by the Republic of 
Cyprus and the ZC4 by the British bases' 
authorities in Cyprus. 

Although someone would expect that 
this number of amateurs is high com- 
pared with the 630.000 population of the 
island, not many amateurs are acme on 
the HF bands All amateur radio activity 
comes ffom the southern part of the 
island, which is under the control of the 
government of the Republic of Cyprus, 
and the great majority of amateurs are 
Greek Cypriote On the northern part of 
the Island, which is undar Turkish occupa- 
tion, there is no amateur activity at the 
moment. Occasionally there Is some ac- 
tivity there by United Nations personnel 
operating with a 584 license 

There ts only one type o* license which 
permits use of all bands and modes Li- 
censing conditions and restrictions are 
very similar to the Old British regula- 
tions — Cyprus being an ex-British colony 



4 i- 



_j,gfi 







Arts. 5B4JE, 



On the HF bands, only about a dozen sta- 
tions are active at the moment, mostly on 
20m p 15m. and 10m The res! of Jhe sta- 
tions are either not active at all— some do 
not even own equipment— or operate on 
2m only. 

To help amateurs without equipment as 
well as prospective amateurs, who are 
usually young boys, a few keen amateurs 
have established one club station in each 
city. These stations are active once a 
week For only a few hours. These clubs 
also offer instruction by suitably qualified 
amateurs to help prospective amateurs 
pass the radio amateur examinations. The 
lests are given by the Ministry of Com- 
munications and Works, but the British 
Radio Amateurs Examination is also 
accepted. 

Most 5B4 stations are on SSB 20m. 
t5m t and 10m, but one or two of them can 
be found on 75m and 40m. On the last two 
bands, 5B4EP and SB4JE are si til active. 
During the winter, 5R4EP, 5B4JE, and 
5B4PW occasionally operated on 160m, 

As far as I know, only about four 564 
stations are using CW at the moment and 
perhaps en equal number of ZC4s. On 
RTTY, only two stations are acn*e, 5B4CV 
and 5B4HF, mostly on 20m During tne 
last lew months. 5B4CV also was active 
on SSTV. and after a short break he will 
soon be operational again with a home- 
brew camera 

Most of the equipment used by Cyprus 
amateurs is commercial and imported, 
but There also is some home- brewing go- 
ing on. such as tuners, linear amplifiers, 
small transceivers, test gear, antennas, 
etc. Leaders In home construction at I he 
moment are 5B4BS, 5B4CV, 5B4A2, 
5B4AH. and 5B4DV 

The Cyprus Amateur Radio Society 
(CARS), a member of the IARU besides 
Other activities runs a QSL bureau which 
rs very conscientious but also very slow, 
through no fault of its own. The reason is 
purely economic The OSL manager has 
to wa;l a long lime to collect enough cards 
for a certain country so that postage will 
be cheaper. CARS is not so strong tinan- 
orally because not all licensees are mem- 
bers of CARS. My advice for amateurs, if 
they want to get a quick OSL card, is io 
OSL direct Using the bureau lakes as 
long as three years sometimes 

I do hope that I have given you a general 
idea about amateur radio m Cyprus, In 
future columns. I Anil give you information 
about awards, temporary licenses, and 
current 584 activities 

From Cyprus, the island erf Aphrodite, 
goddess of love, we nope io Keep you in- 
formed regularly 






GREAT BRITAIN 

Jeff May fiirt G4EJA 
10 Churctotteltis 

irtes WABQrlP 
Cheshire, England 

THE UK SCENE 

For as tong as t have been reading 
Radio Com myn reason, the monthly jour- 
nal of the Radio Society of Greal Britain 
(known to everyone as Radeom), there has 
been a monthly column called "Technical 
Topics' This 3 to-6 page potpourri 
iknown throughout G land as TT"l has 
provided a forum for new, sometimes un- 
tned, ideas if reports on {he proceedings 
of appropriate learned bodies such as the 
IEEE, it summarizes foreign amateur radio 
journals including those wntten m non- 



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quick lockout of busy frequencies yet retain them in 
memory for normal operation on demand 

^ tm ^^^^^^^mM^ m Do theirs store 3 transmit offset? 

COt The 10 memories of the 2591 allow stored offeet 

JO jUt^\^^utic3^^ for easiest operation And memory channel 

accepts any non-standard offset. 
Do theirs offer selectable SKIP or HOLD? 
When scanning with the 2591, choose HOLD to stop 
and stay on a busy frequency. Choose SKIP to stop 
J for several seconds and continue. 

/ Do theirs offer modifiable Band Scan without 

complete reprogramming? 
With the 2591 you can scan any section of the band 
with user defined upper and Sower limits in steps of 5, 
' 10, 15, 25, or 30 kHz, Change step size, upper and 
lower limits independently, Manual Scan also, up or down, 
in 5 kHz steps. 

Do theirs have Quick-Release NI-CAD Battery Pack? 
The 2591 battery pack slides off easily, yet is secure in use, 
has a heavy duty 450 mAH rating at &4v, and the 2591 has 
capacitive memory retention to permit pack changing without 
1 reprogramming. 

THE TEN-TEC 2591 HAS ALL THE RIGHT FEATURES .» 

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LWR STEP UP* ML 

H* O <p - - 

*«ttff« FM TUmcriyt. 



English languages, and It suggests new 
circuit Ideas 

A recent TT in fledcom induced the fol- 
lowing variety of subjects 

»Electro<MagneUc Compatibility (EMC) 
and its supplanting of FIR And TVI as the 
main external factor affecting the opera 
lion of amateur stations 

• Screening and filtering and the need to 
minimize out-of-band or unnecessary irv 
band radiation at source- The work done 
by Philip Rand WiDSM marw years ago 
was discussed again 

• A 20- A power supply following the KISS 
I Keep it Simple. Stupid} principle and 
using only 17 components. The originator 
of the circuit. G4MVD, counsels the under- 
rating of components in such systems. 

• High-power MOSFET amplifiers as orig- 
inally presented by K7ES/OH2ZE in QST, 

• Mew loop antennas raised again the 
thorny problem of defining HF antenna 
performance. Systems such as the G2PL 
special iturned-o^er quad} seem to in- 
dicate that a horizontal loop antenna can 
provide effective low angle, DX working 
even when the wire is only a few feet 
above ground. However, TT also promul 
gates the theories that tai it would be im- 
possible to devise any piece of wire that 
would never result in DX when conditions 
were very good, and lb} when an amateur 
puts up a new antenna he tends to be- 
come more active and this results in more 
and better DX until at least the firsi flush 
of enthusiasm wears off. 

All very interesting and thought -pro* 
voking stuff— bul why report the contents 
Of an average TT in The UK Scene - * The 
edition 10 which I refer is remarkable for 
two reasons. Fast, it is twenty-five years 
since the column started and any silver 
jubilee Is worth celebrating {as any 
readers lucky enough to be in the UK m 
1977 will testify} Second. TT has been 
written tor all those 25 years by the same 
author, Pat Hawker G3VA. Quite an achieve- 
ment. I think, to cover virtually the entire era 
of silicon and I he parallel demise oi iner 
mionlcs without becoming boring or 
repetitive, 

h seems that there may have been some 
substitution of candidates tor Ihe Home Oi 
flee Morse test In receni months. (Passion 
the test at 12-wpm send and receive Is a 
prerequisite of a full HF-class A license.) The 
authorities have "with some reluctance" in- 
troduced new vetting procedures for pro- 
spective amateurs silling the test. It is now 
necessary for some positive means of iden- 
tification such as a passport (o be produced. 
Presumably, a document bearing a photo- 
graph win be necessary 

The Morse test Is carried out by the Mari- 
time Branch of British Telecom 1 forma Hy ihe 
R>st Office) at a coaslai radio station 
Although informal in nature, the required 
standards have not been allowed to slip Tak- 
ing the test current iy cosis USS22 and may 
invoke quite an amount of traveling, as many 
BT coastal rad*o stations am now unmanned 
and operated remotely 






OMJ. A Fatmftif VU2JA 



Cocos Island (also known as Keeling 
Island} is located in the eastern Indian 
Ocean, and hams operating from there 
use the VK9Y prefix 

Here on Guam, however, we have our 
own Cocos Island. Located just over two 
miies from Guam's southernmost village 
of Menzo, the narrow sliver of land points 
like a finger extending into the crystal 
blue waters of the Philippine Sea 

Shortly after WWII, the US Coast Guard 
built a LORAN "A" station on the island 
However, with the advent of the 10 RAN 
C system, the Cocos station was closed 
and much of the island was turned over to 
enterprising developers, Today, a beauti- 
ful beach, a picnic area, a small zoo, and 
plans for a resort hotel with casino make 
Cocos Island a popular destination for 
tourists and residents alike. 

Recognizing this popularity, Ihe Guam 
chapter of the American Red Cross has. 
since 1931, held an annual fund-raising 
event called the Cocos Challenge. The ob- 
ject of the challenge Is to sw!m t snorkel, 
sail, paddle, or In some other way travel 
the distance from Cocos to Merrzo, And, 
for the third consecutive year, the Red 
Cross requested assistance from Guam's 
hams to help ensure Ihe safety of the par- 
ticipants. Thus, at 600 am on May 15th. 10 
hams from around the island met with 



ineir 2 meter gear to help make the third 
annual Cocos Challenge a little safer lor 
those in the v#ater. 

Preston "At' Allen KH28B acted as net 
control at the officials' tent, while Dave 
Beck KH260 kept an eye on ihmgs at ihe 
Men;o Pier finish line and Ann McDamei 
KG6JKN helped out at the starting line on 
Cocos. The remaining operators. Bill 
Michllng KHGII, Russ Albee WB7EHU, 
Gerry Mc Dan lei KG6JHN. Carl vVegner 
KG6JKV. Dave Chartier W1YRM. Gary 
Resta N2BMV. and Jim Rogue KH2AR 
took their places in the station. Rescue 
and Coast Guard boats were present to 
provide timely and reliable communica- 
tions throughout the event. 

Although no serious problems arose 
during the race, a few swimmers who tired 
early were pulled Irom the water and 
transported lo shore. 

Perhaps the highlight of the day was 
when one of the M Cra;y Craft. 11 an old VW 
car floating on pontoons, proved to be too 
unwieldy to make the entire trip to Merizo. 
The Coast Guard boat on the scene was 
heard reporting to their Rescue Center. 
'\ . . be advised, we are headed for Cocos 
Island with a 1967 Volkswagen in tow ,'" 
After a lengthy pause, the Rescue Center 
haltingly replied. u ~ say again? 



GUAM 

j. T PogueKH2AB 

68 Banyan Cfrcfe 

FPO San Franc rsco 96630 

THE VIEW FROM GUAM 

Many hams around the world are 
familiar with ihe two dots on our globe 
thai share the name Cocos Island The 
first, off Costa Rica s western snores, 
sports the TI9 caiisign prefix. The oitw 

74 73 Magazine * September. 1983 




INDIA 

MEET JOE FAITHFUL VU2JA 

There are a few valid reasons why we 
want you all to meet OM Joe Faithful VU2JA 
He is one of the tew hams who had the 
luck and opportunity to communicate 
with spark transmitters, carborundum 
crystal detectors, valve transmitters and 
receivers, and solid-state devices 

His vrtat statistics are: name— Joseph 
Alexander Faithful, bom— April 11, 1898, 
m Shilfong India; callsigns— VUtAA, 
VS8AA, VU2BX, VU7AA. MP4BAR and 
VU2JA: qualifications — PMG cer- 
tificate—First Class for spark transmitter 
up to 5- kW (1920). 

His awards and certificates 

1. The Old Old-timers Cfub. 

2. T?»e Incorporated Had to Society of 
Great Britain* Corporate Member p932) 
VUtAA. 

3. The incorporated Radio Society of 
Great Britain, WBE (1935> VU2SX. 

4. Alt Asian DX Contest, 1940 

5. The Old Old-Timers Club, world* first 
OOTG 200 Award 

6 AFIRL Old'Timere Club, 1958 

7 A-1 Operator's Club. 1961. 

a ARRL DX Century Club. 1962 

9. WAC/YL Young Ladies Radio League 
1956, 

10. The OOTC QSO Party, first place in Ihe 
continent of Asia (VU2JA. 1969) 

11. WAS-CW, 1975 

On his way to England from India in 
T914 (16 years old), he was taken as a 
prisoner of war during World War I He 
escaped from the German POW camp m 
1919 and reached England. 

Can you beat this record? 

At the young age of &5. Joe Faithful siill 
feels like climbing up on the root to e*perr 
ment with different antennas— also* you 
can see the array of equipment stiH tune* 
tiorving faithfully. Joe is regular and active 
on all HF bands 90 through 10 meters be- 
tween 0130 GMT to 1530 GMT depending 
on band concflHon. You can reach him al 
the Following address If you want a direct 
sked or communication; J. A, Faithful, 
"Mon Desir, 11 2Q, Cubbon Road, Bangalore 
560 001, India. 




At KH2BB operates net control during rn# 3rf Annual Cocos challenge 



GREECE 

Menos Darkadakis SVUW 
Bo* 3751 
Athens, Greece 

After a short review of Greek amateur 
radio history in my July column, we are 
now going to talk a Mtre about Ihe ama- 
teur community itself 

Today, the Amateur Radio Association 
of Greece has about 1,000 members, of 
course, not all of them are j*cense*J to 
transmit. Licensed members number 
about 500 This number increases at the 
rale of at least 50 amateurs annually, after 
the two examination periods m March and 
September. 

Not too long ago Greece changed the 
caiisign system that was m use for many 
years, which had onfy the number 1 after 
the SV prefix. We adopted the mum-num- 
ber system common to most countries 
around the world. Therefore, Greece was 
divided into nine regions, and the SVC pre* 
fix was assigned to foreigners operating 







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73 Magazine • September, 1983 75 



for more lhan one year In our counlry, The 
SVl prefix was given to the central part of 
Greece including Alhens, SV2 was given 
to Macedonia in the northern part ol 
Greece (including Th&sselonlkl), SV3 was 
given to Peioponmssos, SV4 to Tnessalla, 
SV5 to Dodecanese la lands including 
Rhodes. SVG to Hepiros. SV7 to Tbraki. 
SV8 lo ah Greek islands except Dode- 
canese and Crete, and the SV9 prefix was 
given to (he Island ot Crete 

Subsequent^ another problem came 
in sight with the increase ol amateur pop 
ulaiion in ol her areas besides SVl Local 
problems appeared more and more fre- 
quently and, with headquarters offices in 
Athens, it was almost impossible 10 solve 
them either fry phone or mail Then r during 
a meeting between the headquarters of- 
ficials and represent ai i ves of the SV2 
area, the first branch office was born in 
1979 After three years ol satisfactory op* 
eration of the SV2 branch office, the 5V9 
branch office was established m 1982 

So now there are two branch offices, 
with more 10 come in the near future 

The headquarters of RAAG are situated 
on the top floor of a six-story building in 
downtown Athens (31. Arcadias and Mes- 
sogion Ave., Tel- 01/7700836} Headquar 
ters are open every evening from Monday 
to Friday. 5:00-8:00 pm RAAG'S officials 
welcome any foreign ham to stop by and 
meet the SV fellow amateurs who gather 
every Wednesday afternoon from 
8:00-9:00 pm 

So that s all for now Next time well 
talk about Interests of Greek hams in 
amateur radio bands, repeater sites, 
equipment used, etc 




ISRAEL 

Ron Gang 4Z4MK 

Kibbutz Urtm 

Negev Mobile Post Office 85530 

Israel 

This month I'd like to report on recent 
and upcoming events and activities here. 
These happenings give a picture of I he life 
of the amateur radio community in Israel, 
how hams get together, and how they 
interact with the public at large. 

Heralding in the spring was the Mount 
Giiboa March. "'Marches" or, more proper- 
ly, group hikes, are a popuJar event here r 
where sometimes i ho u sands of people ot 
all ages walk along certain routes, The an- 
nual march on Mount Giiboa, overlooking 
the Jordan and Jezreei Valleys, is spon- 
sored by the Jszreel Regional Council at a 
time when the winter rams have finished 
and the Giiboa is speckled by abundant 
coiorfuJ wild flowers. 

On our weekly Saturday morning round- 
table and news magazine on 7.050 MHz, 
Mosne 4X4MJ* of Kibbutz Geva In the 
Jezreei valley, suggested that for the fllH 
time nams take part *n the march The am- 
ateurs were enthusiastic, and Moshe mi 
hated contacts between the Israel Ama- 
teur Radio Club's Special Events Commit- 
tee and the organizers of the march 

Tee shirts displaying the lARC emblem 
were ordered and made available at half 
price to participating hams, who also 
were exempted from the entrance fee. The 
night before the event, a party of amateurs 
camped out on the Giiboa and established a 
base station. On the day of the march, tee- 
shirted amateurs were ail along the route 
toting their two-meter hand-held 5 to pro- 
vide emergency communications ftfftlf- 
nate ly. outside of a few children sepa- 



rated from their parents, there ware no 
real emergencies. 

At the finish line, trie base station, oper- 
ating on the HF bands as well as VHF, 
proved the fact thai hams are more than a 
group of people running around with 
"Motorolas " {Hebrew for handie-talkie} 1 ' 
As a result of the amateur participation, a 
few scores of impressed hikers requested 
information about ham radio. 

tn earty April, on ■National Communica- 
lions Day" in the State ot the Children E> 
hi bit at the Tel Aviv exhibition grounds, 
amateurs were on hand operating a sla 
tion with the special callsign 4X0AR1, 
under the capable supervision of Naomi 
4X6DW This also served as a drawing 
card to bring new recruits to the radio 
clubs. Incidentally, an interesting 
sidelight to this day was a few truck loads 
of government surplus "*junk T * being 
brought in to be disassembled by the kids 
who were to id beforehand to bring along 
side-cutters and screwdrivers! 

Israel Independence Day is marked by 
the very popular Annual Spring Contest 
This is a national mini-contest taking 
place on 160. 80, 40, 2 meters, and 70 
centimeters for the duration of ihree 
hours Considering that there were 
perhaps no more than 80 stations active 
on the bands, this was definitely enough 
ttme to make the contest short and sweet, 
with \ it tie time needed afterwards to take 
care of logs. 

Special recognition should go to Seth 
4X6DX and Honen 4X611. two high school- 
ers who set themselves up on Radar HIM" 
in the Jerusalem mountains, braving un- 
seasonably cold winds and rains (ihe con- 
test was on April 1B|> churning out QSOs 
with most of the country's eighteen con- 
test zones, modes, and bands, tin this 
test, the outside world counts as one 
zone— no doubt the biggest zone in any 
ham radio competition I) Stations operat- 
ing in remote areas or on emergency 
power gel special multipliers 

There was some discontent about VHF 
contacts being scored the same way as 
those on HF, as since there was no spe- 
cial tropospheric skip, more remote VHF 
operators were at a clear disadvantage. 
However. I'm sure that next year's contest 
committee will rectify the matter. All In all, 
It was an enjoyable event and t for me, nol 
having the time, patience, or nerves for 
weekend-long contests, was just my style 
Long live mini-contests! 

By the time you read this, the annual As- 
sembly of the Israel Amateur Radio Club 
will have come and gone. This year it was 
heJd in J une at the Wise Auditorium of the H 
Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The As- 
sembly Is a crammed evening containing 
a technical lecture, a "political" lorum 
where anyone can take the floor, the elec 
tier* of officers of the IARC for the year, a 
raffle of junk" and door prizes, and. most 
important, a chance to eyeball hams from 
all over the country whom you've been 
QSOmg all y^m long. GSLs from the bu- 
reau are distributed, and people bring the 
outgoing bureau manager many good 
Mios of sorting! 

Last year, when the Assembly was held 
in Tel Aviv, about 800 amateurs and visi- 
tors were present. There's been a feeling 
among club officials that because ot the 
shortage of time and impatience of the 
amateurs to get the discussions and elec- 
tions over WEth and on to the more impor- 
tant raffle, not enough attention is 
devoted to the running of our national or- 
ganization, Remaps it is indeed time to 
change the format and make it a day-long 
hamfest/convention, as the Israeli ama- 
teur population has certainly grown since 
the club was founded in the earty fifties. In 
a future column. I'll report on the Jeru- 



salem Annual Assembly and ensuing 
developments, 

Thais it lor now. Conditions between 
the States and Israel are at presenl most 
stable on 20 meiers between 2100 and 
050X1 GMT, so might see you there! in 
the meantime, happy hamming and good 
DXing. Shalom and 73. 






ITALY 

Mario Ambrost /2MQP 

21029 Mr/a no. irehr 

Having recently been named the Award 
and Contest Manager for the Italian Ama- 
teur Association <Afln I will take this op- 
portunity to give some rules of ihe Italian 
awards. 

■ 

COM— Certificate del Mediterraneo 
(Mediterranean Certificate). It is issued to 
any amateur who can show confirmation 
of a two-way contact since June 1, 1952, 
with a fixed amateur station in at least 22 
countries on the list | below} and at least 
30 amateur stations of peninsular Italy 
The same station can be worked only 
once. The certificate ta- available in two 
classes phone and CW. and phone only 
Also available for the SWL, The m+nimum 
reports allowed are RST 338 and RS 33. 

Following is the list of countries; 

Spam, Balearic Islands, Morocco, 
France, Algeria, Corsica. Sardinia. Sicily, 
Lebanon, Egypt, Greece, Crete. 
Dodecanese Islands, Turkey, Syria. 
Yugoslavia, Albania, Malta. Gibraltar, 
Cyprus, Monaco. Tunisia, Israel, and 
Libya, plus the deleted countries of 
Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, and 
Trie si a, 

WAIP— Worked All Itatian Provinces. 
This award is Issued lo those amateurs 
who can show confirmation of a two-way 
contact {since January 1 . 1 949) with a fixed 
amateur station in at least 60 provinces 
(the equivalent of US court lies) of the 
Italian Republic. The same station may be 
worked twice or more ll he is In different 
provinces. Also available for ihe SWL. The 
minimum reports are RST 338 and RS 33, 
List of the Italian provinces: Agrlgento 
Alessandria, Ancona, Aosla, Arezzo, 
Ascoll-Piceno, Asti. AveHIno, Ban. 
Belluno, Benevento, Bergamo, Bologna, 
Soriano, Brescia. BrindisJ, Cagllarl, 
Calianisetta, Csmpobasso, Caserta, 
Catania, Gaian*aro, Chfatl, Como. Cosen 
za. Cremona. Cuneo, Enna, Ferrara. 
Pirenze, Fogg»s, Forii, Frosinone, Geneva, 
Gorrzia, Grosseto, Impena, Isernia. 
L'Aquila, Laspezia, Latins. Lecce. Livor 
no. Lucca, Macerata, Man I ova, Mass a, 
Matera, Messina, Mttano, Modena, 
Napoii. Nuofo* Padova, Palermo, Parma, 
Pa via, Perugia. Pesaro. Pe&cara Pi ace n- 
za. Pisa T Pistols, Pordenone, Potenza T 
Ragusa, Ravenna, Reggio-Caiabria, 
Reggie- Emilia, Rieti, Roma, Rovigo, Saler- 
no, Sassan. Savona. Siena, Siracusa, Son- 
drta. Taranto, Teramo, Ternl, Torino, 
Trapant, Tien to. Treviso. Trieste, Udine, 
Varese, Venezia, Vercelli, Verona, Vicen- 
za + and V Her bo 

The award application has to be sent to 
Ihe following address Afti Award 
Manager, c'o ARi Via Scan am 31, 20124 
MiJano Italy, together with the complete 
list of QSLs, each with callsign, date, fre- 
quency, reports, ttme, and time of emis- 
sion Send QSLs of GCR apply. Fee: 10 
(RCsorUSS2 

DMG Award Another award Is a 
beautiful anodi zed aluminum plaque with 
the reproduction of a photo ot Gugirelmo 



Marconi making one experimental 
transmission. It is available to radio 
amateurs worldwide. It's theOGM Award, 
or Diploma Guglielmo Marconi, It is not a 
very popular award, being a difficult one 
to qualify for, but it's a really beautiful 

plaque, 

II is sent with no cost lo the applicant 
apart from the mailing expenses (a couple 
of dollars). Applications have to be ad- 
dressed to Roberto Bothy *4BFY. Via 
Toscana 133, 44)141 Bologna, Italy 

To obtain the award, you have to con 
tact and get a QSL from 40 of the toMow 
inn locations or 35 of the following loca 
(ions plus 2 commemorative stations of 
Marconi, one of which must be IY4FGM 
All the locations on the list are localities 
m which Marconi conducted tus experi- 
ments. Contacts with the following loca 
Irons are valid' D44 (Cape Verde). CT1 
(Lisbon). CT3 {Madeira}. CHS f Morocco), 
EA7 (Cad ice}, El (Ireland I, F (France J, FC 
(GcrsFca), G (London i. GB (Fiathoim is.), G 
(isle of Wi grit I Gi i I re lands, GM (Scon and), 
HB (Swtizertand), HV tVancaru 14 
I Bologna), 15 (Italy), 10 fRomei. IY4FOM. 
IPITm IT9 (Siciiyj, IS* (Sardinia*, JA 
(Japan). LU (Buenos Aires). ON (Belgium), 
PY (Rio). SM (Stockholm \, SMi (Got land), 
UA1 (Leningrad), VE1 (Canada), VQ2 
(Labrador). VOi ( Newfoundland}. VK2 
iSidney), VP9 | Bermuda), VW1 (Massachu* 
setts), W2 (New York or New Jersey), Wi 
(Missouri*. W9 (Illinois), VU flndia| r Z&2 
(Gibraltar), YU2 (Yugoslav(a). and 5A 

{TripotiL 

I am waitmg to receive many apphca 

tions! f3est 73* 




JAPAN 

floy Waire mPQM 
Tvmigaya Grand — 30 1 
2-19-5 Tomigaya 
Shibuya-Ku 
Tokyo J 51, Japan 

RECIPROCAL AGREEMENT? 

There are no reciprocal agreements 
with Japan, but Americans and others 
operate anyway 

As you know from last monih'B issue. 
Japan does not have reciprocal agree- 
ments wiih any country yet although a law 
has been passed to set things in motion, 
In spite of this, we have had through the 
years— since 1970, in fact — many non- 
Japanese operating ham radios in Japan, 
How did this come about, and why do we 
need a reciprocal agreement at all II 
■ foreign "" <t hat's you) operators can oper- 
ate here anyway? 

In the beginning, some time after God 
created the Earth, giving us light and air 
waves right along with all the other good 
things, signals coming from Japan were 
devoid of anything except "pure Japa- 
nese 7 ' signals. If you were assigned to 
Japan you might just as well pack your rig 
in mothballs for the duration of your stay 
unless, of course, you happened to come 
to Japan as a member of the US Armed 
Forces sent overseas (sometimes referred 
10 as Americans forced overseas"), 
These American military forces are given 
special KA can signs and operate here 
quite happily just like they would in the 
States, The Japanese government de- 
creed, however, that these Americans are 
not hams at all, and issued stem warnings 
lo the effect that any Japanese ham hav- 
ing a. QSO with a KA station would be pun- 
ished. Following suit, the JARL will nol 
recognize a contact with a KA station in 
issuing Hs awards id course, a KA sfa- 



78 73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 



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73 Magazine • September. 19&3 77 



yon operating Irom US soil <s a different 
matter and Is fuily recognized,) 

So during mo&e dark ages, wnai would 
one do J I one were coming in Japan Jo a 
civilian capacity— say, to wort tef IBM or 
Gull Oil or whatever? Wall, as I said above, 
you would jus! put ine rig In mothballs, 
lake up k am and shout, com- 

mil hara-kiri, ot . worse yel, join ihe US Ar 
my These were the alternatives open to 
you. none of which was loo satisfying 

1968. as we began to approach the 
end of the medieval age, the US sent a 
new ambassador to Japan the Honorable 
Armm H Meyer Now 4 you wouldn't ex- 
pect 10 QOl much more man perfunctory 
an ambassador when it comes 
to a ham radio problem. After all. it'so 
a hobby and doesn't stack up too well 
against ihe many important problems lac- 
ing Japan and America But you See tl 
good ambassador was himself a ham, 
whose call letters are W3ACE. Ambas 
dor Meyer, setting his priorities in proper 
order * anted to gel on Ihe air. Q* course 
he could have opted for a military type KA 
call sign and opera! ad, quite easily and 
comforts the ambassador s <- 

ciat rt :e. adjacent lo the embassy 

Or. as some peoote argued, under inter 
national treaty the US embassy is leer 
cally and legally US territory, *nct 
doubtful (hat the Japanese government 
would attempt to put the ambassador oft 
the air should he tire up the rig and sign 
W3ACE/JA1. 

But ihe ambassador wanted to do 
things right and decided thai the time was 
ripe for a reciprocal agreement between 
Japan and Ihe US But II was not to be 
Changes in the law to permit reciprc 
licensing would have to be introduced lo 
the Japanese Diet (Parliament! Ricked 
around tor discussion among many comlt* 
tees and whatnot, presented toother min- 
istries for approval, etc., which could lake 
a lot ot lime. Furthermore, the Japanese 
"congressmen" wore reportedly not in Ihe 
mood to discuss amateur radio, a mere 

schoolboy's, hobby Ambassador 
Meyer's assignment to Japan might in- 
deed have expired before anything was 
done. (In retrospect, wo can only say. 

How true!) A more expeditious way had 
m found, II was Taking ihe cue from 
his calisign, W3ACE had one up his 
sleeve. 

Alter many trips to the Japanese For- 
eign Mi nisi ry and Ministry of Telecom- 
munrcationa and Post (80 > it was said). 
Ambassador Meyer was able to convince 
Ihe Japanese authorities that when Japa 
nese hams visit the United States they are 
permitted by law lo operate an American 
friend's ham station as long as the 
American operator is in "Control. This 
was certainly true; anyone, even a non- 
licensed person, may speak over the 
microphone of a ham station in the United 
States 

The Ambassador argued that since this 
was the case, why couldn't the Japanese 
allow Americans the same privileged 
Furthermore, the Japanese club station 
structure seemed ideally suited to this 
lype of operation In Japan, the tetter Y or 
Z after the numeral indicates that ihe sta- 
tion is a club station, and there are hun- 
dreds maybe thousands of them Almost 
every Japanese is a member of some dub, 
so in addition to his own personal 
call sign, the Japanese ham is also ah 
lowed to use a club calisign Therefore, 
ihe argument went, why couldn't Am 
bas&ador Meyer have a Japanese dub" 
station installed in the embassy, and 90 
on the an 

The authorities agreed, and made a 
slight modification to the Japanese ham 
radio laws, specifying that citizens of the 
US couid Join a Japanese club and could 



operate the station as long as a licensed 
Japanese operator was in "control . H f,Th is 
word, control caused some problems in 
later years since it was not defined prop< 
erly in the law.) 

Apparently no one noticed, however, 
that 1 1 a J a p a n ese o peral o r dl d have sham 
triend in the United States, he could tall 
over the microphone and actually have 
QSGs but was prohibited from talking to 
any country with which the United States 
did not have a third-party agreement 
None existed between Japan and Ami 
ca, Therefore, the Japanese ham visiting 
America could not talk to his Japanese 
buddies back m his own country On the 
other hand, ta Japan the government was 
persuaded to give out operator permits to 
Americans under this club system, and is 
st ill doing so today Therefore Americans 
can. and do, talk to any country in ihe 
world, and third-party agreements do not 
enter into the picture This was not dis- 
covered immediately, but did produce 
some consternation among certain 
circles m Japan some ttme later. 

Anyway, W3ACc was now ready lo go 
On the air but he needed a call Ambassa- 
dors have connections everywhere, soil's 
not surprising thai in rather short order 
some prominent Japanese hams got to- 
gether and formed a club for the exclusive 
use ot W3ACE The law states that not 
more than one third of the membership of 
a ham dub can be non-Japanese, so lo be 
on the safe side. Ihe membership con- 
ed of three Japanese hams and Am- 
bass actor Meyer In early 1970. Ambassa- 
dor Meyer tin ally went on the air from the 
American embassy in Tokyo, using call 
sign JHTYOH. and continued to operate 
until his departure in 1971. 

So now the doors were open. The Japa- 
nese Radio Regulatory Bureau had a spe- 
cial form printed so that Americans could 
apply lor permission to operate a club sta- 
tfoa The form was sloppily printed, con- 
tains several grammatical errors, and 
parts of it are somewhat puzzling and 
ambiguous, but that seems to til the pat- 
tern for government forms of any Kind- it 
does serve the purpose, however All that 
one Is required to do is take ihe original 
FCC license to the US embassy, have a 
photocopy made, and have an embassy 
officer swear that it Is a true copy. (Em- 
bassy officers are 1 rained to swear.) There 
is even a rubber stamp made tor Ibis pur- 
pose, with 3 place for the officer to sign 
Then this copy 01 the license and the 
aforementioned form are mailed or taken 
in person lo a Radio Regulatory Buieau of 
e Turnaround time is from two weeks 
to a month Perm i ss 10 n 1 5 a bout the sue of 
a postcard, and expires on Ihe date of 
ones visa or ham license, whichever 
Comes Itrst. For renewal, one follows me 
same steps. 

Remember that this permission is only 
an operator's permit and not a calisign 
The two are separate in Japan, and only 
Japanese ctuzens can obtain a calisign in 
Japan. So one of the hitches is that you 
have to find a friendly Japanese ham who 
is either willing m let you use an existing 
club caHsign or to form a new club for you. 
This can take time. II you can 4 ! find a will- 
ing Japanese ham. you are jus! out of luck 
and might as well took over the alterna- 
tives I ve listed above In practice, how- 
ever, l have never heard of a case where an 
American could not find a Japanese ham 
club or Japanese ham in ends to form a 
dub Forming a club takes a little time 
and money (equivalent to about S25>, but 

*ot an impossibility. 

One of the problems is that the Japa 
nese have an inspection system tor any 
stationoverio Wa tt s , I f you are com em to 
stay within the ID-Watt power limit (that's 



output power, by Ihe wayi> once you ffcnd 
Ihe club and put in the application you can 
bo on Ihe air without much delay. 11 you 
wanl to run higher power you will have to 
wait for six months or more for the inspec- 
tors to come. There is an additional lee for 
the inspection 

But what about the "coniror of me sta- 
tion 4 * Does the Japanese operator have to 
watch over your shoulder while you oper- 
ate' 1 Well, t can tell you that m ihe case of 
Amassedor Meyer, the "control operator" 
definitely was not called to appear on ihe 
scene each time the rig was tired up And. 
■n fact oiher than ihe first day when the 
station officially weni on the an compt^ 
with a contingent of newspaper reporters 
and photographers, with the 'control 
operator" wedged in somewhere in ihe 
crowd. Ambassador Meyer was on his 
own. I'm betting that thai s ihe way he 

wanted it 

You may have noticed that up to this 
point we have limited this discussion to 
Americans Bui what about those other 
countries out there? There are some 
others, you know it so happened that at 
the same time Ambassador Meyer obtained 
permission to get on the air. there was 
land still is) a ham m the West German em- 
bassy Germany, this man correctly 
pointed out to the Japanese government, 
has always allowed hams from Japan (and 
from almost every other couniry. for thai 
matter) to operate in their country. If the 
Americans can operate, how about the 
Germans? That argument brought about 
another modification to Ihe law. and the 
Germans were then given permission to 
operate Japanese ham club stations |ust 
like the Americans in more recent years, 
Finland and Ireland also were afforded 
the same privileges 

That's the story of how Americans. Ger- 
mans, Finns, and Irish hams can operate 
from Japan even though Japan has not 
signed a reciprocal agreement with any 
country. So why do we need a reciprocal 
agreement? For the answer lo thai ques 
tion, consider ihe 1 01 lowing questions: 
What about Ihe foreign visitor to Japan tor 
one week? how does he find a club sta- 
tion or Japanese friend In such short 
order? Also, what If the Japanese friend 
who has M |ent" you his club station 
calisign decides thai he wants the call 
back, or what if a personal dispute arises 
and your Japanese sponsor decides to 
puil the rug out Irom under you? Then 
what do you do? 

And, of course, we also have to con- 
sider the other countries At any given 
lime, there are any number of nationali- 
ties residing In Japan At present, we have 
hams from Sweden, Italy. Great Britain. 
Australia. Mew Zealand. Canada, Philip- 
pines, and many other countries living 
here. 

Actually, some of them are already on 
the air in Japan. How did they manage 
thai since, as I have just explained, only 
hams from America. Wesl Germany. Ire- 
land, end Finland can operate here? Til 
tell you about that next month ill also ten 
you about ihe strange situation in which 
certain Americans in Japan are prohibited 
under Japanese regulations from talking 
to other Americans. What complicated 
webs human beings weave' 




LIBERIA 

Mar* H Monson, HO ElSG 

Monrovia, Liberia 

Have you ever wondered what hamming 



in Liberia Is like? Alter all. you've probably 
heard some E.L2s on the air and maybe 
even worked one or two. Well, let me give 
you an idea of what it is like to be an 
amateur radio operator in Liberia 

Licenses are issued by the Llbertan Tel- 
ecommunications Corporation (LTCJ for 
the Ministry of Posis and Telecommumca- 
lions (P&Tj. LTC has authorized the 
Libenan Radio Amateur Association 
iLRAA) to administer and write the ama- 
teur examinations and recommend candi- 
dates as qualified for licensing. The presi 
dent of the L.RAA, Waicott Benjamin 
EL2BA, has appointed Lee fluff EL2FE to 
write the examinations, and the president 
then appoints any two General-class ama- 
teurs to administer ihem at the site most 
convenient for both the examiners and the 
prospective amateur. A popular Central 
location is St Patrick's School m 
Monrovia, the QTH ot Don Sletfes EL2AL 
The examinations are qu lie similar lo those 
used in the US 

ere are two classes of license*. 
Novice and General, Novices can operate 
CW on any band authorized for Libenan 
use and phone on 2 meters. They also are 
5 1 lowed phone on 7.060 during the West 
Atnca Net They pass a simplified iheory 
test and a 5-wpm code test and are issued 
a calisign wiih a suffix beginning with N. 
Generals lake a 13 wprn code lest and 
have ad privileges granted to amateurs, 
which include a 1 -kilowatt power limit and 
Region 1 frequency allocations 

Tne Libenan government gives us no re- 
strictions on Region 1 frequencies We 
thus can operate all the usual bands mat 
are available in the US except 6 and J • 
meters. The P&T gave Tom Visetb EL2AV 
special authority to experiment and 
operate 6 meters, and he made many con 
tacts which I'm sure 6-meter enthusiasts 
will remember 

The Region 1 bands are similar to ihe 
US bands except for ihe obviously larger 
phone bands on 20, 15, and 10 meters. 11 
seems, however, that this will not be the 
case much longer Many people forget 
that we have smaller overall bands on 1(50, 
SO, 40, and 2 meters The upper limit of 
these smaller bands are 1 85, 7.10. 3.B0. 
and 146,0 MHz respectively. The low 
bands Usually require spill operation tor 
phone contacts lo Region 2 — which Is in- 
teresting if you haven't tried It before. We 
now can operate 30 meters, and I made 
the -first EL 3D meier contact with a VE3in 
1962 

Licenses are issued on an annual basis 
and cost $35. They expire on the 31al ot 
December every year and a one- month 
grace period is then in effect Every ama- 
teur must renew his license during the 
month of January, which is ohen a major 
inconvenience for those of us who live 
outside Monrovia. 

We have between 75 and 100 licensed 
amateurs in the country, but of course no I 
all of them are active. Uberia has a recip- 
rocal licensing agreement with the US. 
and also offers licenses on a courtesy 
basis to any amateurs licensed m another 
country. In addition, ihe examinations 
may be given and licenses issued to non 
citizens. We also ate allowed to run third 
party traffic with the US (but not with 
Canada) 

Those wanting to operate from Liberia 
should bring their licenses with ihem and 
apply when fhey get here Several photo- 
graphs are required. Licenses ate usually 
issued quickly, but a month wait is not un- 
common, tf the stay is short, the LRAA 
(Box 1477, Monrovia) can assist you if you 
write well in advance Things have been a 
uttie unsettled since the 1980 coup, this 
resulted in two months off the air, an in- 
crease in fees, changes in the licensing 

Continued on page 7 34 



78 73 Magazine * September. 1963 





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73 Magazine • September, 1983 81 



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73 Magazine * September, 1983 83 







CONTESTS 



Robert Baker WB2GFE 
15 Windsor Or. 
At co NJ 03004 

DARC CORONA 10-METER 

RTTY CONTEST 
1100-1700 GMT September 3 

This is the third of 'our tests during the 
year sponsored by DARC to promote RTTY 
activity on the IOmeter band (The 4th will 
bean November 6 > Each of the four tests is 
scored separately Use the recommended 
portions of the IOmeter band 

EXCHANGE 

AST. QSO number, and name. US sta 
lions also give state 

SCORING; 

Each station can be contacted only once- 
Each compleied 2 * RTTY QSO is worth 1 
point Multipliers include the WAE and DX~ 
CC lists, each district m VE/VO and VK, 
plus each different US slate The final score 
is the total number of OSOs times the total 
multiplier. 

AWARDS; 

Awards to the leading stations in each 
class with a reasonable score present Op- 
erating classes include: Class-A for single 
or rnuHi-op, and Oass B for SWLs. 

ENTRIES: 

Official logs are recommended and are 
available from the contest manager ISASE 
or IRCs are appreciated). Logs must con 
tain name, call, and full address of partici- 
pant. Also show class, times In GMT. ex 
change, and final score. SWLs apply to the 
rules accordingly. Logs musl be received 
within 30 days after each test. Send all en- 
Ides to: Klaus K. Zlelski 0F7FB. PO Box 
1H7, D-6455 Erlensee. West Germany. 



CRAY VALLEY RADIO 

SOCIETY SWL CONTEST 

Starts: 1800 GMT September 10 

Ends: 1800 GMT September 11 

Up to 18 hours of logging may be done 
during the contest period with a rest period 
clearly shown. Multi-operator stations may 
log during the entire contest. The contest is 
open to anyone In the world, and there win 
be two sections, phone and CW. each with 
two categories: single operator and multi- 
operator The second category is. open to 
two or more listeners or to clubs and more 
man one receiver may be used. The 1.8-, 
3^, 7- 14-, 21-, and 2&MH2 bands may all 
be used 

For the purpose of this contest, me prac- 
tice of logging a series of contacts made by 
one station is deprecated. Log entries must 
not include the same can sign in the station- 
worked column more than five times on 
each band. 

Scores should be compiled as follows: 
one point for each station heard multi- 
plied by the number of different countries 
neard on each band. A list of countries 
heard must be furnished and a separate 
log must be submitted for each band, il- 
legible logs will not be accepted. 

The call areas of the USA, Canada, and 
Australia will each count as a separate 
country All other countries will be deter- 
mined by the official RSGB/ARRL Coun- 
tries List No CO or ORZor similar call will 
be allowed to count tor points. If points 
are claimed for both sides ot a QSO, the 
caitsign of each must appear in the 
si at ion-heard column. 

Log sheets are available from Owen 
Cross G4DFI. 28 Garden Avenue, Bex- 
leyheath. Kent DR7 4LF, England, if you 
Include a large SAE and sufficient return 
postage. It is desirable that entrants use 
official log sheets, but entries on home- 
made log sheets will be accepted if the 



Sep 3 
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Sep 10-11 
Sep 1 0-1 1 
Sep 10-11 
Sep 17-18 
Sep $7-13 
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Sep 17-13 
Sep 24-25 
Oct 1-2 
Oct 1-3 
Ocl 8-9 
Ocl 9-10 
Oct 15-16 

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Oct 15-16 
Oct 22-23 
Oct 22-23 
Oct £2-23 

Ocl 22- 23 
Nov 5*6 

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Nov 19^20 
Dec 3-4 
De<r 10-11 
Feb 4-5 
Feb 18-19 



CALENDAR 



OAHC Corona 10-Meler RTTY Contest 

Connecticut Oyster Festival 

ARRL VHF QSO Party 

Cray Valley Radio Society SWL Contest 

IARS/CHC International Contest— CW 

IARS/CHC International Contest— SSB 

Scandinavian Activity Contest— CW 

Washington State QSO Party 

Kansas State QSO Party 

Scandinavian Activity Contest—Phone 

California QSO Party 

Oregon QSO Party 

ARRL QSO Parly— CW 

ARRL QSO Party-Phone 

ARRL Simulated Emergency Test 

Maryland/DC QSO Parly 

Scout Jamboree On The Air 

MF Runde SW Activity Week e nd 

Clara Ac Dc Contest 

ORP ARC1 Fall QSO Parly 

Pennsylvania QSO Party 

ARRL Sweepstakes— CW 

DARC Corona 1 0-Meter RTTY Contest 

ARRL Sw e e ps takes— Phone 

ARRL 160-Meter Contest 

ARRL 10-Meler Contest 

South Carolina QSO Party 

America Radio Ciub International OX Contest 




NEWSLETTER OF THE MONTH 

The Dayton Amateur Radio Association is best known for its hamverv 
t ion— but this month's newsletter contest, winner, the RF -Carrier, proves that 
DARA Is not all show 

The RF'C&rrior is the message-nearer for this incredibly active club. Not only 
do the members put on the largest amateur radio convention to be found, but 
they also operate three repeaters (one on 2 meters, one on 70cm. and a 440-MHz 
video repeater;, maintain an emergency communications van with more gear 
than you could find In Elmer's basement, and supply people and equipment for 
public-service events- Not to mention a color weather radar and a local addition 
to the West I ink broadcast, appropriately named Dayton Link 

You might think thai a newsletter editor would have his hands full keeping the 
members up to date on just those activities, but somehow RF^srrm Editor Bob 
McKay N8ADA finds time for more goodies— like "Uncle Augies Comer;* a 
humorous feature from the Amateur Radio News Service, and "Bits and Pieces 
a con act 1 on of interesting news shorts, updates On members, and general mfor 
mat ion. 

And at a time when newsletter editors are scurrying nelter-skeiler for word 
processors and hard-to-read dot-matrix printers, the RF-Carrier 15 still 
typed — uncompressed, large type that is easy on the eyes. 

It may not be the easy way to prepare a newsletter, but it rs evident that, to 
McKay and the members of DARA. the best quality is worth tne extra effort. 

If you would Nke to enter your newsletter in TTs contest, pul us on your matt- 
ing list. Send it (o 73. Pine Street. Peterborough NH 03458. Attn Newsletter of 
the Month. 



following information Is given: date, time, 
band station heard, siaiion being worked, 
reporl al SWLs QTH. Points may be 
claimed only lor stations actually heard 
and the callslgn must be shown in full. 

Entries should be sent 10 the Contest 
Manager, G4DFI, at the above address, to 
arrive no later than October 31 si, Certifi- 
cates of mem will be awarded at the dis- 
cretion of ihe board of the Cray Valley RS, 
and its decision will be final. 

IARS/CHC 

INTERNATIONAL CONTEST 

CW 

Starts: 0000 GMT September 10 

Ends: 2400 GMT September 11 

SSB 
Starts: 0000 GMT September 17 
Ends: 2400 GMT September 18 

This is a semi-annual contest sponsored 
by the International Amateur Radio Society 
and Certificate Hunters Club Work sta- 
tions once per band; no repeaters or 
cross mode contacts allowed Look for sta- 
tions calling "CO CMC' 

EXCHANGE 

RSTH. IARS and/or CMC number, and 
state, province, or country. 

FREQUENCIES; 

CW— 70 kHz from the bottom of the 
band. 
SSB-3960. 7260, 143O0. 21360, 28600, 

SCORING: 

Multiply OSOs times the number of coun- 
tries worked, times the number of 
IARS/CHC members worked. Any member 
of both divisions counts as two mufch pliers? 

AWARDS 

Engraved plaque to the highest over- 
aJi score. Certificates awarded lo the 
highest soorer per band and to the top 10 
runners up. 

ENTRIES: 

Logs must show date and time in GMT 



station worked, exchanges sent and re- 
ceived, QSO points claimed, and final 
claimed score All entries with 100 or more 
QSOs must also include a cneck sheet En- 
tries musl be mailed by December 1st lo Ted 
Meiinosky K.1BV, 525 Foster St. South 
Windsor CT 06074, include a large S AS E lor 
a copy of the results 

WASHINGTON STATE 

QSO PARTY 

0100 to 0700 GMT September 17 

1300 GMT September 17 to 

0700 GMT September 18 

1300 GMT September 18 to 

0100 GMT September 19 

The eighteenth annual conies I spon- 
sored by the Boeing Employees' Amateur 
Radio Society (BEARS) is divided into 3 
operating periods as show. All amateurs 
are invited lo participate. All bands (ex- 
cept 10.10 to 1QT 5 MHz) and modes may 
be used, but no CW QSOs are allowed In 
the phone bands. SI at Ions may be worked 
once on each band and mode for contact 
po in is and more than once each band/ 
mode if they are additional multipliers. 

EXCHANGE: 

QSO number, RS(T), and state, prov- 
ince, country, or Washington county. 

FREQUENCIES: 

Phone— 1815, 3925. 7260, 14280, 21380. 
28500, 

CW— V805, 3560. 7060. 14060, 21060, 
28160, 

Novice— 3725. 71 25. 21 150. 28160. 

SCORING: 

Washington stations score 2 points tor 
each phone contact and 3 points for each 
CW contact, including contacts with 
other Washington stations Multiply QSO 
points by Ihe total number of different 
states, Canadian provinces, and other 
foreign countries worked. 

All others score 2 points for each phone 
contact and 3 points for each CW contact 
with a Washington station Multiply 050 
points by the total number of different 



84 73 Magazine • September. 1983 



Washington counties worked (39 ma*- 
imum) There will be an extra multiplier of 
one for each group of 8 contacts with the 
same Washington county for an non 
Washington stations. 

AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded to the 
highest scoring station (both single and 
mult i -opera tor} in each state, Canadian 
province, foreign country, and Washing- 
ton county. Additional certificates may be 
issued at the discretion of the contest 
committee, Worked Five BEARS Awards 
are also available to anyone working 5 
cfub members before, during, or after the 
QSO Party, unless previously Issued, (All 
QSO Party entries will be screened by the 
contest committee for possible Worked 
Five BEARS Awards.) Worked Three B EAR 
Cubs Awards are also available for work- 
ing 3 Novice members. All BEARS awards 
besides QSO Party certificates are hen 
died by Ooyel Burleson WA7HKD. Award 
Chairman. (See 73 for August. 1979, page 
28, for additional details.) 

ENTRIES: 

Logs must show dates/times in GMT, 
stations worked, exchanges sent and 
received, bands and modes used, and 
scores claimed. Include a dupe sheet for 
entries with more than 200 QSOs. Each 
entry must include a signed statement 
that the decision of the contest commit* 
tee will be accepted as final. Mo logs can 
be returned Results of the QSO Parly will 
be mailed (0 all entrants and an 5ASE is 
NOT required Log sheets and summary 
sheets must be postmarked no later than 
October 19 and sent to: Boetng Employ- 
ees' Amateur Radio Society, c/o Willis D. 
Propst K7RS, 1841 5 38th Avenue South, 
Seattle WA96tS8 



KANSAS STATE QSO PARTY 

0100 to 0700 GUT September 17 

1300 GMT September 17 to 

0700 GMT September 18 

1300 GMT September 18 to 

0100 GMT September 19 

This is the second annuat contest spon- 
sored by the Boeing Employees' Amateur 
Radio Society of Wichita (BEARSOj and all 
amateurs are invited to participate. Use 
at) bands (except 10 MHz) and modes. Sta- 
tions may be worked once on each band 
and each mode for contact points, more 
than once each band/mode if they are ad- 
ditional multiplN 



RESULTS 



73$ WORLD SSB CHAMPIONSHIP CONTESTS— 1983 CLAIMED SCORES 



40 Meters (Single Operator} W/VE 
W1WEF CT 13,728 

NCOQS I A 12,485 

KA2EAY NY 9,416 

N7BUP A2 9,350 

NF4F TN 0,050 

40 Maters {Multi-Operator) W/VE 
K3TUP PA 120,063 

KBND OH 113,643 

K5L20 TX 81 t 512 

KCeSZ CO 78J13 

KB0QA SD 42.743 



SO Meters {Single Operator* W/VE 



1&0 Meters (Single Operator) W/VE 



KG tE 

N5AU 

N6II 

W3USS 

KC8JH 



MA 

TX 

WV 

MD/OC 

OH 



83,104 
82,156 
61.146 

42,297 



KC8JH 

AAIK 

K0HA 

KVfQ 

KBSE 



OH 
Q€ 
NE 
CO 
CA 



279.000 
266.660 
223,650 
194,370 
191,750 



60 Meters (Mult I -Opera tor) W/VE 



N4TY 


KY 


41,106 


K1WW 


NH 


39,933 


K5LZO 


TX 


31.0B8 


KA4JNC 


VA 


31.050 


NBAKV 


Ml 


25,216 



40 Uetert 

4M3AZC 

I03MAU 

OK1TN 

CT4NH 

PV5EG 

40 Meters 

tSNPH 

MOUT 

DA1TN 

JI1GQL 



{Multi-Operator) DX 
Venezuela 124,805 

Italy 83,447 

Czech 77.940 

Portugal 74,888 

Brazil 69,064 



80 Meters (Single Operator) DX 



I M u 1 1 1 Operator) 

Italy 

Italy 

Weal Germany 

Japan 



YV3BRF Venezuela 

KHMAU Italy 

HKJGB Dom Rep. 

G6ADV Bahamas 

GT4NH Portugal 



132,108 
88,284 
75.330 
32,550 
10.700 



149,051 

126,524 

47.736 

1.806 



80 Meter* (Multi-Operator) OX 



I5NPH 
JA2YKA 



Italy 
Japan 



101,092 
1.185 



160 Meiers (Multi-Operator) WrVE 
KBND OH 330,330 

WA2SPL NY 325,230 

WB8J8M OH 289,600 

W4CN KY 271,450 

N7DF KS 196,880 

160 Meters (Single Operator] OX 
YV3AZC Venezuela 22.420 

YV2IF Venezuela 10,005 

XE1HHA Mexico 8.875 

EA3CCN Spain 3.640 

OKtJDX Czecn 1.560 

160 Meters (Multi Operator* DX 
YU7JDE Yugoslavia 3,680 

Full details of these very popular 
events will be featured In an upcom- 
ing Issue. 



EXCHANGE: 

QSO number; RSfH; and state, Cana- 
dian province, foreign country, or Kansas 
county. 

FREQUENCtES: 

Phone-1815. 3925. 7260, 14280,21380. 
28500+ 

CW— 1805, 3560, 7060. 14060. 21060. 
28160. 

Novice-372S t 7125, 21150,28160. 

SCORING: 

Kansas stations score two points for 
each phone contact and three points for 
each CW contact, Including contacts with 
other Kansas stations. Multiply contact 
points by the total number of different 
states, Canadian provinces, and other 
foreign countries worked. All others score 
two points for each phone contact and 
three points for each CW contact with a 
Kansas Station, Multiply contact points 
by the total number of different Kansas 
counties worked (105 maximum) For all 
stations multipliers are counted only 
ONCE regardless of how many bands or 
modes they are worked on. However. 



there will be an additional multiplier of 
one for each group of eight contacts with 
the same Kansas county for all non- 
Kansas stations. 

AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded to the 
highest scoring station (both single and 
mul It-opera tor) in each state, Canadian 
province, foreign country and Kansas 
county. Additional certificates may be 
awarded at the discretion of the contest 
committee. 

Worked Five Kansas BEARS Awards 
are also available to anyone working five 
club members before, during, or after the 
QSO Party, AN QSO Parly entries will be 
screened by the contest committee for 
possible Worked Five Kansas BEARS 
Awards. All Kansas BEARS awards are 
administrated by Mike Thornton 
WA0TAK. Contest Chairman 

ENTRIES: 

Logs must snow dales and times in 
GMT, stations worked, exchanges sent 



and received, bands and modes used, and 
scores claimed. Include a dupe sheet for 
entries with more than 200 QSOs, Each 
entry must include a signed statement 
thai (he decision of the contest commit- 
tee will be accepted as final No togs can 
be returned, Log and summary sheets are 
available for an SASE from the contest 
chairman. Entries must be postmarked no 
later than October 20 and sent to: Boetng 
Employees" Amateur Radio Society of 
Wichita, c/o Mike Thornton WAfTAK 
1001 Munnell Ave., Wichita KS 67213, 



SCANDINAVIAN 

ACTIVITY CONTEST 

CW 

Starts: 1500 GMT September 17 

Ends: 1800 GMT September 18 

Phone 
Starts 1500 GMT September 24 
Ends; 1800 GMT September 25 

Object of the contest is to encourage 
activity on the part of Scandinavian and 



RESULTS 



1902 CRAY VALLEY RADIO SOCIETY 12TH SWL CONTEST 



Name and Callsign 



QSOs 
CW Section Single Operator 



Country Multipliers Total 



John Alley Wl SWL 


342 


Jim Dunnet BRS 30694 


239 


Corker Rhlnes W&-SWL 


174 


Neil Coxhead G-SWL 


1t7 


Ray Smith and 


Muttl-opntor 


David New Land W&SWLs 


354 



110 


•37620 


126 


•30114 


62 


14268 


37 


4329 



122 



♦43188 



Phone Section Single Operator 
Jean-Jacques Yenganian ONL-383 746 
Martin Parry G-SWL 683 

John Sutton BRS 35509 634 

David Writ-taker BRS 25429 533 



286 


"213988 


222 


"151626 


210 


133140 


232 


123656 



Bob Hertz Berg WDX4HK 
"Certificate winners 



Top US Operator 
303 



94 



"28482 



RESULTS 

1 W3 VIRGINIA QSO PARTY 



Plaques: High VA: KG4W -86,625; High Mobile: W40MWJM4— 4,456; High Out-or- 
State: AE3Y— 7 h 200: High QRP: KDHr— 236*. 



AL 

AK 

CA 

CO 

CN 

FL 

GA 

WV 

IL 

IA 
LA 
ME 
M0 

MA 

Wl 

Ml 



WA4VEK 
WB4WXE 
W6NNV 

Kvae 

K1BV 
K4DDB 
K4BAI 
W3IJT 



KI9A 
KGHQE 

tAJt\\AJf* 

W1APU 
AE3Y 
WA1UOH 
K9GDF 

WB8WKQ 



4 


NV 


KA7GXO 


221 


12 


NJ 


W2UAP 


1050 


210 




W2JEK 


'17 


775 


MM 


KB5DQ 


99 


792 


NV 


W2MTA 


3328 


558 


TX 


K5LZO 


72D 


120 


OH 


WBEAO 


22 


735 


OK 


N5AFV 


8 


814 


on 


WB7VBQ 


1 


"31 


PA 


WA3JXW 


1275 


25 


so 


Kcazu 


153 


2492 


Pay 


KS4S 


53 


840 


WA 


W7DRA 


12 


7200 


Province — Certiticate 




3000 

130 

1G28 


Ontario: 


VE3KK 


1740 


*=QRPNo 


multipliers. 





73 Magazine • September, 1963 85 




tiMiM 



non-Sea nd I navl an amateurs to work each 
other and to promote communications 
skills between amateur stations world- 
wide. For the purpose of tills, the 25th run- 
ning of this annual event, non-Scandina- 
vian stations will try to work as many 
Scandinavian stations as possible, Scan- 
dinavian stations are defined by the fol- 
lowing pieliires: UULBfLG/LJ (Norway), 
JW (Svalbard and Sear islands). JX (Jan 
Mayen}, OF/OG/OWOI (Finland), OH* 
(Aland is f and), QJO {Market Reef). OX 
(Greenland). OY (Faeroe I stand). OZ (Den- 
mark), SJ/SK/SUSM (Sweden), and TF 
(Iceland), 

Operating categories Include; 

<a> Single Op/Single Xmtr— allband 
Only: one person performs ell operating, 
logging, and spotting f unci ions. The use 
of multiplier spotting assistance or any 
other form of alerting assistance is not 
allowed in this category. 

lb) MulfM3pSSingle Xmtr— ailband only. 
only one signal allowed at any one time on 
any band. The station must remain on the 
band for a( least 10 minutes following ini- 
tial transmission on thai band after band 
change. 

(c) Mult!-OpA*uU»-Xmtr*-no limit to 
transmitters, but only one signal per band 
is allowed, 

Club stations may work only mult ^sin- 
gle or multirnitilti categories Aft trans- 
mitters and all receivers, including spot- 
ting equipment lor a station using one and 
the same call sign must be located within 



a 500-meter radius. The same station may 
be worked once on each band. Only CW- 
to-CW and phone-tc-phone QSOs are 
valid: no cross-mode contacts. 

EXCHANGE: 

RS(T) plus serial OSO number starting 
from 001 QSOs after 999 are numbered 
1000. 1001, etc. Multi-opJMulti-Xmtr 
stations use separate serial numbers, 
starting from 001 on each band, 

FREQUENCIES: 

CW-35Q5-3575. 7005-7040, 14010- 
14075, 2*010-21120. ^010-28125. 

Phone— 3600^3650. 3700-3790. 7050- 
7100. 14150-14300. 2t2OO-2l3S0 2S400- 
28700. 

Don't forget to use only those frequen- 
cies you are authorized to use. (Above fre- 
quencies for the phone segment list non- 
US frequencies!) Regions Z and 3 stations 
may also transmrt on their frequencies 
above 3790 and 7100. 

SCORING: 

European stations count one point tor 
every complete Scandinavian QSD on any 
band. NotvBuopean stations count one 
ootni per Scandinavian OSO on 20- 
th rough 10-rneter bands and tnree points 
per OSO on SO or 40 meters. 

The multiplier is the number of Scan- 
dinavian call areas worked. Mote that 



LAi = LB1 = Ui! Portable stations with- 
out a district number count For the tenth 
area, e.g.. W4XXX/OZ counts for OZ* and 
G3XYSU counts lor LA*. OHe and OJ0 
are separate call areas. SJ9 counts for the 
9th call area In Sweden. Each multiplier 
cannot be credited more than once per 
band. The final score is the total QSO 
points times the sum of all multipliers. 

AWARDS: 

Top scorer in each country as well as 
each US call district, In each category, 
both on CW and phone, will receive a con- 
teat award provided a reasonable score is 
made. Depending on the number of en- 
trants from each country, the award of ad- 
ditional certificates will be considered by 
the contest committee. The top scoring 
single-operator stations on each conti- 
nent wilt receive a contest plaque both on 
CW and phone, provided a reasonable 
score Is made. 

ENTRIES: 

Signed original logs (or copies of 
original logs) must be submitted sepa 
rately for CW and phone. Logs to be tilled 
out in the following order date and time in 
GMT, station worked, sent and received 
exchange, band, multipliers, and points. 

Alt entrants must submit a summary 
sheet snowing station callsign. category, 
name of opera tons] and address. Indicate 
number of QSOs per band less duplicates. 



number of duplicates per band, number of 
multipliers per band, QSO points per 
band, and final score. 

All entrants must submit a multiplier 
sheet for each band with more than 200 
QSOs. Possible duplicate QSOs must be 
shown in the log and counted for zero 
points. Each entrant shall submit a 
duplicate QSO sheet tor each band with 
more than 200 QSOs Duplicate sheet to 
contain worked stations listed by DXCC 
countries and call areas. 

Logs and accompanying sheets shall 
be mailed no later than October 30. 1883. 
addressed to: SAC Contest Committee* 
PO Box 306. SF-OOtOt Helsinki 10, 
Finland, 

Violation of amateur radio regulations 
applicable m I he country of the contes- 
tant or of the rules of thia contest, un- 
sportsmanUke conduct, and the taking of 
credit for unverifiabte QSOs or multipliers 
may lead to disqualification. A log show- 
ing more than 1% un removed duplicate 
QSOs results In unconditional disqualifi- 
cation. Each unremoved duplicate QSO 
found by the contest committee results in 
a penalty of 5 QSOs of the same value as 
the duplicate. 

By submitting a contest log t the entrant 
agrees to abide by the rules of the Scan 
dm avian Activity contest and by the deci- 
sions of the contest commit lee. The com- 
mittee's decisions are final and definite. 
Right to changes in the rules is ri 



SOCIAL EVENTS 




Listings in this column are provided tree of 
charge on a spaceBvaitabte basis. The fol- 
lowing information should be included in 
every announcement: sponsor, event, date, 
time, piece, city. state, edmission charge (if 
any), features, talk-in frequencies, and the 
name ot whom to contact for further informa- 
tion. Announcements must be received by 73 
Magazine by the first of the month, two 
months prtorto the month in which the event 
takes pface. Maitto Editorial Offices, 73 Mag- 
azine, Pine St., Peterborough NH 03458* 

6LOOMINGTON IN 
SEP 4 

The 6th annual 8 looming ton IN hanv 
tesf wilt be held on Sunday, September 4, 
19S3, from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm, at 2335 Ver 
nat Pike. BloomingtOn tN. Admission Is 
$2.00 with no additional charge tor flea- 
market s iles. Dealer and flea market set- 
ups start at 7:00 am. Refreshments and 
■ots of parking will be available Talk-in on 
14778/. 18 and 146.04/94. For further infor- 
mation, contact Bob Myers K9KTH. 2335 
Vernal Pike, Blooming ton IN 47401 

LARAMIE WY 
SEP 9-10 

The fourth annual High Plains Ham 
Roundup will be held on September 9-10, 
1983. at Yellow Pine and Pole Creek 
Campgrounds. Medicine Bow National 
Forest. t0 miles east of Laramie. Inter- 
state Highway 80, Lincoln Monument 
turnoff The campgrounds have been re- 
served tor hams and their families Bring 
your own food and drink and stay as long 
as you wish Roast bee I will be furnished 
for the pot luck supper on Saturday eve- 
ning. There win be a biueg?ass band, a 
barbershop quartet, and a sing-along 
Talk-in on 145 25J 8$. 1*6. 22 .82, or 148,52 



simplex. Far further information, contact 
Mick Marchiteiii. PO Box 731, Laramie WV 
B2O70 

HAMBURG NY 
SEP 9- 10 

Ham O Rama B3 will be held on Friday 
and Saturday, September 9-10, 1913, at 
the Erie County Fairgrounds (Buffalo 
Raceway), Hamburg NY, just south of Buf- 
falo NY. The hours on Friday are 6i00 pm 
to 9:00 pm and on Saturday, 7:00 am to 
5:00 pm. General admission la 53,50 In ad- 
vance and S4.00 at the gate. The inside 
flea market Is $10,00 and the outside flea 
market is $3.00. Features will include new 
equipment, video, and computer displays, 
technical and non-technical programs, an 
auction, and a radio test bench. Tallin on 
.311.51 (W2EUP). For more Information, 
contact N. Oldfield WA2ZSJ, 126 Green- 
way Boulevard, Cheektowaga NY 14225. 

JOHNSON CITY TN 
SEP 10 

The Bristol, King sport, and Johnson 
City Amateur Radio Clubs will hold the 3rd 
annual Tri-Cilies Hamfest on Saturday, 
September 10, 1963, at the Gray Fair- 
grounds. Gray TN, midway between the 
three cities and just off 1-81 General ad- 
mission is $2.00 in advance and $3 00 at 
the gate; flea market. $500. Everything 
will be indoors and computer enthusiasts 
are welcome. For tickets or more infor- 
mation, write Tri-Ciiies Hamfest. PO Box 
3682 CRS, Johnson City TN 37601 

LOUISVILLE NY 
SEP 10 

The area amateur radio clubs and 
REACT teams will sponsor the fourth an- 
nual Seaway Valley Hamtest on Saturday. 



September 10. 1983. ram or shine, at the 
Louisville Firemen's Area, Louisville NY. 
Tickets are $2 50 per person in advance 
and $3 00 per parson ai the gate; children 
under 12 will be admitted Ifee. Registra- 
tion and the Ilea market begin at 9:00 am 
(setups may begin at 7:30 am). There will 
be a snack bar all day Events will include 
an ARRL officials forum, technical talks, 
an OSCAR presentation, and a magic 
show The ticket includes flea-market 
apace, either lailgating or Indoors. Talk-in 
On .31/91 , 04t,BA, .52/52. or channel 0. For 
tickets, contact Lois lerlan WA2RXO, 725 
Proctor Avenue, Qgdensburg NY 13669 
{include an SASE or pick up the ticket* ai 
the main gate), 

MARION IN 
SEP 10 

The 4th annual Grant County (Indiana) 
Amateur Radio Club Hamfest will be held 
on Saturday, September 10, 19B3, begin- 
ning at 8:00 am, at McCarthy Hall. St. 
Paul's Catholic Church, Marion IN. Dona- 
lions are $2.00 In advance and $3.00 at the 
gate Table reservations are S2.O0 per 8 
foot table. Refreshments and free parking 
will be available. Talk-in on I46.i9r.79 or 
146.52 simplex. For tickets or further infor- 
mation, send an SASE to Jerry P. re hard 5 
KAftDLJ. PO Box 1 146. Marion IN 46952- 

MOBILE AL 
SEP 10*11 

The Mobile Amateur Radio Club will 
Sponsor the Hospitality Hamfest on Sep- 
tember 1Q- 11. 1383. beginning at 900 am, 
at A!'* Party Palace, 2071 Dauphin island 
Parkway (1 mile off MO}, Admission is 
tree. There will be XYL and YL activities, 
swap tables, adequate parking, reason- 
able overnight rates, and good food. Talk* 
in on i*6 22' 62 For more information, 
write Jim Wilder N4GUC \ 205^-343- 7365. 

WINDSOR ME 
SEP 10-11 

The Augusta Emergency Amateur Ra- 
dio Unit will hold the 1983 ARRL-sanc- 
tioned State of Maine Hamfest on Sep- 



tember 10-11. 1983. at the Windsor Fair- 
grounds. The gate donation is still Si 00 
and camping is S2-50 per night Features 
will include a flea market, programs for 
all, speakers, commercial distributors, 
light meals, and the traditional Saturday 
bean and casserole suppe/ Talk in on the 
146 22/,82 repeater or on 146,52. For tur- 
ther informal ion, contact N1AZH, RFD 
#2, Box 367B. Greene ME 04236. or phone 
(207}-946-7557 

MELBOURNE FL 
SEP 10-11 

The Platinum Coast Amateur Radio So- 
ciety will hold Its 18th annual hamfest and 
indoor swap- and- shop flea market on Sep- 
tember 10-1 1. 1983. at the Melbourne Audi- 
torium. Melbourne FL Admission Is $100 
in advance and $4.00 al the door Swap 
tables are £10.00 for one day and $15.00 
tor both days. Food, plenty of free parking, 
and tailgate space will be available. Fea- 
tures will Include meetings, forums, and 
awards. Talk4n on .25i.B5 and 52/52 For 
reservations, tables, and more Informa- 
tion, write PCARS. PO Box 1004, Melbourne 
FL 32901. 

FINDLAY OH 
SEP 11 

The Find lay Radio Club (WBFT) will hold 
The 41 si annual Findlay Hamfest on Sun- 
day, September II, 1983. from 6:30 am to 
5:00 pm. at the Hancock Recreational 
Center, 3430 North Main Street Findlay 
OH, Admission is S3 00 in advance tcutoft 
date is September isl> and WOO a! the 
door, Tables are S6.00 each in the arena, 
and outdoor flea-market car spaces are 
$6.00. Talk-in on 147. 15V. 75. For more 
information and reservations, write 
Findlay Radio Club, PO Bo* 587, Findlay 
OH 45840. 

MONETTMO 
SEP 11 

The Gzarfcs Amateur Radio Society will 
hold the 2nd annual Ozarfcs Amateur Radio 
Club Congress i Swapfest on Sunday, 
September 11. 1963, beginning at i 1:00 am. 



86 73 Magazine • September. 1983 



at the Monett City Park, junction of 
highways US 60 and MO 37 H Monett MO 
(about 40 miles southwest of Springfield 
MO). There Is no admission charge and no 
charge for swappers and tailgate traders 
(all space available on a first-coma, first- 
served basis). The picnic and social hour 
begin at 1:00 pm. Bring a single covered 
dteh to the country-style picnic and share in 
the buffet. Clubs are urged to attend as a 
group with an intent to form an alliance to 
expand the event in future years. Talk4n on 
i46.37/,97, 146.52 P and 7.250. For more Infor- 
mation, contact OAflS, Box 327, Aurora MO 
65605. 

CARTERVILLE IL 
SEP 11 

The Shawnee Amateur Radio Associa- 
tion will sponsor Sarafest 'S3 on Sunday, 
September 11, 1983, beginning at 7:00 am, 
rain or shine, at John A, Logan College, 
Highway 13, near Cartervilie IL (9 miles 
east of Carbondale). Admission is $3,00 at 
the door. Features will include new equip- 
ment and computers, displays, a flea 
market, ladies' activities, forums, and 
contests. There will be free coffee and 
doughnuts from 7:00 am to 6:00 am, and 
lunch will be available from 11:00 am to 
1:00 pm. Talk-in on 146,25/,85 MHz, 146,52 
MHz simplex, and 3.925 MHz. For more 
information, contact William May KB&QY, 
800 HllkJale Avenue. Herrm IL 62948, or 
call (61 81-942-25 11 days. 

JACKSONVILLE FL 
SEP 16-18 

The first ot two Great Southern Com- 
puter and Electronics Shows will be held 
on S e p tern be r 1 6- 1 8, 1 983, a 1 1 h e Veterans 
Memorial Coliseum, Jacksonville FL. Fea- 
tures will include computer hardware and 
software, peripherals, accessories, and 



word and data processing, Exhibits will in- 
clude commercial and personal elec- 
tronics, video products, robotics, and 

communications equipment. There will 
also be classes, workshops, seminars, 
and panel discussions. For registration 
information, exhibitors and attendees 
should contact Great Southern Computer 
and Electronics Shows, PO Box 655, Jack- 
sonvi lie FL 32201 , or phone (904)384-6440. 

GRAND RAPIDS Ml 
SEP 17 

The Grand Rapids Amateur Radio 
Association. Inc., will hold its annual 
swap and shop on Saturday, September 
1 7, 1983, beginning at 8:00 am, at the Hud- 
sonville Fairgrounds. There will be deal- 
ers, an indoor sales area, an outdoor trunk 
swap area, and a food concession. Talk-in 
on 146.1 Gy. 76* For more information, write 
Grand Rapids Amateur Radio Associa- 
tion, Inc., PO Box 1246, Grand Rapids Ml 
49501 

SEBASTOPOL CA 
SEP 17 

The Sonoma County Radio Amateurs. 
Inc., will hold their Indoor ham radio flea 
market on Saturday, September 17, 1963, 
from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm h at theSebastopol 
Community Center, 390 Morris Street, 
Sebastopol CA (5 miles west of Santa 
Rosa, just off Bwy. 12). Admission and 
parking are free. Indoor flea-market 
spaces are $2.50 (S5,0Q with a table) in ad- 
vance and $3,00 ($6.00 with a table) at the 
door. Vendor setup starts at 8:00 am. 
Features wl 1 1 include a radio cl Inic and an 
auction m the afternoon. Refreshments 
will be available. Talk-in on 146.1 Zl .73. For 
tickets and more Information, write SCR A, 
Boa 116, Santa Rosa CA 95404, 



PEORIA IL 
SEP 17-18 

The Peoria Area Amateur Radio Club 
will hold its Peoria Superfest '83 on 
September 17-18^ 1963, at the Exposition 
Gardens h W. Northmoor Road h Peoria IL. 
The gate opens at 6:00 am and the Com- 
mercial Building at 3:00 am. Admission is 
33.00 in advance and $4,00 at the gate. Ac 
livities will include amateur radio and 
computer displays, a huge free flea mar- 
ked a free bus for the ladies to North- 
woods Mall on Sunday, and a Saturday 
night informal get-together at Heritage 
House Smorgasbord, 8209 N, ML Haw Jay 
Road, Peoria IL. There are full camping 
facilities on the grounds, Talk-In on 
146 16/76 (W9UVI), For reservations or 
more information, send an SASE to 
Superfest S3, 5808 N. Andover CL, Peoria 
I L 61615. 

MEW KENSINGTON PA 
SEP 16 

TheSkyview Radio Society will hold its 
annual hamfest on Sunday, September 18. 
19B3, from noon to 4:00 pm h at the club 
grounds on Turkey Ridge Road, New 
Kensington PA. The registration fee is 
$2.00 and the vendor fee is $4.00. Talk-in 
on .04^.64 and .52 simplex 

DANBURY CT 
SEP 18 

The Candlewood Amateur Radio Asso- 
ciation will hold its annual flea market on 
Sunday, September 18, 1963, from 10:00 
am to 4:00 pm, at the Elks Lodge, 346 Main 
Street, Oanbury CT (exit 5 off I 84}. Admis- 
sion is $1.00 and tables are $6,50. Fea- 
tures will include dealers and a magic 
show for the kids. Talk-in on 147.72A12, 
For advance table reservations contact 





CARA, PO Box 18S 1 Brookfield 
06©50. For more Information, pi. 
George KC2QF at (914) 533 275G, kt> 
N1BVS at (203) 744^953, or George AF1 U 
at (203M3B-0549. 

PENNSAUKEN NJ 
SEP 16 

The South Jersey Radio Association 
will hold its 35th annual hamfest on Sep- 
tember 1S S 1983, from S:00 am to 4:00 pm, 
at the Pennsauken Senior High School, 
Hylton Road, Pennsauken NJ. Tickets are 
$2.50 in advance and $3. SO at the gate; 
tallgaters are $5.00, Refreshments will be 
available. Talk in on .22L82 and .52. For 
more Information, contact Fred Holler 
W2EKB, 348 Bortons MHI Road, Cherry 
Hill NJ 06002, or phone {6Q9)-79 5-0577, 

VENICE OH 
SEP 18 

The forty-sixth annual 1983 Cincinnati 
Hamfest will be held on Sunday, Septem- 
ber IB, 1983, at Strieker's Grove^ State 
Route 128. one mile west of Venice (Ross) 
OH. Admission and registration are $5.00. 
Features will include a flea market (radio- 
related products only), exhibits, music, 
talks, a hidden transmitter hunt, and an air 
show, Food and refreshments will be 
available. For more information, contact 
Lillian Abbott K8CKI r 317 Greenwell Road, 
Cincinnati OH 45238. 

MT CLEMENS Ml 
SEP 18 

The L'Anse Creuse Amateur Radio Club 
will hotd their 1 1th annual swap and shop 
on Sunday. September 19 r 1983, trom 9:00 
am to 3:00 pm, at the L'Anse Creuse High 
School Mt Clemens Ml. Take I 94 east 
bound to the Metropolitan Parkway exit; 



jM 



HAM WANTED 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

73 is looking for a technical- 
ly-oriented radio amateur with 
handson electronics experi- 
ence. Applicant should have a 
higher class ham ticket as well 
as considerable experience 
with RTTY and computers. Or- 
ganizing ability and self disci- 
pline essential. The right per* 
son will relocate to Peterbor- 
ough and undertake special 
projects . . . reporting to the 
Chief Executive Officer. . .in a 
non-smoking environment. 

Reply to: 

High Tech— W 

P.O. Box 654 

Peterborough, N.H. 

03458 




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73 Magazine • September, 1983 87 



then take the Metropolitan Parkway to 
Crocker, go loft on Crocker to Reimold 
and then right on Reimold to the last 
school, L'Anse C reuse High School. Ad- 
mission is $1,00 in advance and $2,00 at 
the door. FCC representatives will t>e 
there, as well as plenty of new and used 
gear. There will be lots of food and park- 
ing. TaJk in on 147.69/.09 and 146.52. For 
more information, send an SASE to Win. 
Chesney NfiCVC, 215 Elizabeth, Mt, Clem- 
ens Ml 48043, or phone I313M&3-1412. 



ELMIRANY 
SEP 24 



V> 



The 8th annual Elmira International 
Hamfest will be held on September 24, 
1983, beginning at 6:00 am, at the Che- 
mung County Fairgrounds. Tickets are 
$2.00 each in advance and $3.00 each at 
the gate, The flea market is free; breakfast 
and lunch will be available at reasonable 
prices. Features will include tech talks 
and dealer displays, Talk- in on 147 .96/. 36, 
146.10/70, and 146.52/. 52. For advance 
tickets, write John Breese, 340 West 
Avenue, Horseheads NY 14S45. 

WICHITA FALLS TX 
SEP 24- 2S 

The Wichita Amateur Radio Society will 
hold its second annual hamfest on 
September 24-25, 1983, at the Nat ton a J 
Guard Armory, Wichita Fal Is TX. Pre-regis- 
tretion closes Wednesday^ September 21 , 
1983^ and is $4.00 per person and $3.00 per 
swap tabic. Registration at the door is 
$5.00 end starts at 8:00 am both Saturday 
and Sunday. There is free shuttle service 
from the Kickapoo AErport <% mile south}, 
free RV parking without hookups at the an 
mory, and a concession stand open both 
days. There will be dealer displays, an in- 
side flea market with 24* hour security, 
scheduled ladies 1 activities, contests, 



meetings, and many special events. Talk- 
In on 146.34/94 and 147.75/15. For more 
Information and pre-registration, write to 
WARS Hamfest, PO Box 4363, Wichita 

Falls TX 76306. 

YORK PA 
SEP 24-25 

The York County Amateur Radio Clubs 
will hold their 26th annual York Hamfest 
and Specialized Communications Expo 
on Saturday and Sunday, September 
24-25, 1983 at the York Fairgrounds, Rte. 
74 at the northwest edge of the city, York 
PA. Saturday registration is $2,00 and 
begins at 11:00 am; Sunday registration Is 
53.00 and begins at 6:00 am. Student 
registration is $200 for both days and 
children under 12 and XYLs will be admit- 
ted free. There will be tallgating Sunday 
only and gates will open at 6:00 am for 
tallgaters and vendors. Tailgate spaces 
are $3,00 per ten feet, plus registration (re- 
quired for vendors and helpers), Indoor 
tables (with electricity) prepaid before 
August 1 are S5,00; $6,00 after August 1. 
There will be refreshments, computer dis- 
plays, ladies 1 events , overnight camping, 
new equipment displays, and on Satur- 
day, beginning at 1:00 pm, seminars and 
talks. Talk in on 146. 37/ ,97 and .52/52. For 
table pre- registrar on and tickets, send 
checks to York Hamfest, Box W, Dover PA 
17315, 

GRAYSLAKE IL 
SEP 24-25 

The Chicago FM Club, Inc., will hold 
Radio Expo 33 on September 24-25, 1983, 
at the Lake County Fairgrounds, Rtes. 45 
and 120, Grayslake IL (halfway between 
Chicago and Milwaukee). Tickets for both 
days are $3,00 in advance and $4.00 at the 
door, The flea market will open at 6:00 am 
and tables are available at $5,00 per day. 



Exhibits Witt open at 9:00 am. The camp 
area will be open Friday night and camp- 
ing is free. There will be displays of com 
municattons, how-to and technical ses 
sions, discussions with FCC and ARRL 
spokesmen, and a ladies' program. Talk-in 
on 146.16^.76, 146.52, and 222 5/224.10. 
For more information, write to Radio Ex- 
po 1 Box 1532, Evanston IL 6G2Q4, or call 
[312J-5S2-6923. 

CLEVELAND OH 
SEP 24-25 

The Cleveland Hamfest Association 
will hold the Cleveland Hamfest, 19B3, 
and the ARRL Great Lakes Division Con- 
vention on Saturday and Sunday, Septem- 
ber 24-25, 1983, at a new location, Cleve- 
land Aviation High School. North Marginal 
Road, between E 55th Street and E 3th 
Street, by Burke Lakefronl Airport, off I -SO 
or I-77. The ARRUCleveland Hamfest Ban- 
quet will be held on Saturday, September 
24th. and on Sunday, September 25th P the 
hamfest will be open from 8:00 am to 5:00 
pm, The flea market will open at 6:00 am 
and spaces are $2.00 each. General ad- 
mission is $3.00 and advance tickets are 
£2.50. Features will include forums, com- 
mercial exhibits, and ladies' activities. 
Breakfast and lunch will be served and 
overnight parking, as well as free parking 
in a secure area, will be available. Talk-in 
on 146.52 (W8QVJ. For advance tickets, 
send a check or money order before Au- 
gust 3t, 1983, to Cleveland Hamfest Asso- 
ciation. PO Bo* 93077, Cleveland OH 
44101. 

WILLIMANTtC CT 
SEP 25 

The Natch a ug A RA will hold a hamfest 
and giant flea market on Sunday, Sep- 
tember 25, 1963, from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm, at 
the Elks Home, 193 Pleasant Street {off Rte~ 



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32K Wlilimantic CT. Admission Is $2. GO; 
tables are 55.00 in advance and $7.00 at the 
door. The ARRL-approved event will be both 
inside and outside and free parking will be 
available. TaIMn on 147.30/147. 90 and 
146.52. For more information, contact Ed- 
ward C. Sad e ski KAIHF^ 49 Circle Drive, 
WiHimantic CT 06226, (203^423-7137, or 
Clifton Pease KA1HYW, 268 Main Street, 
Wlllimaritlc CT 06226, (203)456-1432 after 
4:00 pm 

GAINESVILLE GA 
S£P 25 

The 10th annual Lanierland ARC Ham- 
fest will be held on September 25 , 19&3, 
beginning at 9:00 am, in Holiday Hall, Holi- 
day Inn, Gainesville GA. Admission is 
free, as well as tables and Inside displays 
lor dealers requesting them in advance. 
Activities will include a large Ilea market, 
a boat-anchor auction, and a ladies' coun- 
try store. Talk-in on 146.07/.67. For more 
information, contact Phil Loveless 
KC4UC, 3574 Thompson Bend, Gainesville 
GA 30506, or phone (404J-532-9160, 

BOULDER CO 
SEP £5 

The Boulder Amateur Radio Club will 
hold Its fall swap lest, Bare f est, on Sep- 
tember 25, 1983, from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm, 
at the National Guard Armory, 4750 N. 
Broadway, Boulder CO Admission is 
$3.00 per Individual or per family. There 
will be an indoor and outdoor flea market, 
a snack bar, and free parking. Talk-in on 
146. 10/ JO and 146.52 simplex. For more 
information, phone Tim Groat KRBU at 
(303)-466'3733, or write 1000 East 10th 
Avenue. Broom fie Id CO 80020, 

GARDEN CITY KS 
SEP 25 

The Sandhills Amateur Radio Club will 
hold its annual Eye-Ball OSO Party on 
September 25, 1 983, beginning at 9:00 am, 
at the Finney County Fairgrounds, Garden 
City KS, For more information, send an 
SASE to SHARC, PO Box 81 1 , Garden City 
KS 67846. 

WOO D BRIDGE N J 
OCT1 

The DeVry Technical Institute Amateur 
Radio Club wiH hold its annual flea market 
on October 1, 1963. from 9:00 am to 4:00 
pm, In the school parking lot. 479 Green 
Street (between Bies. 1 and 9), Woodbrldge 
N J. Admission is $3.00 for sellers and free 
for buyers. NoelectricMy will be available. 
For f urther information, contact Frank 
Koempel WB2JKU t De Vry Technical Insti- 
tute, 479 Green Street, Woodbridge NJ 
07095. 

SYRACUSE NY 
OCT 1 

The Radio Amateurs of Greater Syr- 
acuse (RAGS) will hoid their annual Ham- 
feat and Computer Display on Saturday, 
October 1 , 1963. from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm, 
at the Art and Home Center, New York 
State Fairgrounds, Syracuse NY. Admis- 
sion is $3.00 at the door. Featured will be 
commercial exhibitors, a large indoor and 
outdoor flea market tech talks, an ARRL 
booth, displays, women's activities, con* 
tests, and entertainment. Hot food and 
beverages will be served. Talk-In on 
.90/.30, .31/ 9n, and 52 simplex. For further 
Information, contact RAGS, Box 68. Liver- 
pool NY 13DB8. 

WARRINGTON PA 
OCT 1-2 

The Pack Rats 7th annual Mid At I antic 
VHF Conference will be held on Saturday, 



88 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



October 1, 1963. beginning at 730 am, rain 
or shine, at the Warrington Motor Lodge. 
Route 611, Warrington PA Advance regis- 
tration is $4.00 and includes admission to 
she I2lh Annual Pack Rats Ha ma ram a on 
Sunday. October 2, 1383. at the Bucks 
County Dnve-in Theater, Route 611. War 
rmgton PA. Admission to the flea market 
is £3.00 and selling spaces are $5.00 each 
(brmg your own table) For advance 
registration, phone Lee A. Cohen K3MXM 
at (2l5j>635-4942, or send a check to 
Hamarama B3, PO Box3ii, Soulharnplon 
PA 1S986, 

CEDAR RAPIDS I A 
OCT 2 

The Cedar Valfey Amateur Radio Club 
IWCGG) will hold its 9th annual ARRL 
CVARC Hamlest on Sunday. October 2, 
1963. beginning at 7:00 am. at the Hawk- 
eye Downs Evhibttiofi Building. Cedar 
Rapids I A Tickets are $2.00 in advance 
and $3. 00 at the door. Tables are S5 GO for 
the first and $7 00 for others. There is an 
overnight camping area, picnic facilities, 
ample parking, and a concession stand. 
There will be movies, manufactures, deal* 
era. and ARRL representatives tea lured. 
Taikin on 146.16/.76 H 52, and 223.34f.94 
MHz, For advance tickets or reservations, 
write CVARC Ham test, PO Box 994, Cedar 
Rapids IA 52406. 



/ 



VONKERS NY 
OCT 2 



&> 



The Yorkers Amateur Radio Club will 
sponsor the Yonkers Electronics Fair and 
Grant Flea Market on Sunday, October 2, 
1963, from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. ram or 
shine, at the Yonkers Municipal Parking 
Garage, corner of Nepoerhan Avenue and 



New Mam Street, Yonkers NY. Admission 
is $2.00 each and children under 12 will be 
admitted free. Gales will be open to sell- 
ers at 600 am and there will be a $6.00 ad 
mission per parking space which will also 
admit one (bring your own tables). Re- 
freshments, tree parking, and sanitary fa 
cilittes will be available, as well as unlim- 
ited tree coffee. There will be live demon 
stations all day and a giant auction ai 
2:00 pm. Talk-in on 146.265771 46 865 R or 
,52 direct. For more information, write 
YARG, 53 Hay ward Street. Yonkers NY 
10704, or phone (914)969-1053. 

REVERE MA 
OCT 16 

The 19-79 Amateur Radio Association 
of Chelsea MA win hold its annual fail flea 
market on Sunday. October 18, 1963, from 
11:00 am to 4:00 pm (sellers admitted at 
IfcOO am), at the Seachmont VFW Post. 150 
Bennington Street, Revere MA Admission 
is $800 at the door, if available Talk-m on 
.1*79 and 52. For table reservations, 
send a check to 19-79 Amateur Radio 
Association. PO Box 171, Chelsea MA 
02150 

BALTIMORE MD 
OCT 23 

The Columbia Amateur Radio Associa 
lion will hold its 7th annual hamfesi on 
Sunday, October 23, 1983, from 8:00 am to 
3:30 pm f at the Howard County Fair- 
grounds. 15 miles west of Baltimore MD. 
just ofl I-7Q on Rte 144. 1 msle west of Rte 
32 Admission is $3.00. Indoor tailgaung Is 
S3 00 additional Food witt be avai table 
TaHUnon 147.735/ 135 and 146.52/52 For 
table reservations and more information, 
write Ed Wallace K3EF. 990$ Carillon 
Drive. Eilicoti City MD 21043. 




MM HELP 



^ 



I need the technical manual for an Eico 
model 460 oscilloscope, I will copy and 
return it. 

H. L. Church 

309 W, St. Louis St. 

Lebanon It 622S4*0126 

Can anyone supply me with a sche- 



matic and operating manual for the Akai 
VTS-150 color camera and recorder? I will 
pay copying costs or return the original I 
couid use similar data on the Morrow 
MB-6 receiver and the MB-565 transmitter 

Mark R Nelson AJ2X 

4317 Foley Drive 

Knoxville TN 37918 



Sep 



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PHASE 1MB 

Recovering from a troubled beginning^ Phase MIS — now AMSAT/OSCAR 10— was 
boosted into a higher orbit on Monday. July 11 After correcting OSCAR 10's altitude and 
increasing the exposure of the solar cells, ground stations fired the kick motor for the 
first time at 2232 UTC. The second tiring, which was scheduled for July 20, was to alter 
the Inclination of the satellite, OSCAH 10 planners hoped to have the transponders oper- 
ational by July 24. 

OSCAR 10's transponders operate in two frequency ranges. The general beacon for Mode 
B is on 145810 MHz. and the engineering beacon is slightly higher, at 145.907 MHz. The 
uplink is between 435.025 and 438.175 MHz, and the downlmk is between 145.975 and 
145B25 MHz. The general beacon for Mode L is on 436,020 MHz, and the engineering beacon 
is at 436.040 MHz, The Model L uptink is from 1269.050 to 1268.850. with the downlink be- 
tween 436.950 and 436 1 50 MHz. 



CORRECTIONS 




Af OUT 



FTF 



. TO COMP METER lN*»UT 
'IF USED 



NOTE 

IF ADJUSTABLE COMPRESSION IS WOT DESIRED. 
MAKE ft 5- TWQ FIXED ONE MEGOHM RESISTORS 



A couple of QtTors appeared in "What? 
Another Audio Filter Project?"' m the 
November, 1982. issue of T3. The com- 
press! on and power schematic on page 33 
was incorrectly drawn; ii should look like 
Fig, 1. Fig, 1 also incorporates an adjust- 
able compression modification The 
modification described in the article will 
not work. 

The clipper circuit on page 33 needs dif- 
ferent component values to produce a 
clean output. Fig 2 shows the circuit and 
new component values. 

In some cases, the unit proved to be rt 
susceptible. The cure is to run at) of (he 



'•>-» 



}|-»OUT 




Fig, T. Compression circuit with adjustable compression modification. 



I0K LINEAR 



fig, 2, dipper circuit and new component 
values, 



leads from the fitter through lerrtte beads 
as they enter the case, and bypass the 
lead to ground with small ceramic 
capacitors. 

George Thurston W4MLE 
Tallahassee FL 

On page 12 of the July, 1963, Issue, the 
author of "You Can Build This Code 
Trainer 1 ' was inadvertently omitted, The 
author of the article is Harry Latterman 
K7ZOV, 1655 W, Lindner Ave,, Mesa AZ 
&5202. 

Avery L Jenkins WB&JLG 

restart 

There is a way to improve the accuracy 
of the "VUM: Volume linns Meter/" which 
appeared on page 72 of the August 1982. 
issue. With the given values of R1-R7. the 
Input attenuator has an error of about 10 
percent. The following values will give an 
error of less than 1 percent: ftl— 6,900; 
R2— 15k; S3— 47k: R4 — l50fc; R5— 470k; 
a6-i,5M;andR7~4.7M, 

George Thurston W4MLE 
Tallahasse FL 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 89 



REVIEW 



SUPER R ATT RTTY/CW 
PROGRAM WITH RBBS 

Su re [y you ha ve heard t he say mg "Build 
a better mousetrap and the world will beat 
a path. 10 your door." Why not turn things 
around and build a toiler "Rett'*? That's 
what the folfcs at Universal Software have 
done. First impressions are only worth so 
much, but If my judgment is correct, trie 
world of Apple-corn put er-owning hams is 
already beating a path to the door of the 
maker of Super-Ratt. A software-only 
package, Super- Rati is meant to be used 
with a *BK Apple It, Applesoft Basic, and 
at least one DOS 3 3 disk drive You also 
need a terminal unit, one capable of 
interfacing to the Apple s TTL-compatrbie 
game i.'0 connector 

Though ihis review deals only with the 
straightforward RTTY portion of the pro- 
gram, Super-Ratt also offers CW transmit 
and receive capability and an integrated 
radio bulletin board {RBBS). The program 
itself comes on a non- protected DOS 3.3 
disk and is accompanied by a profession- 
attacking 65-page manual. 

Set aside a couple of hours to get Su 
per-Ratt running. First you'll need to make 
a working copy of the diskette and per 
haps add some canned massages. And 
you will have to interface your Apple to 
demodulator and modulator circuits. Just 
about any ol the popular terminal units 
(Til) should do the job, provided that it rs 
TTL-compatible- Oo lake care to avoid 
hooking anything thai remotely resem- 
bles high voltage to your computer, 
unless you want to make some repairs. 
For this review, a slightly modified 
Flesher TIM 70 was used. If you don't have 
a TU. then you might want to build one of 
the simple circuits shown In the back of 
the Super-Ratt manual. A third choice Is 
the Radcom TU which plugs directly Into 
one of the Apple's peripheral slots. 

Once the set-up phase is complete, ac- 
tual operation starts simply: Just Insert 
the disk, turn on the computer and tune In 
a signal There are no menus to deal with; 
the program goes directly to the receive 
mode and its standard five-pad, 24-line 
screen display. The lop and bottom lines 
are devoted lo prompts and status infor- 
mation such as the mode, speed, and buf- 
fer. The received text area is composed of 
13 forty-character lines, while the transmit 
type-ahead buffer contents are displayed 
with four lines. Another four lines are used 
lo denote boundaries, and the final fine, 
situated between the receive and transmit 
display regions, is a scrolhng readout of 
what is being sent during transmit. For 
tuning purposes, there is a mark/space In- 
dicator on the top flatus line. 

Typing a combination of the control 
shift and P keys stops the receive function 
and brings up the help screen. There are 
27 control codes, some of which you may 
use numerous times in each Q50; others 
you may never touch Joe Ham M will 
probably find the following most useful: 
Contra M inverts the marfcj space sense; 
Control^ is for CW identification. 
Control X, when put at the end ot the 
transmit buffer automatically switches 
the system back to receive; and ControU 
la used for "break -m" operation for times 
when you want to make a quick reply and 
not disturb the type-ahead buffer. Other 
commands switch the speed or mode 
{Baudot ASCII, and Morse) and let the Drake Theta 900QE communications lerminaHPfioto courtesy of ft L Drake Company). 



operator erase the transmit or receive buf- 
fer contents. 

The commands mentioned so far give 
an operator as many or more features 
than were usually found in an old-time me- 
chanical RTTY station. The remaining 
20 * Super-Hatt commands are like the ic- 
ing on the cake. Among other things, they 
permit you to use an almost full screen for 
receiving, load and save disk files, have 
the buffer contents automatically stored 
to disk, make entries in a disk-based 
togbook T define and then use up to eleven 
different temporary sequences (i.e^ the 
other op's caiisigm. and relay the last 
received transmission. 

Besides straightforward CW and RTTY 
operation, Super-Ratt offers RBBS, selcal, 
and shortwave-listening capability The 
following is just a brief introduction to 
these modes: 

• RBBS <Radio Bulletin Board System) 
"... allows other people to use your com- 
puter as a message center You do not 
need to actually operate your station your- 
self. The Apple II will do all the work." 
i From the Super-Ratt manual.) A quick 
spin across the RTTY portion of 40 or 80 
meters will demonstrate the popularity of 
radio bulletin boards, if you decide to be- 
come a ' ' sy sop 1 ' lo wne r and opera t o r o f an 
RBBS). then be prepared to dedicate a rig, 
antenna, and computer to the project plus 
be willing to maintain the user-generated 
tiles frequently. Note: Be sure to check 
the FCC rules concerning unattended op- 
eration. 

The SuperRatt RBBS software has sev 
eral unique features. Users can call up to 
four analog readouts that are based on In- 
puts to the Apple game port, turn on a 
tape recorder and leave a voice message 
(VHF bands only), and switch the system 
to other codes and speeds. 

• Selcal, or selective calling, puts Super- 
Ratt on guard for a password. As soon as 
it Is received, the computer beeps and 
displays the time, 

• SWL or shortwave listening; If you lire 
of the ham bands, Ihen try tuning across 
the commercial spectrum. You'll find 
plenty of RTTY signals, some of which are 
una needed. Super-Ratt makes copying 
Ihess easier by offering a continuous 
range of speeds and automatic si o rage. 

If you are like me and operating takes a 
backseat to hardware and software tinker- 



ing, then you'd be happy to learn that Su- 
perRatt is meant lor the hacker. The pro^ 
grams are written fn Applesoft Basic and 
come in both remarked and compacted 
versions. This brings us to "Halt-Soft," an 
offshoot of Basic that uses ihe Apples 
ampersand (&) command thai allows us- 
ers to define their own functions Super- 
Ratt uses almost three dozen ampersand 
functions, and Ihe manual includes a 
short description of each one in case you 
wani to write your own software or make 
changes in the original program The au- 
thor of Super-Ratt encourages you to 
strike out on your own and, accordingly, 
the manual gives a brief description of the 
program variable names, reset parame- 
ters, and I/O locations. Obviously, anyone 
who wants to make use of this informa- 
tion should be acquainted with Basic pro- 
gramming and the Apple computer first 

Even ihe best mousetrap has some non- 
distinguishing characteristics, as does 
Super Rat t This program, like other soft 
ware-only RTTY packages, is only as good 
as your terminal unit and receiver. (The 
Egbert II RTTY program is a notable ex- 
ception There, the software and com- 
puter form the TU.) If you have a simple 
one-chip phase- locked- loop demodulator, 
then you are going to have trouble when 
fading and noise move In. Other quirks in- 
clude the cumbersome way in which the 
time can be accessed If you have a hard- 
ware clock in your Apple; Ihe program re- 
quires a manual update command to be 
typed on every occasion (he time «s sent, 
and II you are one ol those operators who 
likes io monitor Ihe status of the transmit 
and receive buffers, you'll find thai (he in- 
formation is available but at the expense 
of shifting out of receive to glance at It 
Finally, the mark/space status Indicator is 
no substitute tor a scope display or a 
good meter indicator when It comes time 
to lune In a signal. 

My most serious reservations about Su* 
per-Ratt are the result of lis sophistica- 
tion. As a beginning user, at times I found 
myself typing the wrong command keys 
The result certainly Isn't fatal but it can be 
embarrassing. Hams new lo RTTY may be 
intimidated by the array ot commands, 
and the instructions don't always help — 
Ihey highlight rather lhan fully explain 
features. Similarly, if you are a new Apple 
owner, It might be a good Idea to spend a 
few weeks trying other, less sophisticated 
operations with your computer before you 
start Interfacing It to a terminal unit and 
creating a RTTY program disk. 

There are a handful of RTTY programs 
sold for the Apple computer. What makes 
Super Rett special? One, if offers solid 
performance for day to-day operating; 




two, the radio bulletin board system is as 
interesting and popular as they come; and 
three, Super-Ratt is a program you can 
tinker with and grow into Universal Soft- 
ware has indeed built a better "Rati" And 
I suspect that the well-beaten path to their 
door will soon be turning into a highway. 
Super-Ratt sells for 159 95 For more in 
to rm at ion, contact Universal Software, 9 
Shields Lane. Ridge field CT 06877. Read 
er Service number 490. 

Timothy Daniel N8RK 
Oxford OH 

DRAKE 9000E 

COMMUNICATIONS 

TERMINAL 

Within the past two to three years, altar 
a rather lethargic period, there has been a 
resurgence of interest in amateur and 
SWL RTTY activity Primarily, this has 
been due to the state of She art moving 
rapidly forward, thus making available 
video-di splay-type communications ter- 
minals, which, technically at least, far sur- 
pass the capabilities of teleprinters and 
their associated equipment. 

This revival has also had the incentive 
of lowered costs of such terminals, to- 
gether with the popularity of personal 
computers 1hat has burst upon us within 
the last few years. Even the most lowly 
$89 computer can now transmit and re 
ceive RTTY and CW. Electronics has never 
been a standstill industry and with Ihe ad- 
vent of the integrated circuit, it was only a 
matter of lime until computers and ham 
radio merged to form a single path of two 
extremely exciting interests. 

Actively aiding this explosion of in 
terest in communications, the Drake Com- 
pany of Mi am is burg, Ohio, has recently 
released the Theta 9000E communica- 
tions terminal 

To say that this terminal Is the ultimate 
terminal would be incorrect, not because 
of any lack of features, by any means, bul 
because of the very volatility of elec^ 
ironies design. Nevertheless, the Drake 
900QE has so many operating features 
that some owners will probably never gel 
around to using all ol I hem. Let's look at 
these capabilities In depth and see how 
useful they can be to Ihe operator or 
listener. 

Features 

The Theta 9000 E operates in five 
distinct modes and numerous sub-modes 
Not all of these are related directly to 
amateur radio or commercial monitoring, 
for several of these are definitely com- 
puter-oriented. This is not to say that this 
aspect may not also be ultimately used for 
ham operation. In fact, as FCC regula 
lions permit (and it may be hoped these 
will continue to be brought to within the 
state of the art), the 9QO0E will be emreme- 
ly useful when used in computer-to- 
co m put er communication. 

Specifications of the 9000 E are shown 
in Table V Asa communications terminal, 
the 9000E will send and receive CW, 
Baudot (RTTY), and ASCII {RTTY and 
KCS|- The last-named. Kansas City Stan- 
dard, has some restrictions, which will be 
mentioned later. As a computer, the 9000E 
has a full word-processor function, useful 
for writing articles, letters, etc. 

A standard and an enlarged video- 
display format can be used, as well as a 
memory capability of 14,000 characters 
which may be scrolled on-screen. A graph- 
ics function with an accessory light pan 
allows drawings to be produced on 
screen, which may be saved to a cassette 
tape recorder (not supplied) or transmit' 
ted to another Theta 9000E. 

It is possible to use the terminal in full- 



90 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



WHAT DO YOU THINK? 

Have you recently purchased a new product that has been reviewed in 737 If 
you have, write and leflus what you think about ft, 73 will pubfish your comments 
so you can share them with other hams, as pad of our continuing effort to bring 
you the best in new product information and reviews. Send your thoughts to 
Review Editor, 73: Amateur Radio's TecftnicBi JournaL Peterborough NH 03458, 



duplex mode while using ASCII, and you 
can also use the unit as an RS-232C ter- 
minal at up to 9600 baud, Three frequency 
shifts are available, and either hrgh tone 
or low-tone pairs may be selected Mark 
only or space-only copy can be switched 
in and out, if required. 

The only mandatory externa) equip- 
ment required for terminal operation is a 
power supply and a video-display moniior 

Additional features will be discussed in 
greater detail below. 

Hardware 

Mechanically, tne 9000E definitely does 
not look like something Mudged up >n 
someone s garage. The appearance is 
first-class, and the mechanical rigidity is 
BOlid « ; of the electronics are packaged 
m an attractively finished satin biack 
metal case measuring 16** inches by 9% 
inches, with the panel sloping from 1*4 
inches ai the from to 3% Inches at I he 
back. 

The keyboard is standard "QWERTY" In 
ASCII format. In addition, there is a row of 
14 special -purpose dual- function keys 
along the lop of the keyboard. These He 
dedicated to control functions and are 
quickly identified as I hey are colored red 
with white markings {except one, the 
ftESET key, which Is white with black 
markings)- There are numerous other 
computer-oriented keys on this keyboard, 
such as ESC (Escape), RETURN, BS (Back 
Space}, etc. Nevertheless, when transmit- 
ting Baudot, It will conform to the require- 
ments of FCC Regulations Part 97.69 re- 
gardlng International Telegraphic Alpha* 
bet No, 2> 

All of the alpha and numeric keys are 
colored light gray with white Indicia, 
special control keys are black with white, 
and function keys are ellher white with 
black lettering, or, as In the case of the 
space bar and shift keys, red and red with 
white, respectively. 

Overall, the keyboard has a vary pleas 
ing appearance and a good, definitive 
touch when the keys are depressed, I 
found the position of the RETURN key a 
I Kile Far away for my pinky to reach com- 
fortably: it must pass over DELETE on the 
way. However this opinion is subjective 
— nearly every computer now has the 
ENTER or RETURN key at a slightly dif- 
ferent position, and it is a matter of get- 
ting used to it. (As will be explained later, 
there are only a few occasions when It is 
necessary to use the RETURN key anyway, 
as full- word wraparound is supported.) 

It is necessary to remove (he case In 
order to install two AA type battenes used 
for memory retention {good for about one 
year). This is a simple operation and takes 
but a moment. LEOs are used to indicate 
power on and the presence of space and 
mark signals Two variable controls. Fine 
Tuning and Volume, are in a vertical line on 
the right-hand side ot the cabinet 

All connections to the 90O0E are made 
via the rear panei (the internal speaker for 
the audm monitor faces out from this 
back panel also). Bringing all of the pe- 
ripheral cabling out the back is quite 
satisfactory — [he great number of possi- 
ble connections would otherwise make a 
rat's nest of cabling. Coaxial cable the 
sir© of RG-174 <but not otherwise identi- 
fied! is supplied tor making connections 



to peripheral equipment, together with 
sufficient phono connectors. The use of 
this type of connector, especially for RS- 
232C connections, is not the best way to 
§0, The parallel printer port has a stan- 
dard DB-25 connect ton. which is much 
more effective The power cable exits 
from the back pane), too. and jacks are 
available for connecting an external 
oscilloscope lor monitoring space and 
mark tuning, if desired. AJJ FSK and AFSK 
connection circuits are via high-voltage, 
rugh-current optotsoiators 

The audio monitor is used for both 
transmitting and receiving and has its 
own gain control. Monitoring in Receive 
can be either the output of the mark signal 
path or space or the audio output from the 
age amplifier prior to the channel filters. 

Vkteo-CMsptay 

Terminal Requirements 

The video-display terminal (monitor) 
may be of any size screen. Drake offers a 
monitor as an option. The display must be 
capable of accepting a composite video 
signal of 1.0 volt p-p at 75 Ohms im- 
pedance. 

Power Supply Requirements 

A power source of 1 3.6 volts dc{- 1, +2 
volis} at 1.3 A Is required for the 9000E. 
(Drake also offers a suitable power supply 
as a n opi io n . ) A n o n-of f roc ke r-type s wi t c h 
Is on the back panel. 

Functional Description 
(C omm u n lea t Ion s ■ Or iented I 

RTTY. The first mode to be described, 
and probably the most important In the 
eyes of many who are presently operating, 
is RTTY, RTTY is available on the 9000E in 
a multitude of modes, shifts, and speeds. 
Possibly the mosl common mode current- 
ly In use on the ham bands is Baudot 
operation with 1 70-Hz shift and 45.45 baud 
(60 wpm). However, all of the shift frequen- 
cies and baud rates shown In Table 1 are 
available by keyboard selection. Of 
course, all of those shown are not current- 
ly authorized by the FCC for amateur 
operation in the US. 

These frequency shifts and transmis- 
sion rates are available as AFSK or FSK 
transmissions, depending upon the out- 
out that is selected for use with the 
transmitter. Reception will be at the 
selected shifUspeed, and, although if is 
possible to receive at a different shift or 
speed than that transmitted by using a 
quick keyboard change, this is a highly 
unlikely possi bitty. 

It should be noted that the shift fre- 
quencies and speeds shown in Table 1 are 
available in a high-tone or low- tone out- 
put The choice made is largely dependent 
upon whether you are operating in the HF 
bands or on VHF. 

ASCtt The other primary sub-mode m 
RTTY operation is the one thai is gaining 
more and more adherents since being au- 
thorized by the FCC — ASCII. This mode 
will be of interest to computer buffs, too, 
as they may transmit and receive comput 
ex programs and operate remote comput- 
ers with no translation needed from ASCII 
to Baudot. 

As with Baudot, the ASCII shifts, 
speeds, and high-low tones are available, 
but because of the complete differences 



LCodft 
Morse code (CW). Baudot code<RTTY), and ASCII (RTTY and KCS) 

2. Characters 

Alphabet, figures, symbols, and special characters 

3. Speed 

Morse: deceiving 5-50 words/minute {automatic track) 

Transmitting 5-50 wordsiminute (weight 1:3^*1:6} 
Baudot and ASC1L 45.45. 50, 56. SS, 74.2 100, 110, 150, 200, 300. 600. 1200, 

2400. 4600. 9600 baud 

4. Input 

AF input impedance (CW, RTTY. and ASCI IK 500 Ohms 
KCS imput impedance; 500 Ohms 
TTL level input: common to CW, RTTY; and ASQJ 
RS*232C Input: common to CW. RTTY, and ASCII 

5. AF Frequency 
Morse: 830 Hz 

RTTY (Baudot. ASCII): Mar* 1275 Hz (low tone, 2125 Hz (high tone) 

Shift 170 Hz, 425 Hz, 650 Hz + fine tuning 

KCS Mark 2400 Hz 

Space 1200 Hz 

& Output 

Key mo output CW 80 mA, 200 V (optoisoiator) 

FSK 80 mA. 200 V (optoisolafor) 

Remote 200 mA. 100 V (optoisolat on 
FIT 100 mA. 100 V (positive voltage only) 

AFSK output impedance; SOD Ohms (common to CW T RTTY. and ASCII* 

RS-232C output: common to CW. RTTY. ASCII 

7. AFSK Output Frequency 
Morse; 830 Hz 
RTTY {Baudot, ASCII); Mark 

Shift 
KCS: Mark 

Space 

a. Display Output 

Composite video-signal output impedance: 75 Ohms 

9- interface for Printer 
Centronics compatibie parallel interface 

10. Number of Characters Displayed 
Screen formal (keyboard selectable): 

60 characters x 24 lines ■ 1920 characters 

40 characters x 24 lines = 960 characters 
Possible number of characters displayed: 14,000 characters 
Graphics mode: 80 elements wide x 72 elements high 

11. Battery- Back- Up Memory 
256 characters x 1 channels 

12. Buffer Memory 
3120 Characters 

13. Outpul Impedance for Oscilloscope 
200k Ohms 

14. AF Output 
150 mW 
Output Impedance: B Ohms 

15. Power Supply Requirement 
DC +T2V, 1.3 A 

16. Dimensions 
415mm x 245mm x 45mm-v7&mm 



1275 Hi (low tone). 2125 Hz (h if h tone} 
170 Hz, 425 Hz, BSD H2 + fine tuning 
2400 Hz 
1200 Hz 



17. Accessories 




Insiruction manual 


i 


Pin plug 


13 


Fuse 


l 


Coaxial cable 


4m 


Light pen 


1 


3l*connectot 


1 



Table T. Specifications for the Theta 90OGE terminal. 



in the codes of Baudot and ASCII, the 
90G0E has dedicated keys Io permit selec- 
tion upon power-up of either one or the 
other. 

One other aspect ot ASCII operation 
will |»e of interest the so-called Kansas 
City Standard {KCS). This operation may 
be used for recording on a cassette re- 
corder, so that in effect you have a "tape 
system" capable of storing text or RTTY 
pictures for future use. 

CW. This is the third mode available tor 
transmitting and receiving with IheSQOGE 
This, too, is selected using a dedicated 
key. Similar to the Baudot and ASCII 
modes, the CW mode may be effected 



with several sub-types of operation Bui in 
the case of CW. these probably are more 
valuable mart in the RTTY mode. For ex- 
ample, you may transmit Io the screen 
and built-in audio monitor any approved 
CW character. The Matter is a "tocat" mode 
and is not transmitted (you could do that 
too. of course). Also, if you need the brae 
lice, you may place the terminal in auto 
matic cipher mode and it will send random 
five- letter group characters forever, if you 
would tike (hat. You may also direct these 
groups to a tape recorder or a printer Us- 
ing your hand key, bug, or keyer, you can 
send manually and have \t sound on the 
speaker and appear on the screen. Be- 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 91 



cause of The acute character- recognition 
attributes of the 90O0E, your sending had 
better be flawless or nearly so, This will be 
discussed again later on. 

You may also send manually but 
receive by way of the terminal: techni- 
cally, you could da the reverse by using 
the keyboard to transmit and listening 
and copying manually. You may even do 
this and use the Keyboard for typing what 
you are hearing and have the screen or 
printer display your copy 

CW Transmitting speeds are pre- 
selected, with the Initial power-up state 
being 11 wpm. Nine other speeds may be 
keyboard-seJected; 5, 6 f 8, 14, 18, 23, 30, 
39, and 50 wpm, Ten slepa of weighting 
may be set. also by keyboard control. 

CW reception speeds are automatically 
tracked If there is a sudden switch from a 
higher speed of reception to a lower one. 
several characters may be dropped until 
synchronization is achieved. 

The speeds shown above are no! a fixed 
factor A refinement Of t/64th higher or 
lower than the existing speed is possible 
by a double-key entry (Using the 9000E f Of 
code practice, you could select a goal of 
speeding up U64th each day ) 

Description 

(Com pu ter-0 rie n ted) 

If the preceding modes could be 
described as "communications," then the 
next can be called "computer."' Never 
theless, these, too, may be used m com- 
munications where authorized or by direct 
wire using a modem. 

Word Processor. The word-processor 
mode operates just as any computer word- 
processing program would, but tl does not 
have all of the embellishments of some of 
the more esoteric computer programs or 
dedicated word-processing terminals 
Notwithstanding that statement, it is still 
quite adequate for letter-writing, small ar- 
ticle preparation, lists, togging, etc. 

For those hams who may not be familiar 
with computer operations, word process- 
ing is the ability to compose, write (type), 
delete, modify, and move characters, 
sentences, and blocks of words on the 
video display until the material is satisfac- 
torily composed. This Is like typing 
something and then being able to change 
ot correct any of it oefore committing tl to 
the printed page. 

The word-processor mode is accessed 
by pressing two keys Simultaneously. The 
baud rate will be 300. and the AFSK output 
wilt be 2400 Hz mark and 1 200 Hz space 
(KCSi Up to three pages of 65 lines are 
available for preparation purposes, with 
the video presenting 24 hnes of SO char- 
acters The screen splits vertically in this 
mode, with the (eh most eight character 
columns comprising an "operation" area 
and the next 72 columns allowed for 
"data" — In this case, this Is your text 
area. 

In i he word- processing mode, you may 
connect to a tape recorder as well as a 
printer. Full cursor control Is obtained by 
using the labeled arrow Keys, and the cur- 
sor may be moved up to 99 lines in one 
move (depending upon Its location at me 
moment) by three Keystrokes. 

A great many other standard word- 
processrng functions are available using 
similar key motions, such as block text 
change, line insert ron/deletion, left and 
right margin justification, insert and 
delete spaces, and numerous others. 
Even one of me more useful and highly 
desirable functions found in good com- 
mercial word-processing programs is 
within (he capability of the 9000E — 

character search "Characler" may be a 
single character or a sequence of charac- 
ters h known in I he computer field as a 




Q Q mic(§F9 



PAINTER WITH CENTRONICS 
PAPA CO^PATIHLt EhrEftPACC 



PC POWER SUPPI.1I 1 

i *a UP 



Cassette -tape recorder 



Fig. f. Perlphsrat equipment interconnections 



"string," Merely by typing one letter plus 
(he string being sought, the 90O0E will 
search tor and display the si'mg upon 
locating it. This may take a second or two 
or a fraction of a second depending upon 
how far the string may oe into I he text 
from the start at the search, When found, 
the screen will scroll to the line where the 
string is located and the cursor wilt stop 
at the beginning of the line that the String; 
15 in. If no such string exists, the screen 
will display 'NO DATA.' Once found, the 
string may be deleted, modified, or 
moved, using the commands for these 
functions. 

A rather unusual function, and one that 
is not customarily found In many word- 
processing programs is the ability to 
draw vertical and horizontal lines Oh the 
screen or printer. A dual keystroke fol- 
lowed by a numeral will draw either one of 
these from the cursor position lo the ex- 
tent of the numerical quantity that has 
been entered. The manual describes this 
operation as the drawing of horizon tal/ver- 
i leal "tines/" and the way it is presented is 
a little confusing. For instance, if nine 
horizontal 'lines ' {manual terminology) 
are to be drawn, nine hyphens in a row will 
appear. The manual indicates that each 
hyphen is a "line; 1 which Is not really the 
co n co p t . Of co u rse, you c an draw nine tru- 
ly individual broken horizontal lines by re- 
questing the required number of hyphens 
for each of the nine lines desired. The 
same applies to vertical M llnea." In this 
case, the vertical "lines" are colons 
presented vertically down the screen. Re- 
gardless of how this is presented in the 
manual, the ability to draw fine* such as 
these is an excellent way to quickly lay 
out tables and charts on the screen and 
the printer. 

The 9000E memory may be used for the 
retention of repetitive material used in the 
word-processing mode, the lines men- 
tioned above, or names and addresses, 
etc, for instance, and these may be ac- 
cessed as required. The memory function 
will be d escribed in more detail presently 
in connection with the other functions. 

Graphics. The final major function of 



the 9000E is the graphics mode This will 
be mentioned in this review as a major 
mode, although in the 9000E manual u is 
relegated to a category of sub-funciiohs 
that includes split-screen operation and 
selective calling. 

The graphics mode, however, is not on- 
ly unusual for a communications terminal 
to have, but also Its output may be trans 
mitted to other Theta 9000E terminals and 
could be useful for rough schematic draw- 
ings or block-diagram transmissions. 

Graphics are created using a supplied 
light pen, Once again H for those not too 
familiar with computer techniques, a light 
pen may 'read' or "write" data to and 
from a CRT by touching the light-sensitive 
tip of the pen to the screen. This is exactly 
what happens with the 9000E. but using 
the pen to read characters does not apply 
with this equipment. Any characters 
created on the screen may be transmitted 
lo either a tape recorder or another Theta 
as mentioned, 

Initially, in the graphics mode, the 
screen will display a full grid of small light 
squares (pixels). To use the light pen, the 
tip is touched against the display, and, 
while holding one key down, the pen is 
moved vertically and horizontally, as re- 
quired. This creates a pattern of smalt in- 
verted "in block characters wherever the 
pen touches a pixel while the key is de- 
pressed. When llnlshed, a single com- 
mand erases all Of the remaining pixels, 
which leaves the sketch as composed, 

Memory 

The Impressive memory capabilities of 
the 9000 E are sufficiently important to 
warrant review consideration in some de- 
tail Memory in the RTTY mode is like hav 
ing a built-in paper-tape capability, in this 
instance, however, you may modify and 
store data ready for transmission or other 
use in an instant, and without the noise of 
a paper punch. 

The memory is available for use in all 
modes. In fact, some data stored in 
memory may be applicable and used Inter- 
changeably in RTTYandCW, for instance. 
But protocol will dictate actual usage: CW 



abbreviations have limited use, iranyjn a 
RTTY QSO: on the other hand, words 
spelled out are seldom used in CW. ex- 
cept for traffic handling when this could 
be particularly useful, (for traffic nan 
dling + you can transmit the "received" 
screen, too.) 

A 3120-character buffer memory may be 
utilized in split-screen mode on the tower 
portion of the screen This is a volatile 
memory. A Random Access Memory 
« RAM} capability of 256 characters each In 
seven different channels is also available. 
Data is maintained in this area with the 
batteries mentioned under "Hardware.' 
Data in this area may be changed at any 
time, and in any channel, without disturb- 
ing the contents of other channels. It 
should also be mentioned that data in the 
buffer may be changed even while being 
transmitted, if necessary {before it is 
keyed, of course* 

One memory channel (channel 6) has 16 
subsections with space for 16 characters 
each in it, and another (channel 7) has 
eight subsections of 32 characters each, 
Transmission of data in the first live chan- 
nels (256 characters each* may be 
repeated up to nine limes. Channel 6 with 
its 16 subsections may "chain" or over 
write into a subsequent channel it the 
number of characters in one exceeds its 
limits. Thus it, loo. may be utilized for 256 
characters if necessary. This channel also 
may be repeated up to nine times. 

The operation of channel 7 is similar; 
however, subsection ? of this channel nas 
the ,L OBF" message written in il ( M TH£ 
QUICK BROWN FOX , ."), and "CW IO 
FOLLOWS" is in subsection 6, which wW 
also normally contain your call. No repeal 
function occurs in channel J, A stored 
"RYRV" is present, too. 

Opera tor's Manual 

Until I began reading the manual. I 
honest ly believed that the 9000E was of 
US manufacture (not yet having looked at 
the serial-number plate). Almost im- 
mediately II was evident thai the manual 
was written In Japanese-oriented English 
Not that this pattern is particularly dif- 
ficult to understand m this instance, but a 
few of the sentences and phrases 
throughout the manual are convoluted to 
the extent that you may ash. "What does 
this mean?" 

In addition, the manual suffers from a 
tack of good organization, with a number 
of explanations either redundant or scat- 
tered piecemeal in different parts of the 
manual A good English editorial treat 
ment of the manual could cut its volume 
by a third and a! the same time make It far 
more easy to read and understand 

Physically, the manual Is composed of 
75 pages of sharp typewriter font copy, it 
is very legible, being printed on good 
quality, coaled white paper. Sectional 
numbering is maintained throughout, al- 
though there 1$ a preponderance of sec- 
tion, subsection, paragraph, and Item 
numbering, which becomes quite confus- 
ing when looking for a particular subject. 
All of this is bound In a stiff cardslock 
blue cover. Unfortunately, the booh Is 
glued along the spine, making it impossi- 
ble to use it open and flat. (I cut the spine 
Off, punched three holes in ii, and bound it 
m a three-ring binder | 

There is a Table of Contents, but no In- 
dex, which would be helpful. Inasmuch as 
the breaking up of Information as men- 
tioned above may place important infor- 
mation in more than one location. 

One section, "Introduction to All the 
Function Keys, is a valuable inclusion 
All keys, used singly, dually, or triply, are 
shown as they refer to the various func- 
tions they perform together with an e*- 



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planaiion of exactly what occurs when 
they are pressed. The keytop identifica- 
tions, as shown in this section as we!! as 
wherever they appear throughout the 
manual, are uniquely displayed and leave 
no doubt as to how they are to be used 
This lucid system works (his way: A 
keytop drawing is shown as a rectangle, 
Within it is the letter or word as it appears 
on the key top, e.g., "SHIFT." If another 
hey is used immediately afterward as a 
part of the 1 unci ion, II is shown as well, 
but with a space between the two. 
However, it two keys are to be pressed 
simultaneously, there is no space be- 
tween the two keytops, just a single line 
dividing the two rectangles. This Is one of 
the best ways I have seen to describe 
mjfli-key operations — and there are 
many required in computer activities, 

There are two photographs in the 
manual; one ot the keyboard (similar to 
the one shown here, but with cal louts) and 
another of the rear panel of the terminal, 
Both of these are glossy photographs and 
were pasted into my copy, which would in- 
dicate I received an early copy of the 
manual {or perhaps that is the way the 
photos win be provided in all manuals). 
There are many line drawings explaining 
how the various screen displays will ap- 
pear There is also a good interconnection 
line drawing, an interconnection drawing 
few a selcal system, and one for using the 
9000E as an R&232C terminal with an ex- 
ternal computer. There are other drawings 
showing connections to peripheral equip- 
ment (printer, recorder, etc. J, an input- 
output circuit drawing, and a block 
diagram of the entire terminal There is no 
schematic, however, and there's a dearth 
ot detailed technical information. 

In discussing the latter situation with 
Drake marketing personnel. I was advised 
that this was the extent of the Information 
that was available at the present time. 
This Is unfortunate, for although I would 
probably never attempt to do any serious 
troubleshooting on this complex unit, I 
would like to be able to analyze the cir- 
cuitry, I am sure. too. that prospective 
owners would like to be able to make 
specification comparisons. This also 
raises a question in my mind as to just 
how Drake proposes to repair these units. 



under warranty or otherwise, if they h^ve 
no technical data. 

Back to the manual, briefly, Several 
labies at the back of the manual are 
useful One shows the relationship of 
every key. ooth in upppercase and lower- 
case, of each CW. Baudot, and ASCII 
Character and their representation on the 
monitor screen. Another table shows the 
CW signal J n dots and dashes, for every 
applicable key on the terminal. A table of 
control codes is also included 

Overall, it is a good manual, despite my 
criticisms, It is amply illustrated, with 
sometimes more being Learned Irorn 
these line drawings than from the text. 
Some prior operating experience on the 
part of I he reader Is a must in reading It 
nevertheless. 

Operating the Thela 9000E 

Operating the 9000 E in any mode is a 
pleasure When first turned on. the top 
line of the video display reads, MODE? 
You now have a basic choice of selecting 
any of the available modes of operation 
simply by pressing one of the dedicated 
keys Briefly, here is a typical example of 
operating supposing you had selected the 
key labeled MORSE 

Immediately, there is a status display 
across the lower third of the display. The 
information provided is MODE (in this in- 
stance it will read MODE=CW), TYPE, 
SENSE, INPUT. PTT, CH=G\ CASE, AU- 
DIO = AGC. CR/LF = OFF T SPEED =11 
VYPM f DIDDLE = OFF, and FUNCTION, 
with each of these indicating the default. 
It's a wealth of information, and more will 
be added as you select various functions 

It takes a while to become acquainted 
with the significant Hems. I say "signifi- 
cant" because, as the more knowledge- 
able among the readers will know, all of 
the fund ion-status Items shown above 
are not required in CW operation. For In- 
stance, DIDDLE will be used in RTTY If 
wanted, but not En CW — that's why It Is 
OFF. The same applies to SENSE, RX ■ N 
and TXt= N means "Normal." that is, not 
Inverted — another RTTY assignment. It 
would probably be desirable in the status 
display if those items not applicable to 
the mode were not shown. 

If you wish, you may now change the 
screen display from 80 characters of 24 



lines to 40 characters of 24 lines, approx- 
imately doubling the size of the charac- 
ters. At the same time, the status display 
will change to the larger character size 
and will now require four lines. Whatever 
is done is purely a matter of preference — 
many persons have difficulty reading an 
80 character screen on a nine- inch moni- 
tor, for instance, and will opt for the larger 
characters. Then, too. some monitors will 
not accept an SQ-character display. 

Continuing with (his typical CW ses- 
sion, you can now enter information retat- 
Ing to the type of operation to be used. If 
you will be receiving only, then no further 
preparation Is necessary (assuming your 
Input Is audio from the receiver* thus AF In 
the status line), But if you plan to transmit 
(or send only to the audio monitor In the 
terminal) from the keyboard, the default 
transmitting speed of 11 wpm may need to 
be changed. One control key followed by 
one of the numeral keys will provide this 
change, Key changes the output speed 
to 5 wpm. The remaining keys move Ihe 
Speed up as 6, 8, t1, 14. t8, 23,30, 39. and 
50 wpm. Also, you can fine-tune the 
transmitting speed, as has been de- 
scribed before. 

The weighting adjustment can be per- 
formed within ten limits of 1:3 through 1:6 
If you do not wish to enter optional param- 
eters each time you fire up the terminal, 
you can store them in memory for 
automatic selection, but of course they 
may be changed at any time. 

You will not change anything for receiv- 
ing; the 9000E will track CWdver the range 
5 to 60 wpm. Dots that are less than 20 ms 
may be regarded as noise. Previous com- 
ments regarding the accuracy of the CW 
for copying apply — there are very few ter- 
minals, If any, thai will copy rotten CW or 
what must be termed "non-International 
Morse," This terminal tends to print what 
Is sent; II It forms a Morse character, It 
prints; If not. nothing I 

Tuning CW Is extremely easy. You just 
tune the receiver on the desired signal un- 
til the SPACE LED on the keyboard panel 
pulses with the signal. At this point, the 
audio signal la passing through the band- 
pass filter, which has a center frequency 
of 830 Hz, Tuning may also be done using 
the audio-monitor output, but this entails 
an extra keystroke to set up. 



When you are ready to transmit, you 
may do so by applying whatever system 
your station requires to do so manually or 
by merely depressing the PTT key (yes. 
even on CW or RTTY, Push to Talkj. When 
this is done, depressing any key will im- 
mediately start transmission Pressing a 
two-key combination returns ydu to re- 
ceive. 

tn CW. standard prosigns operate both 
In transmit and receive. Barred KN. AR, 
AS. and V A are available, for instance, and 
punciuation symbols such as colon, hy- 
phen, right and left parentheses, etc.. 
transmit ihe International Morse signals 
for these characters or print their deci- 
phered representation. Barred BT Is repre- 
sented as " = " and barred AR as the M + " 
Symbol, for example. 

Initializing in either Baudot or ASCII 
RTTY mode Is the same as for CW but by 
pressing the appropriate single keys tor 
these modes. When the status display 
comes up, you enter whatever parameters 
you will be operating. The default in 
Baudot will be low-frequency tones. 
i7tVHz shilt. and 45.45-baud operation. 
Any selection made will apply to both 
AFSK and FSK operation, which will have 
been chosen beforehand As shown in the 
specifications, the 9000E accommodates 
both low and high tones The protocol in 
ham operation is that the low frequency 
shifts are used for HF operation and the 
h>gh- frequency shifts (e.g.. 2125 and 2205 
Hz for a 170-Hz shift) are used in VHF 
operation. 

You can change the default to a shift of 
425 Hz or 850 Hz in both low- and high- 
tone groups, ll 170 Hz in high-lone shift is 
needed, then this too must be entered as 
it Is not the default. There Is one other 
Shift for KCS. which has mark at 2400 Hz 
and space at 1200 Hz. This is set from the 
ASCII mode. 

In addition to the many sub functions 
thai have been mentioned before, you al- 
so have several other options designed 
for RTTY operation: ANTI , which will bring 
in am i- noise filtering and thus prevent 
garbage from printing; the optimum line 
length before carriage return (60, 72. or #4 
characters, not to be confused with 
screen character width): and defeat of the 
carriage return, The latter action would be 
desirable if you were transmitting or re- 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 93 



ceiving RTTY pictures, for instance. 
Speeds will also be set at mis time keep- 
ing in mind the previous comments about 
approved speeds, lit is extremely in- 
teresiing 10 watch a stream of data dis 
playing at 9600 baud, but don't try this on 
the air if you are operating lower than 50,0 
MHz!) 

DIDDLE (sometimes called IDLE) has a 
default ot OFF and the function is not too 
often heard on the ham bands. This *s a 
Letters code continuously transmitted 
whenever a printing character is not being 
transmitted, indicating the frequency *s 
being used and the RTTY signal is not just 
a earner {slower typists appear to use it to 
some extentj. USCMUnshth on Space) can 
also be programmed, but this is not a 
function thai can be placed Into memory. 
Its use, loo. is Infrequent, but It is oi great 
assistance when receiving weak signals. 
This places the terminal back mto Letters 
case upon receipt of a space signal thus 
preventing the printer or display from 
hanging up in Figures case for more than 
a few characters. Associated with this, 
the CASE = statement on the status dis- 
play will show at all times the Letters or 
Figures status being received or transmit- 
ted at lha moment it is occurring, except 
in ASCII mode. In the latter operaiion 
ASCII will normally be operating as a type- 
writer would: in Lowercase except for capi- 
tals and punctuation, with numerals 
transmitted as lowercase characters. 
[This does not preclude operating wtth all 
capita'* m ASCII, however.) 

Operation fa RTTY is essentially the 
same as for CW. Depressing one hey puts 
you On the air (or to tape, screen. Or 
printer). You may operate one-on-one So 
to speak, whereby as soon as you stop 
transmitting and sign over, you are back 
lo receiving; incidentally there is not too 
much do log- type operation (semi break- 
in) going on on the ham bands with RTTY 
This is unfortunate, because the 9000E is 
ideally suited for this. As tl is. most of the 
operation we see is of the type whereby 
one station transmits a long mono loo and 
then waits tor the same from the other sta- 
tion. It this Is your style, the 9000E is 
perfectly compatible tor this, too. 

Splitting Ihe screen facilitates This 
technique. A keystroke pieces all received 
data m the lop nine lines ol the screen. 
The transmitting screen ts eight lines 
below this, with a blank tine between, Fol- 
lowing another blank tine, the status dis- 
play appears (two lines m GG-characier 
model and remains always visible- Below 
the status display, there are three lines re- 
served for buffer memory. With this ar- 
rangement, while the other station is 
sending CQ, for example, you can be typ- 
ing: your call into the buffer and entering 
the automatic CW ID FOLLOWS com- 
mand. As soon as the station signs, press- 
ing just two keys transmits your buffer 
data. As it dumps out of the buffer, if will 
disappear off to the left of me screen, let- 
ter by letter, to reappear m the transmit- 
ting area of ihe screen as it is transmitted 
You now have a record of the receiving 
and transmitting screens if you are mak- 
ing hard copy at the same lime. 

Nothing could be easier, and there Is a 
great advantage In being able to compose 
your replies while the other station trans- 
mits, with your transmission streaming 
out at the full speetf at which you are oper 
atmg Until the buffer is emptied, no one 
win know that you can type only five 
words per minute Most operators will 
probably be able to keep up with the buf- 
fer at 60 wpm, especially if they have a few 
lines started before the other station 
signs over Higher speeds will ta* the skill 
of even the tastes I operator. 

CW operation can be Just as much fun, 



with the restriction already noted about 
good CW being needed No problems 
were noted in >00% copy at 35 wpm from 
wiAW taped bulletins and a number of 
commercial press stations at speeds of 20 
to 40 wpm. 

Selective Calling (Selcal) 

Selcal can be used Jn any mode for 
receiving and transmitting and Is one of 
ihe easiest to prepare for operation with 
this term i rial. 

Your identifying characters are stored 
in one of the memory channels prior to 
operation, and seicai is left activated. 
Upon receiving the same characters as 
stored in memory, the data being sent will 
be stored in a memory block and printed 
or displayed if activated. It may also be 
printed later, of course. 

If you have stored data waiting for 
transmission, receipt of your END OF 
TEXT data, afso previously prepared, will 
automatically transmit your data from 
memory. Although most applications of 
selcal operahon will be in RTTY operation, 
as noted above it may be used in any 
mode, which includes CW. 

Receiving Commercial Stations 

No difficulty whatsoever was expe- 
rienced in receiving any RTTY appearing 
on the ham bands where everyone gen* 
erally was using T70-H2 shift and 60. 75, 
and 1 00 wpm. ASCII is being used to some 
extent, but it is necessary that its 
characteristics be recognized in order to 
place the terminal in ASCII mode for 
reception, even though you can switch 
from Baudot lo A&Ci I at the touch of a key 

Tuning commercial RTTY stations re- 
quired considerable patience in most 
cases. This is due to the fact thai 
although a multitude of stations are scat 
tered throughout the HF and LF spectrum, 
they are using odd frequency shifts, in- 
verted signals, and numerous transmis- 
sion speeds, so that it becomes a problem 
to immediately decipher the mode, speed, 
etc. Some wilt never be attainable and 
others, even when they are copied, are of 
little inierest unless you are Into cryp- 
tography. 

There are tuning aids on the 9000E thai 
make It easier to copy such stations, 
though By caret uNy tuning so that you ob- 
tain both mark and space indications on 
the LEDs on the panel and men using the 
fine-tuning control, it is possible to estab- 
lish the shift width. Of course, this may 
mean going through the operation for 
170-. 425-. and B5Q-H* positions. You may 
then need lo determine the speed of trans- 
mission to have copy appear on the dis- 
play, And in each situation you may need 
to determine whether or not the signal is 
inverted. 

All things considered tuning commer- 
ciai stations can be a challenge A good 
commercial station list such as published 
by Universal Electronics, Inc., in Rey^ 
noldsburg, Ohio, is invaluable in locating 
and tuning these stations. These guides 
give ihe transmission frequency, shift, 
speed, Inversion, and type of transmis- 
sion tor hundreds of stations. 

Problems and Criticisms 

There was one unexplained action that 
occurred under certain circumstances but 
which cannot properly be considered a 
problem. This was when an attempt was 
made to perform a function that the ter- 
minal was not programmed to do ai the 
moment. For instance, when a tone shift 
was attempted but a non-applicable sec 
ondary key was pressed, the speaker in 
the audio monitor chirped briefly , This 
could be some sort of alerting signal, but 
if it was, it was not mentioned in the 



manual. The R. L Drake Company had no 
explanation for this either, except to 
agree that it might be a warning signal 

One other possible problem thai ap- 
peared to be originating in the terminal 
was a slight non-linearity In the display 
about mid screen. This gave the effect of 
sloping letters on a bine. This occurred 
with three different monitors and could be 
a voltage-regulation problem. This cor- 
rected itself after about ten minutes of 
operation 

The connectors that were described 
earlier could eventually cause intermit- 
tent contact problems. The use of BNC- 
type connectors would probably increase 
the end-user cost by aboui ten doiiars, but 
this would be in keeping with the other 
professional aspects of this terminal. 

When The 9GGQE was connected to a 
Yae&u FRG-77DQ receiver which used a 
wire antenna directly to the antenna ter- 
minal, the RPI from the 90O0E micropro- 
cessor completely obliterated all signal 
reception — this notwithstanding state- 
ments ol minimal radiation problems 
Connecting Ihe receiver via coaxial cable 
to another antenna (vertical) located 40 
feet away from the terminal eliminated 
any vestige of hfi 

Some Improvements could be made to 
the Operator's Manual. Additional techni- 
cal information, and a: least a schematic, 
would be an asset. 

Summary Evaluation 

As a multi-function dedicated com- 
munications terminal, the 9O0GE meets all 
of the requirements. It is mechanically 
and electrically weil-construcied and has 
a pleasing appearance All controls are 
economically correct, and the keyboard 
has excellent tactile response. 

Although It was not possible to evalu- 
ate filtering bandwidths without taborato 
ry specifications, the filtering appeared 
adequate under a 11 situa t ions The cry st al - 
controlled AFSK signal appeared to be 
well within tolerance, but no specification 
was given for this either 

From an operation viewpoint — and this 
could be the proof Of the pudding — the 
9000E came up to ail expectations and 
beyond. Every function operated as speci- 
fied and operating ease was exemplary 

This Is an excellent communications 
terminal; beginners, experienced opera- 
tors, and anyone in between will feel very 
comfortable with it. ♦ can recommend it 
highly for anyone looking for an outstand- 
ing piece ol equipment, one which not on- 
ly allows full on-the-air capabilities, but 
also is excellent for line communications 
and computer and word- processing oper- 
ations, 

For more information on ihe Theta 
9000 E communications terminal, contact 
the fl. L Drake Company, 540 Ricrtam 
Street MiMmisbvrg OH 4S342 

A. A Wicks W&SWZ 
Agouri C A 

References 

The Radio Amateurs Handbook. Ameri- 
can Radio Relay League, 1983 
The FCC Ruie Book, American Radio He- 
lay League, 1983. 



HEATH KIT ULTRAPRO 
CW KEYBOARD 

Have you ever felt that your CW sending 
could sound better^ Have you felt per- 
haps, too. that to improve Irom where you 
are would take more lime and effort than 
you would like to Invest*? Ycu need to con- 
sider the new Heaihkit Ullrapro CW key 
board (Hf>8999), 

Hams more familiar with a StiJtson 



wrench than a keyboard soon become pro- 
licieni at keyboard sending, with the 
promise of perfection which a keyboard 
offers. If you're ahead of the Still son 
wrench group and know where the keys 
are on a typewriter or computer, with the 
Ullrapro, you too can be on your way to a 
dramatic improvemenl in your Keying. 

Buffer Memory 

The Ullrapro is a compact gem of a key- 
board thai lends to turn the operator into 
the pro that the name implies The crucial 
element fin the keyboard for accomplish- 
ing this perfection is its buffer memory. 
The Ultrapro has a 64 character buffer, 
which is ample for high-speed sending. 

Given my typing ability, a buffer of more 
than rive lo ten characters Is gliding ihe 
lily at 45 to 50 wpm. What the buffer does 
■s accumulate any characters 1 can type 
into if faster than I have set the keyboard 
to send. This affects my sending in three 
ways. 

First. Ultrapro will stack those charac- 
ters next to each other for perfect spacing 
of letters and, with the stroke ol the space 
bar. the spacing of words. This action 
eliminates the little imperfections in tim- 
ing that occur even with rhythmic typing 
on a keyboard without a buffer If I have a 
momeniary distraction, again, it wonl 
show up in the middle ol a word or sen- 
tence as a gap. Such gaps can be even 
more distracting to the person attempt mg 
to copy high- speed code. 

A second effect is the minimization of 
keying errors. If I realize I have punched 
the wrong key, I can simply backspace 
one space {' delete" on the Ultrapro} and 
retype. The backspace bolh erases the er- 
ror and resets the position In the word tor 
the nght letter. If my error Is three letters 
back in the word. I backspace three and 
retype all three. Because I'm obliged to re 
type anything following the errors. I don't 
have to count forward to be able to Stan 
where I left off 

If I'm not sure of the entire word, or of 
even two or three words, I can shiftjdeteie 
and, with each punch of delete, the last 
word or part of a word will drop out, leav 
Ing the space after the remaining word in- 
tact. Then, I merely conimue to add to the 
buffer by typing in the correct words. 

The Ihird thing the buffer gtves me is 
time to trunk ot what I'm going to send 
next without having to throw m some po- 
tentially annoying (punctuation) dashes. 
The overall el feet of the buffer, then, is to 
smooth the test into what we used to call 
tape-machine perfection. 

In addition to Ihe rapid correcting 
which ihe buffer memory affords, the two 
key roll over feature also facilitates fast 
typing Simply stated, if I punch a second 
key before I let upon the previous one. the 
fetters are entered in order as long as I Eel 
up on the first key before the second 
Without this feature, neither might be en- 
tered or, possibly, only the first letter. 

Commands also can be stored in the 
buffer so that, while typing ahead. I can 
tell the board to speed up ten words a min- 
ute right after I say I will Weight and spae 
ing changes may be accomplished in the 
same manner The board will then type on 
at the previous setting until the butter 
empties to the command thai I gave This 
can be a slight disadvantage i! I decide 
that l want the change right away dun no r 
transmission tf I have any tent in the buf 
ter. I must wait until that teit is iransmif 
ted before my command ts Fulfilled, un 
less I want to dump the buffer content; 
with the stop key, make a command, trier 
retype what was dumped. This shows ut 
as a short hesitation in my transmission 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 



Hold Fund ion 

A distinctively larger hold key freezes 
the emptying of the butter into the trans- 
mitter. This feature is good for a couple of 
reasons If I'm operating QSK and mink \ 
hear a breaker, an interfering signal, or the 
person I'm talking with, J punch hold It Us 
nothing that requires a response,. I punch 
the hold key again and the buffer contin- 
ues to transmit from where it left off, It a 
response is required, I punch another larg- 
er command key. the stop key. Then I can 
begin idling the buffer memory with my re- 
sponse it the signal from the other station 
continues, if the transmission is short. Of 
stops i punch the bold key a second time 
to re-en able the transmission of whatever 
I now type into The buffer. 

Hold is also useful when the other sta- 
tion is about to turn It back to me I punch 
hold This condition Is displayed on the 
LED dig+t display until I punch hold a sec- 
ond time, t then insert perhaps the other 
station's call and add my ID from the 
495- character programmable memory Til 
write more about that later Then I can 
type "R R" and start typing my reply inlo 
the buffer. As quickly as the other person 
signs "K\ I hit hold the second time and 
continue lo type Into the buffer while It 
starts transmitting for me. This feature 
gives me more of that time we were talk- 
ing about to think, type, make errors, and 
correct them. 

Programmable Memory 

The second type ot memory in this 
board is intended to be filled with parts of 
transmissions that are recurrent In OSOs. 
There is avai lable in this memory 496 char- 
acters worth of space. This memory is ad* 
dressable at ten points by punching shift 
and men one of the digits from 2ero 
through nine. I don't have lo cramp each 
message mto a space 495 characters in 
length,, either. Thai's because (his memo- 
ry has what is called soft partitioning, 
which enables me lo mix long and short 
messages up to the full utilization ot char- 
acter spaces. I don't even have to enter 
thern in numerical order. 

Fining or changing any particular seg- 
ment Is easy. too. I punch set, the number 
3f the compartment, and load. When I fin- 
sh loading, I punch stop. This stops fur 
her entry into the programmable memory 
ind enables the board for immediate 
sending. To delete a compartment lo 
nake more space available, I hit set, the 
lumber of the memory r'm sacrificing, 
oad. and then stop Each of these mes- 
sages can be protected from the above by 
i protect command with the number ot 
he compartment. 

Inserting the command into the butter 
memory to read one of these segments in 
he programmable memory takes up only 
<oe character of space in the buffer. This 
maximizes its available space. On the oth- 
r hand, commanding a speed, weight, oi 
pacing change will take up three or four 
paces in the buffer 

:ortl eating 

For the contested aside from the 
card's handy programmable memory de- 
cribed above, it will send serial numbers 
- one each itme you command its trans 
ussibn If you need to repeat a serial 
umber In a GSO without the number's in- 
casing you command the previous 
srial number as many times as you need 

While you are using thts feature, the se- 
al number is displayed continuously on 
f e LED dlgri display instead of the trans 
itting speed, which is usually displayed. 

The LED digit display is effective in pro- 
ding the status Information the operator 



needs. A punch of the weight or spacing 
keys results in a brief display of the pa- 
rameter, then a return to the wpm value 
Loading any of the programmable memo- 
ries resu Its i n the dtsp lay of a n um ber an y - 
where from 495 to zero, depending on the 
remaining space available in these memo- 
ries. Eight colored bars t five green, two 
yellow, and one red, denote the consump- 
tion of spaces in the 64-character buffer 
memory, eight letters at a time. During the 
time that the butter memory is referring to 
one Of the programmable memories doing 
a transmission, a small green dot on ihe 
LED display signals this to the operator. 

An interesting feature of the Circuit is 
its ability to evaluate Itself. A flick of the 
reset switch on the back of the board runs 
the microprocessor and Integrated^ ire uit 
diagnostic tests. It all Is well, the buffer- 
status bars will Fight briefly, and the speed 
will set and indicate al 20 wpm on the LEO 
digit display, if one ot (he iCs or the micro- 
processor is faulty, the circuit component 
number {e.g., U-2) will be displayed. This 
feature could take a loi of guesswork out 
of troubleshooting the keyboard. 

Memory of the sending parameters as 
well as of I he programmed material is pre- 
served with minimal current from a bat- 
tery If the unit is disconnected from Its 
power source. The unit will operate from a 
range of 7.5 to 11 V ac or 1 1 to 16 V dc of 
either polarity. 

Code Practice 

The code-practice mode offers several 
useful teat u res to those so inclined, in ad- 
dition to the usual, some of these features 
are: {tj selection of type or types of char- 
acters on which you wish to concentrate; 
{2) selection ot desired speed, spacing, 
and weight; and (3) selection of copy 
mode, using which you must press the 
correct key after hearing the character be- 
fore the board will give you the next one 
The code-practice mode utilizes random- 
length and five-characte* -length groups, 
not words. My feeling is that this mode 
might be useful to the early learners of 
CW lo whom the owner of the keyboard 
might like to be of assistance. I can't rec- 
ommend staying long with copying ran- 
dom groups to the person interested Jn 
learning code at higher speeds. 

The Ultrapro keyboard is light (shipping 
weight 7 lbs i and stable on a desktop or 
held on the lap. The key tops are slightly 
sculpted and the action is without wob- 
ble, giving touch and sound feedback mat 
is not obtrusive. A shift/tone command 
will add level -adjustable sidetone. The key 
spacing approximates that of my electric 
typewriter and feela optimal to me. The 
feel of the board is one of an electrome- 
chanrcal device designed for long, trou- 
ble- free service- 
Conclusion 

As If all the foregoing features weren't 
enough to commend this new Heath' 
the price for the kit seems quite reason- 
able; £249.95. And if those features don't 
quite qualify you sending for Ultrapro si a 
lus, sprinkle it with the exclamation point, 
parentheses, semicolon, and colon — 
these should heighten the color of your 
OSOs (I've been too fainthearted to use 
them)! I recommend this kit to anyone 
who Is interested In making a significant 
improvement in his sending, whether he 
or she communicates best at 5 wpm. 99 
wpm, or somewhere in between. 

For more information about the 
HD-8999 CW keyboard, contact Heal ft 
Company, B&ntQn Harbor MI 49022. Read- 
er Service number 489, 

David Learned W8DFI 
Benton Harbor Ml 



EGBERT IJ RTTY PROGRAM 

Most of the gear I review comes care- 
fully packed In one or more large card- 
board cartons. The Egbert II HTTY pro- 
gram was an exception. It arrived in a 
plain, large-size mamla envelope. But Eg 
bent Us Inauspicious size and packing 
material are certainly made up for by Its 
features Simply put, Egbert II offers all 
that you need to turn your Apple computer 
into a ftTTY terminal (Well, not quite 
all . you will need some cables to go be- 
tween the rig and computer, but that's <U 
No terminal unit, no interface card, no ex 
ira demodulator circuits It Is all right 
there on one floppy diskette. 

To use ihe Egbert package, a 48K Apple 
II, ll + .or HE with one disk drive and Ap- 
plesoft Basic is required. A printer Is op- 
tional. It you area Franklin Ace TOO or Ace 
1000 owner, then you must provide some 
sort of modulator and demodulator since 
the Egbert program typically utilizes the 
Apple's cassette interface not found on 
Franklin computers. Also available under 
the Egbert name is a CW transmit receive 
program for the Apple and a program for 
Iran si erring Applesoft, Binary, and Inte- 
ger dish files. This review deals only with 
the RTTY portion of the package. 

The software comes on a single 13-sec- 
tor copy-protected disk with the user's 
callstgn already embedded. Getting on 
the air is very simple First one mast cre- 
ate a 16- sec tor message disk and hook up 
cables to the receiver audio output, trans- 
mitter mike input, and, if desired, the 
push-to-talK line. The only interface cir- 
cuitry thai may be needed is a lOk-Ohm 
pot for adjusting the mike drive level and a 
transistor switch to work between the Ap- 
ple's TTL level T/R and your rig's push-to- 
talk line, 

M takes about 30 seconds to load the 
software and insert a message disk. Each 
initialization step is menu-driven and can 
be passed through quickly to reach the de 
fault mode of 60-wpm RTTY with a si an 
dard 170 Hi shift Or you can enter in your 
own parameters: Baudot at 60. 67. 75, and 
100 wpm, ASCII at 110 baud T any desired 
mark-space combination, and tone rever- 
sal to invert the mark and space frequen- 
cies. 

The final step before operation is set- 
ting the receive frequency. High-resolu- 
tion graphics are used to display ihe re- 
lationship between the software-driven fil- 
tering and the actual mark space frequen- 
cies, You may tune in a signal by adjust- 
ing the receiver until the display lines up 
or by shilling the computer filtering via 
one ot the Apple's arrow keys. With t uning 
complete, you press RETURN and start re 
ceiving. During reception, the graphics 
are replaced by two flashing stars, allow- 
ing you to make minor adjustments In the 
tuning. 

Egbert H offers split-screen operation; 
received data is displayed on the upper 
portion of The screen while the bottom 
three lines are devoted to a type-ahead 
buffer for your response, if the op on the 
other end Is long-winded, then you might 
want to use the receive buffer, This saves 
the received tent to memory while it Is be- 
ing displayed. A separate set of com- 
mands saves the buffer to disk. Viewing 
the data is done through the Print Buffer 
option and can be done via the screen or a 
printer Another option is the real-time 
print option where incoming data is both 
displayed on the screen and printed out 
Although I didn't test this feature, the 
printer program can accommodate a Vo- 
trax speech synthesizer so that words ere 
spoken as I hey are received. 

Transmit features Include the type- 
ahead buffer, a quick break that allows 
your reply without disturbing (he transmit 



buffer, and automatic CW ID at the end of 
each transmission. It you are using a mes- 
sage diss, then it wilt take only two key- 
strokes lo transmit any one of nine 
canned messages. Each message has an 
Independent length, with a total of 4800 
characters allowed for the group. Another 
help la the Inverse display for every 65ih 
character typed. This Is handy when work- 
ing a station with a mechanical teletype 
machine, indicating that it is lime to insert 
a carriage return. 

in addition to normal transmit and re- 
ceive operation, the Egbert H program of- 
fers limited mailbox capability. The com 
outer operates unattended, saving incom- 
ing messages to memory and then to disk 
when the memory is tilled. Two options 
are available: You may store all incoming 
messages on a particular frequency or 
just those that are preceded by a special 
recog n Jtio n code. Unlike some of t he more 
sophisticated mailbox systems, the Eg- 
bert II program is limited to receive-on fy 
operation. 

The hardware-f ree approach ot Egbert If 
warrants a closer took. At the heart ot the 
system, you'll find the Apple s seldom 
used cassette I/O and some unique soft- 
ware. The cassette Input circuitry is mere- 
ly a level detector, converting the Incom- 
ing sine wave into a square wave. The Eg- 
bert II software does Ihe rest of the Job, 
measuring the frequency of the signal and 
determining if it is a mark or space. 

This approach is not without draw- 
backs. Signals must be strong and in the 
clear. Remember, there is no filter to pre- 
vent a signal adjacent to Ihe one you want 
from being read by the Apple. In practice, I 
found the Egbert II hardwareless design 
to work quite well and was able to copy 
the majority of the stations I heard. Judi 
cious use of the rig's fa TS-&30) filters was 
a great hefp. If your receiver is lacking in 
this department, then I recommend using 
a tunable audio filter between it and the 
Apple 

For serious HF opera I ion. you may want 
to use a terminal unit. The Egbert program 
accommodates this by using ihe Apple 
game port as an alternative Input. The TU 
must have TTL-3evel outputs for the re- 
ceived mark and space signals and be 
compatible with a TTL signal for transmit, 
The high-resolufron tuning display is a 
nice touch, but I usually dispensed with it 
and relied on the simpler two-star tuning 
aid. With a bit of practice, I was able to 
tune in a signal in just a few seconds. The 
fancy tuning display needn't be forgotten, 
though; the instruction manual suggests 
that It can also be used as a graphical fre- 
quency counter. 

My only complaints center on the Eg- 
bert II transmit operation. The type-ahead 
buffer has a backspace feature that is 
handy for making corrections, but unfor- 
tunately there is no cursor to indicate 
where a correction will take piace, making 
It easy to get lost. A second drawback la 
the way m which the type-ahead butler 
disappears every time you switch to trans- 
mit, even if it Is only for 8 quick break. The 
Information is still in memory ready tor 
the next transmission, but there is no way 
to find what It Is without going back to 
transmit. 

A seasoned RTTY operator may find the 
Egbert II software to be too simple for day 
to-day use, However, I feel that the lack of 
bells and whistles makes the program 
ideal tor beginners. All the necessary 
commands are displayed on the screen 
and you can become an expert in a halt 
hour or leas, Including the time it takes to 
Interface your Apple to a rig, Sure, the 
so ftwa red riven terminal unit won't equal 
the performance of a dedicated circuit, 
but you lust might be surprised at how 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 95 



well it does work One thing 5 certain 
Hams thai own an Apple won't lind a more 
pa mless or less expensive way to try their 
hand at RTTY. 

The RTTY portion of this program is 
available tor $39 95 For more information, 
contact the W. H. Nmf Co., 275 Lodgevtew 
Drive. Orovifie CA 95965. Reader Service 
number 486. 

Timothy Daniel NBRK 
Oxford OH 

RTTY89 RADIOTELETYPE 

COMMUNICATIONS 

PROCESSOR FROM 

COMMSOFT 

As digital communications slowly but 
surely revolutionizes amateur radio, many 
firms have taken a Stab at producing com- 
puterized RTTY programs Few compa- 
nies have accomplished this task more 
skillfully than Commsott, makers of 
RTTY89, a radio teletype program for I he 
Heath H89 Ali-in-One microcomputer. 
RTTY89 was written by Howard L. Nurse 
W6LLO and is designed to make maxi- 
mum use of the special 1 unction keys and 
80-coiumn video display capabilities of 
the H89* This combination of computer 
and software, along with the best instruc- 
tion manual in the business, comprises a 
truly outstanding RTTY system. 

Specifications 

In the simplest terms, an Hfl9 computer 
running the RTTY89 program is merely a 
solid-stale substitute for a mechanical 
teleprinter. But (hat's only the tip ol the 
iceberg. Unlike any mechanical unit I 
know of, RTTY8S allows you to switch be- 
tween any of four Baudot and three ASCII 
speeds at the push of a bui ton, 

In common with alt of the better com- 
puter RTTY programs, RTTYB9 features a 
split-screen display The upper portion Of 
the video screen shows the Incoming 
message, white you simultaneously use 
the tower port io r> Jo compose your re- 
sponse Your message is stored in what 



Commsott calls the "prelype buffer" until 
you press two keys to begin transmitting. 
Both incoming and outgoing data can be 
automatically sent to a printer or floppy 
disk for a permaneni record of your RTTY 
contacts. 

A number of permanent messages are 
stored in the program and may be catted 
up for transmission at any time. These In- 
clude a "GQ n with your call Inserted In the 
appropriate spot; a line of "RYRYRY, 
ot m ASCII equivalent. "U"U'U" . * i", for 
testing and tuning: a special preamble for 
the start of your transmission featuring a 
CW ID. time, and date; and a similar clos- 
ing for the end of your messages In addi 
lion, you can create three short, custom 
messages of up to 70 characters each. 
Both the permanent and user-created 
messages may be called up for transmis- 
sion with a single keystroke. Longer mes- 
sages of your own design, such as brag 
tapes, can be created at your leisure using 
a word processor and stored on a floppy 
disk. Then they can be recalled from disk 
during RTTY operation and inserted into 
your outgoing message 

Among the other outstanding features 
of RTTY89: no toss ol received in forma- 
lion when loading text from disk; the abili- 
ty to send messages with justified right 
margins and distinctly customized left 
margins; the option to repeat I he previous 
transmission, editing of the last letter, 
word, of line in the p retype buffer auto 
malic activation of transmitter pusn to- 
tal k when sending; automatic CW ID at an 
interval you select, and word wrap-around 
at the end of a line (a word Is never split 
in two). 

The Hookup 

The RTTY89 program uses the RS-232C 
serial Input/output port of the H89 to com- 
municate wllh the outside world. In this 
case, the 'outside world 11 Is a RTTY termi- 
nal gntt (TU| connected to an amateur 
transceiver A ca&le is run between the 
RS*232G connector on the rear of the com- 
puter and the TU The TU, in turn, is con- 



nected to the mike socket and the head- 
phone jack of the transceiver 

In my shack, the terminal unit is the 
popular Flesher TU-V7Q. Like a number of 
other TUs, the 170 does not have an RS- 
232C interlace as standard equipment. 
Fortunately, the Commsott instruction 
manual contains a schematic for a simple 
RS-232C circuit which can be Quilt from 
Radio Shack parts and added to an exist- 
ing TU. I did this with my TU-170, and It 
worked perfectly. If your TU has RS-232C 
capability, so much the better 

On the Air 

Once the wires are connected and 
RTTY89 is initialized with the time of day, 
your caHsign, and other pertinent informa- 
tion, it's time to tune in some ftTTY In my 
case. I simply luned the rig to 40 meters 
and Bingo! Beautiful RTTY printouts he- 
gan march irtg across the video display of 
my HB9 computer. I was in business! 

After assuring mysell that the receive 
portion of the system was working properly, 
11 was time to try transmitting After all. 
RTTY reception is only as good as your re 
ceiver and TU; it's on transmit that 
RTTY&9 would really shine 

And shine it did, I found a WA4 station 
calling CO and carefully luned him in As 
he called, I composed a response on the 
lower portion ol the split screen. Hesitantly 
al first then with more confidence, I burl! 
up my message in the prelype buffer; 
First. 1 hit the computers B&ue function 
key to enter the preamble ^CW ID. RTTY ID, 
tlme 1 daie) f then a control V let me enter 
his callsign, along with my call, name, and 
QTH. Pressing the Red (unction key twice 
repealed this in form at ion two more times, 
The White key entered a closing, with a 
CW ID. I then entered control-R to put the 
system back into receive alter the trans- 
mission. 

Remember, all of this was done while 
the WA4 was sending his CQ, RTTY&9 
stored my whole response in its pre type 
Duller while never missing a bit of the 
WA4's message Soon, the COer com- 



pleted his call- To send my entire re 
Sponse, I merely pressed confrol-T, then 
sat back to watch my message being sent 
out by the computer, complete with CW 
IDs in the right places 

This business of function keys and corv 
trol keys sounds pretty compie*, but it"s 
amazingly straightforward in practice For 
starters, Commsofl's manual does a ter> 
rifle job of explaining each command. 
Also, the most often used commands are 
mostly single keystrokes or easily remem- 
bered (eontrol-T for transmit, control^ Tor 
recervej Fmaliy. RTTY89 includes a com- 
pact prompt card to be posted at the oper- 
ating position. The card neatly summa- 
rizes all 46 (!) commands and gives brief 
examples of typical operating proce- 
dures—extremely helpful. 

Summary 

I've had the opportunity to use seven 
different computer RTTY systems, and in 
one way or another, many of them have 
proven awkward to use. Some are poorly 
conceived from the start. Others are badly 
documented, so that only a RTTY expert 
can puzzle out how to make them work 
Some otherwise fine products have been 
ruined by poor instructions. 

RTTYS9 stands out because it works 
smoothly and efficiently with a minimum 
of fuss. II is superbly designed and docu- 
mented and more easily understood than 
systems with halt the number of com- 
mands. The ease with which complex 
messages can be built up with a minimum 
of keystrokes is remarkable and allows 
even slow typists lihe me to have great fun 
on RTTY, The designers of programs for 
today's iow-cost computers should take a 
lesson from RTTY89 Its too bad there 
aren't more H89s around. 

The Commsott RTTYB9 program sells 
for $34.95 from Commsott, 665 May belt 
Avenue, Palo Alto CA 94306 Reader Ser 
vice number 488. 

Jell Defray W688TH 
n Staff 




Chod Harris VP2ML 

Box 4881 

Santa Rosa CA 95402 

SPRATLY ISLANDS- 
DX DISASTER 

The widely-scattered reefs and rocks of 
the Sprat ly Island group in the South 
China Sea have lone been one of the odd- 
balls in the DXCC ■■Countries" list. Claimed 
by every country In the region, and {until 
recently) uninhabited, the 100 or so tiny 
islands offer a severe challenge to the 
determined DXped it loner. And that chal- 
lenge proved too much for two German 
amateurs woo died in an April. 1983, at- 
tempt to operate from Sprat ly 

What reafty happened to the group led 
by Baldur Drobnlca DJBSI? Baldur has put 
the rumors to rest with a cassette tape, 
relayed through Ralph Hirsch K1RH, and 
translated with the assistance of the 
language department of Southern Con- 
necticut State University 

But first let's review the amateur radio 
history of ihe Spratly group. The infamous 
Don Miller WQvVNv* claims Ihe first opera- 
tion from Spratiy In the mid-60s. Don used 



(he call 1S9NWN, the first use of a prefix 
beginning with 1, which is not issued by 
the International Telecommunications 
Union (ITUJ, Don claimed operation from 
the largest Island of the group, Spratly. 



The next Spratly operation was engi- 
neered by Don Relhboff K7ZZ, from Viet- 
nam, rn 1973. Don commandeered 
YV4EBG, N5TP. and others to mount a ma- 
jor expedition to Spratly Island, well 
documented by Don's ever-present 
Super-8 movie camera, 

Spratly worked Its way up the Most 
Wanted fist until 1979. when K1MM and 
K4SMX boarded VK2BJLs yacht for 
another attempt at the island group Their 
goal was Amboyna Cay (about 100 miles 
southeast of Spratly Island), as Spratly 




Photo A. Phil Weaver VSGCTkept the amateur radio worfd informed of the progress of the 
search for Baidur's ifMated Spratiy DXpedltlon. Ptttf provided additions? detaiis at toe 
Vtsaifa International DX Convention this past spring. 



was firmly In the grasp of trigger-happy 
Vietcong, Amboyna Cay was also in- 
habited by unfriendly natives, and me 
group retired abruptly when gunfire 
erupted from Amboyna, They moved to a 
tiny sandbar. Barque Canada Reef, a tew 
miles to Ihe northwest. Several less- cou- 
rageous (more reasonable?) members of 
the trip stayed in Brunei while the three 
Intrepid DXped it loners operated from an 
unadministered island too close to 
Malaysia to count as a separate DX coun- 
try under DXCC rules. 

Many other DXped I doners who watched 
Spratly move up the Most Wanted list in- 
vestigated the possibility of another trip 
to the region, but maritime warnings, the 
advice Of the US Department of Stale, and 
the experience of the last DX peon ion to 
the area discouraged most amateurs. 

Which bring us to DJ6Sr& attempt. Forty- 
eight-year-old Baldur Drobnlca originally 
aimed for a DXped I Hon to St, Peter and 
Paul Rocks (PYe) off the coast of Brazil 
but a recent DXpedition had knocked PYi 
out of the top 25 of the Most Wanted list. 
Of the other DXCC countries on that fop 
25 list, most had political rather than 
logistical reasons for lack of amateur 
radio activity (see I his column, December, 
19B2] Heard Island was well covered {see 
this column, August. 1983). and the 
season was wrong for an assault on 
Bouvet, 3Y1 So Saldur narrowed his 
choice to Clipperlon (FOfl) and Spratly 
Clipperton required a long trip through 
Tahiti, as welt as special permission 



96 73 Magazine • September, 19S3 





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73 Magazine * September, 1983 97 



since a previous DXpedition had to be 
rescued from their PaciHc reef. So Baldur 
chose Spratly 

Baldur Hrst contacted a fellow West 
German In Brunei to locate a boat to sail 
to one of the Spratly islands. Despite the 
close proximity to Spraily (or perhaps 
because of it?), he was unable to locate a 
boat and crew tor the DXpedition So 
Baldur turned to Singapore, a few hundred 
miles further away. An ad in a sailing 
magazine led to negoiialtons with the 
skipper of Sidharto, a SO toot catamaran, 
and the trip to Spratly was on! 

Warren Qough 0V1VC provided In- 
valuable local assistance, especially in 
locating the generators, fuel, etc . needed 
tor ihe expedition Trus help reduced trie 
lime the West German DXpedmoners had 
to spend in Singapore to a mere two days 
On March 31, four amateurs left Cologne 
for Singapore. After locating a couple ol 
5.5-meter aluminum poles tor antenna 
masts, the amateurs and crew sei sail on 
April 3 from Singapore harbor 

On board I he yacht were Baldur. 
Nprbert Wilfand DF£FK, Gem Band 
DJ3NG and Diethefm Mueller DJ4EL aking 
with the captain, Peter Mart, and his wife 
Jenny Toh Swee Neo. After dodging 
shoals leaving Singapore harbor the 
group headed for the Nat una islands half- 
way to Spratly Their S^knot Speed was 
putting the group behind schedule, and 
they still wanted to operate tor five full 
days from Spratly, so they changed their 
plans to end their sail at Brunei 

As they reached the open water past 
Naiuna heavy seas forced a slight 
change in course from 65* to 75*. So Ihey 
sailed into the Spratly group somewhat 
east ot their intended course 10 ward 
Barque Canada Reef. They spoiled Am- 
boyna Cay, which was covered with 
military structures and other buildings, 
but no people, as far as they could tell. But 
as they changed their course from Am- 
boyna to Barque Canada Reel, about 
30-40 kms away, gunfire erupted from 
Am boyna, 

The yacht was about a mile or so from 
Amboyna, and clearly sailing away. Pal 

NC9ZO/OU2 war* in radio contact wMh Hie 

yacht, and olher stations were undoubt^ 
ably listening in to I ho progress ot the DX- 
pedition. The first round horn Amboyna 
fell short— the proverbial "warning shot"? 
The Stdharta sailed as Fast as possible 
away from Amboyna, but the next shot hit 
the yachi T wounding captain Peter Mar* in 
the chest, The group was fighting to get 
out of range of the gunfire when a inrrd 
round hit 120 liters of gasoline stored on 
board. Diet helm Mueller DJ4EI, who was 
standing next to the gasoline when it ex 




Photo 8. Of San Hutson K5YY was recently elected to the CO OX Halt ot fame, Con- 

gratuiaftons San* 



ptoded, was never seen again He couldn't 
swim. 

The rest ol the group ducked down the 
hatchway to escape the gunfire, with the 
FT7 stil I on the air "Fire on board. Fire on 
board 1 ' was the last radio communica- 
tion heard from the now burning vessel 
The group, now certain they would have to 
abandon their craft 7 escaped the cabin 
through the skylight. They grabbed a 
7D-liTer fresh water tanta and fashed em ply 
fuel barrels to it to keep it an oat. but Iheir 
dinghy was hanging from the stern of their 
yacht, which was engulfed in Names, 

When the propane bottles for cooking 
exploded, the group abandonee the 
Stdharta. Jenny swam around the burning 
yacht to rescue their dinghy, which for- 
tunately had been freed from the yacht as 
its lines burned through. The shelling con- 
tinued as the group piled into Ihe liny 
1 4* tool boat, and one round opened a hole 
m ihe dinghy. They used what jiitle 
cloi fling J hey had brought with them to 
block the Inflow ot water, but they had to 
bail continuously I hereafter. 

Meanwhile, ihey continued to call for 
DJ4EL but they saw no trace of Mueller 
after the third shell. Their careful salvage 
of the fresh water tank was for naught; it 
drifted out of reach. Water In the other 
tank was contaminated with seawater 
and undrinkabte. The gunfire continued 
as the dinghy drifted slowly away from 
Amboyna under the pressure of 
southwest winds Fortunately, the high 
seas screened them from most of the gun- 
fire, but the group huddled in the bottom 



of the little boat as shells -amed down 
around them. 

Atlirst. the spirits of the five remaining 
members of the DXpedition were good T 
despite the ordeal of losing thetr good 
friend Mueller, the yacht, and radio gear 
not to mention the end of their DXpedition 
plans. They knew they had been m radio 
contact up 10 the minute they abandoned 
ship, with their location well known It 
wouldn't be long, f hey reasoned, before a 
plane would drop a well-equipped life raft 
and supplies, followed by eventual 
rescue 

But days began to pass without a plane 
in sjqm Baldur inventoried their supplies 
m the dinghy: their bathing suits, a couple 
ot T-shirts, Baidur's parka, a woven 
basket, a glass jar, a screwdriver, and a 
couple of empty fuel cans. They rigged the 
empty cans as sea anchors to help 
stabilize ihe tiny craft, and used ihe 
screwdriver to remove a stainless-steel 
plate at the stern of the boat, where ihe 
outboard motor would be attached. They 
Intended to use the shiny plate as a mirror 
to attract the attention of rescue craft, 

Peter Marx, an able seaman with a Ger- 
man license, provided invaluable advice 
on survival In Iheopen boat, Without food 
or hash water, they could no! exert 
themselves In any wsy. so they dismissed 
the Idea of rowing As Ihe Sun beat down 
and there still were no rescue planes, the 
survivors fashioned a rough tent-like 
cover from Baldur 5 parka and Jenny's 
sarong, but it provided little shelter. 
Baldur tried lo catch fish with the woven 



basket but his onFy luck was with tiny, 
Finger-Sized minnows. The stllHlvIng flah 
were difficult to swallow without water, 
and most of the survivors gave them up 
even before the basket drifted away. 

Baldur, now deeply concerned thai they 
would not be rescued, scratched an ac- 
count of what had happened on the back 
of the steel plate, using the screwdriver. 
Even if ihey ail perished, the world would 
know what had taken place. Days con- 
tinued to pass, with a NNE wind blowing 
them slowly toward shipping lanes to the 
sou th of the Sp ra 1 1 y group. On the sixth or 
seventh night, a brightly-Eil ship passed a 
short distance away, but ihey had no way 
to attract attention The shiny metal plate 
was useless at night As they drifted 
through the more heavily travelled ship- 
ping lanes, they saw more ships, but only 
at night 

Meanwhile. Gero Band DJ3NG grew 
steadily weaker and began to hallucinate 
that they had been rescued He drank 
some sea water under the delusion thai .t 
was fresh, and this may have led lo his 
death a short time later. At about 100 pm 
on April 18. Gero died, and was buried at 
sea_ just 30 hours before the survivors 
were finally putted from ihe sea 

Baldur. loo, began to hallucinate, 
dreaming thai a voice told him he would 
be rescued on the tenth day. As that lenth 
day in the dinghy withoul food or water 
ebbed into sunset, a large Japanese ship, 
the Linden, passed dose by The survhronf 
couldn t yell with their dry throats, and the 
Linden sailed on by, Bui then Jenny noticed 
the ship had changed course, steaming 
around in a circle, back toward their 
dinghy! Rescue was finally at hand, alter 
243 hours! 

The Linden pulled alongside, and 
Baldur scrambled aboard, the Only Sur 
vivor with the strength (o do so unas 
sisted. The Japanese crew of the Panama 
registered Linden then took carelul care 
of the weakened DXped 11 loners Small 
amounts of warm fresh water first, and 
then long-awaited showers began to 
restore their strength. Their medical prob- 
lems were mainly sunburn, especially 
severe in Win and "s case. The JapaneSS 
treated bum blisters on their hands, lest, 
and faces, and soothed the sores caused 
by sitting In wet bathing suits on rough 
wood for ten days. Strained rice soup and 
clean sheets completed their first evening, 
after rescue; Baldur thought they were in 
heaven as he slipped into bed' 

End of Part L Coming next month: The 
aftermath, Unanswered Questions abound, 
and the fast chapter ot fhe Spratly saga has 
not been written. Copy fight TS&3, by Baidur 
Qtobnica DJ6SL 



DR. DIGITAL 



Robert Swirsky AF2M 
412 Arbuckle Avenue 
Cedarhurst NY 11516 

Tne most import ant development »n the 
history o> amateur radio came on October 
28. 1962, and, unfortunately, it weni by ia> 
noticed. What was this event? The legal 
■ration ol any digits* (i e . computed code 
on the amateur frequencies above 50 MHz 
te*cept for (he CvV-oniy portions of 6 and 
2). As long as Ihe codes are not intended 
lo make ones communications secret 
and a delated record ol the format of the 



digital codes is maintained; it is legal For 
the complete rules, see part 97.7 

Why is this so important? Well, for one 
thing, hams are now free to experiment. 
someihmg that was severely restricted 
under the old rules. In the past, it has been 
amateurs who pioneered various methods 
of communication : now hams can continue 
being pioneers. 

11 is impossible to go very far these days 
without encountering a microprocessor 
These devices. «n some form, can be 
Found in everything from automobiles to 
watches, Amateur radio, being no differ- 



ent from anything else, also has been com- 
puterized. Practically all the new trans- 
ceivers are microprocessor- com rolled. 
Many hams have taken up ihe study and 
use ol computers as a hobby. It is only 
natural that a person interested in elec- 
tronics would want to learn about com- 
puters. 

The typical ham's use of a computer, 
however, has been far from revolutionary. 
Sure many hams have replaced their 
noisy Model 19 Teletype" machines with 
the silent CAT. but thai really isn t 
enough. Computers can do so much more 
than simply send RTTY or ON, and one 
needn j spend a fori una to use a co input er 
in other applications 

Cornpulers can be used io assist with 
practically every mode of communication 
Stow -scan television and facsimile can 
easily be enhanced using digital icom- 
puteri.Tedt techniques. Even voice com- 



munications can be digitized Using 2 
technique called pulse-width modulation 
sound input can be digitized {con vert ec 
from analog to a digital representation 
and sent as digital data Various tech 
niques for compressing the data exist 
and on the receiving end. the voice can tw 
recreated using a digitaMo-anafog con 
verier, ftecent advances in integrated 
circuit techno fogy make experimenting 
along these lines well within the reach o 
any dedicated amateur 

The purpose of trns column is to shot 
other uses for a computer besides RTTY 
Sure, RTTY is wonderful wtth a compute* 
but computers can do so much more fwi 
try to provide examples for all the popula 
microcomputers so lhat rip one will tec 
left out. Particular emphasis wilt be on th 
lower-cost m»crocomputers Where poss 
ote, 1 will show how some fancy soft war 
can take Ihe place of elaboiale hardwar i 
By doing this. I hope lo provide somathin 



73 Magazine * September, 1 983 



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73 Magazine • September, 1983 99 



for everyone 1 including those hams who 
don't have the kilobucks to spend! 

Hams must get their computers talking 
to each other. Murray (Saudot) code at 60 
wpm simply is not the mosi efficient way 
for two computers to communicate. What 
is needed is a fasten more reliabie 
method with error-correction and error- 
detedion. Not oniy text can be sent, 
but programs, graphics, and even data 
representing music and sound! 

Before hams car start getting their 
computers on the air, some standards 
must be established. In the coming months, 
I wiil set forth my own ideas regarding 
such standards. Now you may be saying 
to yourself, "Who Is this AF2M to go 
around setting standards? 1 ' Wel! n why 
not? I am not affiliated with any ham radio 
or computer manufacturing company, so I 
will be completely objective. My sugges- 
tions for a digital communications stan- 
dard 1 are: 

1) Low cost. No expensive or unusual 
hardware should be required. 

2} Easy implementation on any com- 
puter. Individuals with a Tirnex 1000 and 
an IBM PC should be able to com- 
municate. 

3) Software over hardware. I favor the 
software solution to an interfacing prob- 
lem. In my opinion, it is much easier to 
tinker with op codes than with chips. 

4) Reliability, There should be error 
detection and correction. 

I would like to see computer graphics 
exchanged over the air, even between dif- 
ferent computer systems. There are some 
graphics standards around now; if is time 
lo start implementing them! 

I think I'll get off the soapbox now and 
start In with the fun stuff. 

CASSETTE-PORT QSO 

The new FCC rules now allow for cas- 
sette-port QSOs. If you are on VHF r you 
can exchange programs or data over the 
air with the cassette I/O. Of course, it is 
only possible to exchange data with 
someone who has the same type of com- 
puter (or an emulator), It takesa little fid- 
dling with the volume levels, but it is 
possible. Better results can be obtained if 
the audio is regenerated before It is sent 
to the computer. Regeneration Is almost 
always necessary with the VIC-20 and 
VIC-64 computers. However, fairly good 
results can be obtained with the Apple H 
TRS-SO I or 1 1 1, and the Tlmex/Sinclair com- 
puter with no additional circuitry. Once 
the proper volume levels are established, 
the data transfers can be just as reliable 
as cassette tapes are. 

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Fig. 1. VIC-20 cassette-part-to-ham-rig interlace. 



Sinclair, simply connect the cassette out- 
put to the microphone input of the rig and 
the audio output of the rig into the com- 
puter, Make sure to use shielded cable to 

prevent the rf from the computer from in- 
terfering with the radio. Fortunately, on 

the VHF and UHF frequencies where this 
type of operation is legal, computer RFI 
becomes less of a problem, Carefully 
monitor your transmitter output and ad- 
just the microphone gain for a normal 
amount of deviation— about the same as 
you would expect from a voice signal. To 
set the proper receive level, use the same 
procedure as you would to set the level of 
ihe cassette recorder, tt might take a little 
experimentation, but once the proper set- 
tings are found, you won't have to worry 
about them again. 

Wi t h a Co rn modore V tC com p ut e r, try the 
circuit shown in Fig. 1. The integrated cir- 
cuit is just a 7404 hex inverter to ensure 
that a perfect square wave Qoes into the 
computer. To feed audio into the rig, the 
IQ-jiF Capacitor improves the audio quali- 
ty. Fig. 2 shows the pinout of the VIC-20 
cassette port, Note that you can power 
the interface circuit from pin B-2 tt is 
important that you ground pin F-6; this 
makes the computer think that the cas- 
sette recorder is connected and the Play 
switch has been depressed. 

Cassette-port I/O isn't the best way. bui 
it sure is cheap, Wfth just a minimal 
amount of experimentation, you can have 
your computer on the air and start ex 
changing programs! 

ERROR-CORRECTING COOES 

When transmitting data, it is useful to 
have some way of detecting errors and 
correcting them. There are many methods 
of accomplishing this. Let's begin with a 
discussion about parity. 

When data are sent over a computer, 
they are usually encoded in any one of 
several standard computer ''alphabets," 



HAM HELP 



I am looking for literature on Peltier 
electrodes. I am particularly interested in 
information on how to make them or use 
them lo make a rnicrosample osmometer. 

Carlos P. da Costa MD, PhD 

Rua dos Navogantes 541 , Apt. €02 

Boa Via gem. Recife 

PE 50000 Brazil 

I need a copy of the schematic and 
crystal information tor an AN/PRT 4 A 
transmitter 

Cfatus G. Relnsal W3HWM 

RD 1 Box 405A 

Oil City PA 16301 

100 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



I'm looking for schematics for the 
Wilson 1402-SM HT. I will pay for copying 
and marling costs. 

Robert Good KA0QBM 

6l3SE89thSt. 

Bern/ton KS 66524 

I would like to hear from anyone who 
has made receiver modifications to the 
Kenwood TS-700S or SP, and anyone who 
has constructed a 2- meter amplifier using 
the 4CX25Q S-R or 8930. 



Connie Mercer 

HHB 32nd AADCOM 

APO NY 09175 



The one used by most of the computer In- 
dustry is called ASCII {pronounced askey). 
In the standard ASCII code (there are sev- 
eral variations of it), each character takes 
up seven elements called bits. When 
transmitted serially, the least-significant 
bit Is transmitted first and the most- 
significant bit is transmitted last. In order 
to ensure that no bits were lost during 
transmission, a parity bit can be gener- 
ated and sent as an eighth bit. 

There are two types of parity: even and 
odd. In even parity, the parity bit is sent so 
as to make the total number of "1" or 
"ON" bits (including the parity hit) even. In 
odd parity, the total number of b T l bits is 
made odd. For example* if the ASCII code 
1011001 was to be sent, the parity bit 
would be a zero if you were using even 
parity, and it would be a one if you were 
using odd. At the receiving end. if odd 
parity was being used, any byte with an 
even number of "1 " bits indicates an error, 
For even parity, an odd number of M 1' h taits 
received means an error. There Is no ad- 
vantage to using even parity over odd pari- 
ty; it would be nice if everyone used the 
same. 

The software for generating or check- 
ing parity Is very simple. They both involve 
the use of a logical exclusive OR (XOH). In 
case you are not familiar with the various 
logic functions, study the truth tables m 
Fig. 3. Note that the exclusive OFi is sim- 
ilar to addition except that the carry bit is 
ignored, To generate the parity bit, per- 
form the following algorithm: 

1. Initialize a temporary data bit (0 for even 
parity t 1 for odd). 

2. Take the first data bit and exclusive OR 
it with the temporary bit. 

3. Repeat step 2 for the next six bits. 

4. The temporary bit is now equal to the 
parity. 

If you are receiving ASCII data, com- 
pare the generated bit with the received 
bit. If you are sending ASCII, transmit the 
parity bit as your eighth bit. 

Now that you can detect errors, it would 
be nice if you can correct them as well. In 
order to do this, some redundancy must be 
introduced. The greater the redundancy, 
the more errors can be corrected, but ef- 
ficiency will be sacrificed. The simplest 
method of error-correction is called the 
longitudinal-redundancy check (LRC). 
This is simply having a "vertical' 1 parity 



F-fi| 
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PLAY SWTCH I GROUND THIS 
-I INPUT 10 SIMULATE PRESS- 
ING THE 'PLAY' BUTTON J 

— DATA (AUDIO) OUT 



-4 | | -DATA (AUDIO) IN 

_ 3 [~~ H J+6.7 VOLTS FOR 
I . — I 1 MOTOR 



"I MOTOR 



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_T+5 VOLTS LUSE IT TO 
"[POWER 74041 



-GROUND 



across sev/erai bytes, in addition to the 
'horizontal' ' pari [ y . For exa mple.su ppose 
the following bytes are to be transmitted 
(using odd parity); 

00010000 

1Q10O0Q1 

UDOD0001 

11110001 
The bit on the right is Ihe parity bit To 
use the LRC, a fifth byte is generated, (I 
simply chose to have the four-byte blocfc; 
it can be any fixed length,') WeTI use the 
odd system throughout The sum of each 
column, except for the parity column, 
must be odd. That would make the LRC 
byte equal to: 

10111110 
The algorithm for generating the LRC is 
similar lo generating parity: 
t. Initialize a temporary byte (0 for odd, 1 

for even}. 
2- Exclusive OR the first byte in the block 
with the temporary byte, 

3. Repeat step 2 for the next three (or n-1) 
bytes in the block. 

4. Generate a parity bit for the temporary 
byte, and put it in the MSB position, 

5. The lemporary byte now contains the 
proper LRC value. 

Using the LRC to fix an error is simple. 
When data are being received, Ihe com- 
puter is generating its own parity and LRC 
information. If what the computer gener- 
ates doesn't match what was sent, an er- 
ror has occurred. Suppose that the sec- 
ond byte in the example was received in- 
correctly as 10000001. The computer 
would know this was wrong because there 
is an even numberof bits (2) and we are us- 
ing odd parity. The LRC byte would also 
be wrong: 1 00 11111 would be generated 
by the receiving computer while 10111 110 
would be transmitted to it. To correct the 
error: 

1. Exclusive OR the generated LRC byte 
with ihe received LRC byte (ex. 10111110 
XOR 10011111 gives 00100001). 

2. AND the parity bit of this result with 
zero, thus setting it to zero, 

3. Exclusive OR the resulting value with 
the byte that had the parity error. 
That's all there is to it. The erroneous 

bit will be flipped back toihe proper value! 

The LRC certainly isn't the best method 
for error-correction, but it is the easiest to 
understand and implement. There are bet- 
ter methods, known as cyclic-redundancy 
checks (CRC), that can't be "fooled" as 
easi ly as the LRC. I will go into the CRC in 
a coming column. 

Coming up also will be a detailed dis- 
cussion of the various cassette-port stan- 
dards and how to make them more re- 
liable for over-t he-air use. Also, we will be 
examining some inexpensive comput- 
erized methods of generating and decod- 
ing SSTV. 

II you ere doing anything with com- 
puters and ham radio, please drop me a 
line, I would also appreciate any com- 
ments regarding standards for computer- 
to-computer communication, especially 
with regard to the encoding of computer 
graphics. 



TRUTH TABLE FOR 
EXCLUSIVE -QR l©» 



X 


> 


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O 











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1 


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1 


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1 


1 



TflUTH TABLE FOR 

LOGfGAL OR (+> 



X 


V 


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1 





1 








1 


1 


1 



TRUTH TABLE FOR 
LOGICAL AND («> 



Fig. 2. ViG-20 cassette-port pinout. 



Fig. 3. Truth tables. 



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73 Magazine • September, 1983 101 



RTTY LOOP 



Marc i. Leavey, M.D. WA3AJR 

0/o73 

Peterborough NH 03458 

In the last publ Ished i nstal Iment of this 
column (July), I was leading up to a byte- 
by^byte look at how to implement a RTTV 
terminal program on several popular com- 
puters. A look was planned at several pop- 
ular microprocessors in the 6800/6502 fam- 
i lies, with the programs to be designed 
around these chips. Unfortunately, the 
powers that be, read editors, feel mat 
such a topic is too esoteric for this col- 
umn. So I shalt continue to develop this 
program over the next few months on the 
side, and then try to make it avaiEabie for 
those interested. Watch this column for 
an announcement It wilf be a bit, though, 
because as observant readers may note 
from the top of this column, I am still mov- 
ing and things get a bit tight now and 
then. But bear with me., OK? 

Let's see what some of you are involved 
in these days. I am In receipt of a card 
from Dieter Kaerger. from West Germany, 
who is interested In various forms of en- 
coded RTTY. Well. I n the plannl ng stage Is 
an In-depth look at some of the schemes 
now in use, including but not limited to 
AMTOFt. I would be interested to hear 
what the readership has to say on these 
exciting new techniques which allow al- 
most error-free RTTY under less than op- 
timal conditions. What equipment are you 
all using? What's good and what's a 
lemon? Let me know what you have found 
out and I will see if I can put all this com- 
bined knowledge into a useful form for all 
to benefit from. 



This brings up the subject of manufac- 
tured equipment mentioned in this col- 
umn. With few exceptions, I try only to 
write about equipment I have seen or a 
close friend has seen, I have tried to avoid 
rewriting press releases or ads — you can 
read those as weil as I. Normally, the 
"New Product" blurbs you read In maga- 
zines are prepared from such manufac- 
turer-supplied information and are likely 
to provide ail the good points and none of 
the bad, I have now been burned a few 
times and will attempt to screen out the 
truth from the puffery. 

Henry Townsend AF2U. up I n Cape May 

NJ, drops me a line, No Cape May 
diamonds in the letter, though, \ remem- 
ber looking for those beauties on the 
beach years ago. Henry is looking for a cir- 
cuit to display HTTY on a converted tele- 
vision set. We have dealt with this many 
times and my advice still stands. If you 
can convert the live-level RTTY to ASCII 
(and the multitude of articles to help you 
do that have been listed here many times), 
any of the available terminal boards wtif 
do just fine. Scan the ads; there are video 
dispiay boards capable of building a 
stand-alone "dumb" terminal available 
for a reasonable price, and kits for less. I 
am sending Henry a list of articles 
published here in the past; those of you 
who are still confused about this topic 
should check through previous editionsof 
this column. 

Are you at ail interested in a compila- 
tion of old columns? Drop the editors at 73 
and Wayne Green Books a note and send 
me a copy, too. I would be happy to work 
up a compilation of the first five years or 



30 of "RTTY Loop" (we are in our seventh 
year now), but I need some feedback that 
there Is a desire to have the book pub- 
lished. This information Is here and ready 
to be assembled, but the folks in Peterbor- 
ough want to be sure there is a market be- 
fore starting the project. Let us know. 

Barry Travis N4FNZ, In Arlington VA, 
sends along a letter of distress, Barry has 
a monitoring oscilloscope, model GSA, 
using a 91 3 cathode-ray tube. He has been 
unable to find a source for this tube In the 
ads, Anyone out there in FTTTfland able to 
help Barry should write him at 60S H Irv- 
ing Street, Arlington VA 22201. Good luck, 
Barry. 

Another ham In need Is Lynn Finch 

W2MSJ, from Port Crane NY. Lynn Is us* 
ing a Commodore 64 on RTTY and has a 
monitor which he would like to convert lo 
use with the C-64 This was part of an ITT 
computer, Is labeled STANSASB E25240 
0000k and was apparently made In Swe- 
den. Lynn is anxiously awaiting any infor- 
mation at Route 369, RO 2, Box 789. Port 
Crane NY 13833. Don't let him down! 

People do help others, In June, 1 men* 
Honed that Charles Hoppesch was look- 
ing for a RTTY program for the TRS-flO 
Model HI, I have a letter here from William 
Buckingham, in Osceola PA, who advises 
of The Disassembled Handbook tor TRS 
SO, a flve-volumB set from Richcraft Engin- 
earing which apparently contains a RTTY 
program for the TRS-8Q. i have not seen 
the book or program, but Bill Indicates 
that it is quite a program and that he has It 
up on his computer, You might keep an 
eye out for this book in your locat com- 
puter/ham shop If I get more information 
on this one, I shall pass It along forthwith, 

I would like to point out, by the way, to 
folks like Ernest Nyberg K4GYI, in Lake 
Worth FL that this program is also adapt- 
able to the old TRS-80 Model I. Now, this 
rig had its share of problems with TVI and 
RFI and the like. But it Is a good machine 



underneath it all, and If you can lick the in- 
terference problem, this book may be of 
some use to you as weil. I would be Inter- 
ested to hear from you when you get the 
Model I on the air. That's not if, but wnenl 

The VIC-2G has some new folks using it 
One of them is SFC Lawrence (Skip) Bar- 
ley, Jr., overseas with the US Army. Yes, 
Skip, you can use the VIC 20 on RTTY r but 
you will have to use a program designed 
for the VIE>2Q\ as opposed to the TRS-80 
program mentioned above or one tor 
some other computer. We have touched 
on a few of these in the past and you men- 
tion in your ietter that you will be looking 
at back editions of Titty Loop, 11 so I 
hope you have seen some of the informa- 
tion we have printed. I have not had any 
feedback either way on the severai hard- 
ware adapters on the market nor have I 
tried any of them. But watch this column 
for future information as it becomes 
available. 

Regards to Dam Parfitt WA2YPY, a de- 
voted 6800 user from West Palm Beach 
FL. Dale indicates that a score or more 
hams in his area are using 6800s and 
would like RTTY programming. Hang In 
there, folks, I hear you, I will have some- 
thing for you In the not-toondistant future. 
And thanks for your support. 

Hey. how many of you are using RTTY 
mailboxes of one sort of another? Why not 
drop me a short note, listing the boxes you 
are using, protocols t likes and dislikes, 
stuff like that, I will try to publish what ! re- 
ceive so that good ones get better and 
super ones rub off on the rest Just drop a 
note to me in care of 73 for now, and be 
sure to enclose an SASE If you would like 
a personal reply. But be patient, OK? 

AMTQR, remote mailboxes, ASCII— we 
have all come a long way from an old 
Model 15, haven r l we? The range is huge, 
but every month I try to distill It down to 
potability here. Let's see what turns up 
next month in RTTY loop. 



LETTERS 




MAILBOX FULL 



HELP! Because you were thoughtful 
enough to publish my letter {March) set- 
ling the record a little straighter about life 
and living in Latin America (particularly on 
the Emerald Coast of Colombia), I have 
been deluged with mail from your readers. 

So, may I, through your "Letters" col- 
umn, assure them I am most delighted 
with their responses and will eventually 
answer each and every letter? Muchas 
gracias! 



Juanita Bird 
Santa Maria, Colombia 



DUSTY DESIRES 



We would like to ask your assistance 
(and that of your readership) in a project 
that our museum is involved with. We 
have a need for our displays for World War 
Two US communications equipment. Spe- 
cificaily, we need both portable (man- 
pack) and vehicular radio sets along with 
all related components including vehicle 
shock mounts. These will be incorporated 
into our displays to complete vehicles. 



Our needs do not include radios or compo- 
nents unique to fixed station, shelter- 
mounted, or aircraft application. 

There can be no question that inequali- 
ty and quantity of US communications 
equipment was a significant factor in the 
success met on the world's battlefields. 
We feel that it is very Important that se- 
lected items of this material be preserved 
and displayed. We would very much like to 
hear from individuals who have such 
equipment, no matter how Insignificant it 
may seem, and who would like to aid us in 
this project. 

Terr! 1 1 M. Ait ken 

Capt SC ORARNG 

Curator 

Oregon National Guard 

Military Museum and Resource Center 

Camp Withy com be 
Clackamas OR 9701 5 



AMTOR WARNING 

As you know, the latest form of RTTY 
communications to be of interest to hams 
is called AM TOR, which has been used t»y 
the maritime services. The AMTOR pro- 
cessor board converts the synchronous 



signals to standard Baudot 60 or 66-wpm 
signals tor the terminal. 

For a number of years there has been a 

video terminal advertised that has been 
quite popular in this area. It is a low-cost 
unit that operates In both the Baudot and 
ASCII modes at 45 to 300 baud. This is a 
high-quality unit that has been well worth 
the cost. I am referring to the Xitex. 
SCT-100, 

There are a few items In the SCT-100, 
however, that are problem areas. When 
the unit receives a quote character, it 
displays the numeral 5. When it receives 
an exclamation character, it displays a 
q uot e. Ty p i ng a q u ote c h aracte r t ran sm its 
an exclamation mark and, if you type an 
exclamation, nothing is transmitted. 

The problem becomes major when 
using the SCT-100 with an AMTOR com 
verier. The M ovef signal used in TOR is 
qucte/questlon mark. Since the SCT-100 
will not transmit the quote, it cannot. 
therefore, be used with TOR. The M over" 
signal is not Just an Indicator for the other 
station to begin transmitting: it actually 
controls the TOR circuits and Is neces- 
sary for mode A operation. I think that 
there are probably many SCT-100 users 
out there who will try to use their 100s and 
perhaps wonder why they will not function 
properly. 

Sob Roehrig K9EUI 
Bstavis IL 

Bob, stop grrprng about the problem and 
get me a modification of th& SCT-100 so 
owners can cope with AMTOR— Wayne.. 



RYAN'S HOPE 



Wayne, you're the '"devil's advocate." I 
call you that because I'm sure that, had 
you chosen a career in the clergy of the 
Roman Catholic Church r you would have 
early on fihed that post in Rome. 

I feel that you are, unfortunately, at 
least fighting a losing battle in trying to re- 
form the members of our mutual hobby 
with respect to their manners (i refer to the 
letter from Bill Skipper KOARG in the May 
'S3 "Letters' 1 column). irs impossible! 
You're attempting that which alt the 
priests, rabbis, and other assorted clergy- 
men over the past 10,000 years of human 
history have not been able to accomplish. 
After all, all hams (at least most of them, 
anyway), are members of the human race- 
One need only listen in on 14.230 MHz 
sometime ghat's where the SSTV folks 
hang out on 20 meters) for a while. Not 
only is there squabbling between those 
running SSTV and those who suddenly ap- 
pear on frequency for other purposes (we 
won't even mention the habits of the OX 
and contest workers), but there's also 
even squabbling among the SSTVers 
themseives as to whether the frequency is 
for SSTV QSOs or SSTV "technical dis 
cussion M nets, etc. I've gone no further in- 
to this mode of our hobby than buying 
KGAEP's 7.4 SSTV program and probably 
won't, with all the squabbling. I can safely 
think of other modes to invest my dollars 
in (such as RTTY). No one can stop the 
squabbling— not even, should they iry, 
the FCC. My, they even squabble over 



102 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



which SSTV system is the t>est and knock, 
badly, what each doesn't have (or 
support). Now that's squabbling for you! 
In 29 years, in this hobby, I've never heard 
folks knocking other folks' equipment. It's 
an education in itself. 

I can't agree with everything you ap- 
parently advocate, as I smoke cigars (no 

smoking) and am a retired police chief 
(some of your arguments against radar). 
However. I defend your right to speak out. 
Furthermore, I agree with your attempts to 
advance the hobby into the twentieth cen- 
tury (never mind the twenty-first) by push- 
ing the various newer modes of transmis- 
sion. Unfortunately, as John Edwards' 
"FlhiJ J| column's annua! poll results in- 
dicate, apparently the interest fn any 
newer mode of operation (I.e., HTTY, 
SSTV, OSCAR, etc) doesn't exceed 30%, 
and that only for the potential use of the 
OSCAR satellites. One gets the impres- 
sion that, in reality, approximately 6-10% 
of hams are interested in advanced (post- 
19&3) modes of operation. Its a pity, but 
considering the fact that it's a hobby and 
hobbies reflect the social habits of the 
predominant generation at the time, per- 
haps it's understandable. (I'm not knock- 
ing the younger generation,, but simply 
making a statement of apparent fact. The 
next one f being brought up on home/ 
school microcomputers, will be different.} 
[I wonder If all the CW enthusiasts have 
considered the fact that, as a mode, it's 
really digital!) 

To reiterate, this is„ after all, a hobby, 
and most hams drift in and out of activity, 
from mode (or interest) to mode through- 
out (heir hobby career, In varying cycles 
(almost like one's btorhythms}. We are liv- 
ing in a world of increased specialization 
(look at the programming field, for exam- 
ple) and our hobby is becoming more 
varied daily. There will be more of this, as 
time goes on (your 73 for example, will 
probably become as specialized as SO 
Micro or Hot Coco). Don 1 ! fight if. Even 
QST and the league can't be all things to 
all people. 

Enough of this. You and your publica- 
tions serve a good purpose in the hob- 
by, so whatever you do, don't get dis- 
couraged. 

Joe Ryan WBBLLM 
Florence MS 

/ dunno, Joe — once I saw everyone's slow- 
scan pictures I stopped tuning around 
14,230, so I've missed the beefing. Me 
discouraged? Hat— Wayne. 



role this equipment potentially has in an 

emergency. 

Wayne, I believe your editorials will 
show less frustration if you forget about 
the oid cronies standing in the way of 
progress. I do not think It is wise to 
repeatedly exhort this older group to ,L get 
with it." My experience has shown me that 
it is fruitless to attempt to budge this seg- 
ment of amateurs. 

I think it is more critical to prevent en- 
thusiastic new hams from becoming lack- 
luster, disinterested, out-of-date ama- 
teurs. I have seen emergency communica- 
tions provide that stimulus to many hams. 
Whether it Is a training drill on a weekend 
or providing communications for a walk-a- 
thon or air show, these activities reaHy en- 
courage direct ham involvement in which 
the amateur can really see his or her con- 
tribution to the com m unity. At the same 
time, the ham receives the thanks of local 
residents. 

I trust I have not overlooked any of your 
efforts in this area, Wayne; if I have, 
please forgive my oversight. I thank you 

for publishing a great amateur magazine. 

David Sweigert WB9VKO 
Beeville TX 

You're probably right about the old* 
timers. One of our advertisers called the 
other day to tett us that his ads in 73 cut- 
putt those in QST by a wide margin be- 
cause, as he put it, "too many copies of 
QST end up in convalescent homes, " ft is 
fun gearing up to handle emergencies and 
we should get what few youngsters we 
have involved with it. tf we plan our 
emergency communications systems so 
that they wift be able to work even after 
doomsday; then they'ff he duck soup for 
ordinary disasters such as earthquakes 
and floods^ Wayne. 



MARS POTENTIAL 



MINI-DOOMSDAYS 



Your publisher has waxed eloquent on 
several occasions on what is wrong with 
ham radio and on what should be done to 
correct it. At times his zeal may have 
drawn him Into simplistic or impractical 
solutions [e. g., I suspect that getting kids 
into high-school radio clubs is not the 
complete answer to the Japanese ascen- 
dancy in electronics and autos; there may 
be some managerial and political ramifi- 
cations, too). But he touches on some- 
thing for which there may be a solution in 
place and ready for development when he 
deplores the lack of an effective emer- 
gency amateur radio system. I refer to 
MARS, 



Before throwing more brickbats at the 
Military Affiliate Radio System, consider 
what it is and what it might become. I have 
been a member of MARS for nearly 30 
years and have served as State Director of 
two states, so I know t he good and the bad 
of it pretty intimately. And I have devel- 
oped some thoughts about what it needs. 

What it does not need is further Ig- 
noring by the AFIRL and other sources 
of support and publicity. MARS Is "of, 
by, and for amateur radio operators' 1 
and deserves much more recognition than 
it gets. 

If it were better, maybe it would get 
some of that recognition (and maybe It 
would represent more of a threat to the 
TCPN than it does). Its function of 
operating phone patches for overseas 
servicemen is weFl known and respected. 
But little else about MARS is heard. And h 
In truth, there is much about it that rates 
criticism. 

Nevertheless, it is a network of dedicat- 
ed amateurs, nation- and worldwide, with 
the equipment and training to operate In 
emergency conditions. More important. H 
has the potentiat to build on the 
framework of the system-in-being to make 
a formidable answer to the need tor 
emergency communications. 

What it needs is money and support. 
When I first joi ned P there were six regional 
directors of the system; now there are 
only three. Where each office used to have 
at least adequate personnel to handle the 
vast paperwork and hardware require- 
ments, now the eastern third of the US is 
administered by one sole individual. This 
is a result of government cutbacks in 
funding and it is hurting the system. What 
is the source of funding? Congress, of 
course. Letters to your congressmen are 
needed. 

One glaring fault m MARS seems like it 
would be easily correctable: the fact that 
there are three separate MARSes. They 
should be integrated. Each state has an 
Army, a Navy, and an Air Force MARS, and 
they can't talk to each other! But nobody 
in authority has been willing to take this 
one step that would improve MAFIS about 
500% in traffic handling and bring an en- 
larged system into much more contact 
with technical ly-skilled operators. They're 
out there but, splintered as MARS is, there 
isn't too much incentive to get things 
going, 

Even with all the shortcomings inherent 
in association with the government and 
the military, government with support can 
get things done. MARS membership is an 
aging population, but more support and a 
revitalized system would reflect itself in 
more aggressive recruiting. Young people 
are welcome in MARS but they aren't 



showing up, MARS languishes, badly in 
need of just a few sparks to set it off. 

73 would do inestimable good if it threw 
its formidable clout behind MARS MARS 
is perfect for some boat-rocking, which 73 
seems to enjoy. You are not bogged down 
with old fogies that hate change. And you 
have influence, How about it: Give us 
some help? Twist some arms; boost us 
some; encourage hams to look into 
MARS; heH, even bad-mouth us if you 
want to. At least that's better than being 
Ignored! 

John A. MacGahan W2DJM 
Haines Fails NY 

MARS could get a new tease on fife if 
some of the mem hers would take the in- 
terest to write about it explaining what, if 
any, the benefits are from joining. And 
white t don't think I've anywhere sug- 
gested that getting kids interested in am- 
ateur radio is the entire solution to the 
Japanese problem, t'm not sure how MARS 
fits in as a solution either, tf there are 
more benefits to joining MARS than costs, 
get the word out and yoult get mem- 
bers—Wayne. 



BILAL 



Some of my customers have found that 
it is very difficult to find me. They must be 
using old journals and are assuming that I 
am out of business. I'm not. My correct ad- 
dress and phone number are: 

Ralph Btlal 

Bilal Company 

SR.2 

Eucha OK 74342 

(916J-2534094 



MEXICAN NET NEWS 



During the past few years and present- 
ly, the North West Radio Amateur Club of 
Obregon, Sonora, has been operating the 
Mexican Emergency Net on 7.090 MHz, 
LSB, from O3O0-O4O0Z {the time may 
change by an hour seasonally to seek op- 
timum propagation for the coverage of the 
entire Mexican Republic.} 

Its purpose is to handle emergency traf- 
fic, contact air, maritime, and land-mobile 
stations, and receive check-ins from ama- 
teurs throughout Mexico. We believe this 
net will be of value to the amateurs in bor- 
dering regions in the event of any joint 
emergency . 

Christopher Petrotf XE2BSG 
Chihuahua. Mexico 



I appreciate your many editorials at- 
tempting to increase the size of amateur 
adio. You have suggested more interest 
n the clubs on a local level, more reading 
3t ham magazines, and more encouraging 
3f computer hobbyists to Join the ham 
Maternity. I have read every editorial in 73 
f or the last year and you have overlooked 
>ne very important recruitment tool: emer- 
gency communications. 

You did mention ham involvement in 
ioomsday communication in the event of 
i nuclear war, but 1 am referring to floods, 
ornados, hurricanes, etc. This is when 
he spotlight falls on radio amateurs and 
?ur ability to communicate during emer- 
gency conditions for the public welfare. 

All amateurs should remember that 
assisting official agencies with emergen- 
cy communications is part of our charter. 
^s we begin to interface our computers 
vith our rigs, let us not forget the valuable 



Take your favorite HX out 
for a drive tonight. 



VISA or MASTERCARD for 
same day shipment 



For $69.95 you get the most efficient, 
dependable, fully guaranteed 35W 2 meter 
amp kit for your handy talkie money can buy. 

Now you can save your batteries by operating 
your HT, on tow power and still get out like a 
mobile rig, The model 335A produces 35 watts 
out with an input of 3 watts, and 15 watts out with 
only 1 watt in. Compatible with I02AT, TR-2400 P 
Yaesu, Wilson & Tempo! Other 2 meter models are avail- 
able with outputs of 25W and 75 W p in addition to a 100W 
amplifier kit for 430MHZ. ^^ 

Communication Concepts Inc 



;"-07P 



2648 N Aragon Ave., Day Ion, OH 45420 
{513)296-1411 



*See Lt$t of Advertisers on page 114 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 103 



/WARDS 



Biit Gosney KE7C 
Micro-80, Inc. 
2665 North Busby Road 
Oak Harbor WA 98277 

BRITISH COMMONWEALTH 
AWARDS 

Through the cooperation of the Radio 
Society of Great Britain, I was able to ob- 
tain complete details of this great 
organization's awards program. 

The following rules and conditions ap- 
ply to all HF certifications and awards 
issued by 1 he RSGB and should be read in 
conjunction with those governing awards 
and certificates individually. 

AJ I members o f 1 h e RSG S w i 1 1 be afford- 
ed awards at no charge. Others must 
enclose at least 6 IRCs for each award. 
Applicants within the United Kingdom 
must submit QSL cards directly to the 
RSGB to justify their claim. AH others may 
use the general certification rule with an 
affiliated society of a national organiza- 
tion. 

Endorsements will be given for all- 
phone, all-CW, and/or single-band ac- 
complishments. 

Commonwealth DX Certificate (CDXC) 

This certificate may be claimed by any 
licensed amateur who can produce 
evidence of having made two-way com- 
munication with stations iocated in at 
least 50 call areas listed on the Com- 
monwealth call area chart. All contacts 



have to be made on 14 MHz, and an addi- 
tional 50 contacts must be made in Com- 
monwealth call areas on other bands. In 
the case of ,L other M bands, a particular 
call area may be claimed only once, ir- 
respective of the band on which the call 
area was worked. The other call areas do 
not have to be the same as those worked 
on 14 MHz, 

British Commonwealth Radio 
Transmission Award (BCRTA) 

This award may be claimed by any li- 
censed radio amateur who can produce 
evidence of having effected two-way com- 
munication with stations located in at 
least 50 of the call areas on any band or 
combination of bands. A five-band en- 
dorsement is available for 50 cail areas on 
5 bands. 

Worked British Commonwealth 
Certificate (WBC) 

This certificate requires the applicant 
to work at least one British Common- 
wealth station located In at least five of 
the recognized continental areas as defined 
by the ITU and noted in The List of British 
Commonwealth Call Areas. For the pur- 
pose of this award, North and South 
America count as one continental; area. 

IARU Region 1 Award 

This award may be claimed by any 
licensed amateur who can produce evi- 
dence of having worked Stations located 
in IARU Region 1. There are three levels of 
operating achievements: Class 1 requires 
contact with all countries in IARU Region 



1. Class 2 requires contact with 35 coun- 
tries within IARU Region 1. Class 3 re- 
quires contact with 20 IARU Region t 
countries. 

To be eligible, all contacts must be 
made after January 1, 1979. Special en- 
dorsements are given for single-band or 
-mode ach i elements. 

Members of IARU Region 1 are: Algeria, 
Austria. Bahrain. Belgium, Botswana, 
Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Den- 
mark, Federal Republic of Germany, Ger- 
man Democratic Republic. Faeroes, Fin 
land, France, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece. 
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, 
Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, 
Liberia, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, 
Monaco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway. 
Oman, Poland, Portugal. Rhodesia, 
Romania, South Africa, Sierra Leone, 
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United 
Kingdom, USSR, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. 

To apply for any of the awards spon 
sored by the Radio Society of Great Brit- 
ain, forward your application along with 
the award fee of 6 IRCs to; C R. Emary 
G5GH, Westbury End, Flnmere, Bucking- 
ham Bucfcs, England. 

Cheshire Award 

This award Is issued in three cate- 
gories: Applicants receive a gold award 
for accumulating 50 pomts, a silver award 

Tor accumulating 30 points, and a bronze 
award for accumulating 15 points. 

Contacts must be made with only radio 

amateurs in the Cheshire County of 
England and there are no band or mode 
restrictions nor any date I imitations. 



Points can be claimed for al I valid QSQs 
according to the example in Fig. 1. 

Should you contact an amateur who re- 
sides In the County Town ot Cheshire in 
Cheshire County, you may claim double 
point value. 

The fee for this award is US $3.00 or 10 
IRCs. This includes postage of the award 
which is attractively printed on parchment 
with an embossed seal signifying the 
category. 

GCR apply: however, the Award 
Manager reserves the right to request 
QSLs prior to issuance of the award. 

AFRICAN AWARDS 

F van Greunen 2S1 IT wrote on behal i of 
the South African Radio League (SARL) 
and provided details for their very popular 
African awards program. A detailed de- 
scription follows. 

All Africa Award (AAA) 

This award, sponsored by SARL T is 
made available to DXers throughout the 
world. Below is a list of areas In Africa 
from which QSL cards will qualify to ob- 
tain this award. 

Confirmation must be submitted for 
one contact from each of the six ZS call 
areas as well as one contact from 
Botswana (A2), Lesotho {?P&}, and 
Swaziland (306), plus one contact from 25 
different areas of the remaining groups of 
country prefixes shown below. 

A list Indicating cailsigns, mode, date, 
and time must accompany QSL cards sub- 
mitted. Applicants who belong to IARU- 
affiliated clubs or societies may have 





UK 


European 


DX 


Mode 


Stations 


Stations 


Stations 


CW/SSBJAM 


1 


2 


5 


FM 


1/2 


b 


10 


5STV/RTTY/OSCAR 


5 


10 


15 



Hg. 1. 



LIST OF BRITISH COMMONWEALTH CALL AREAS 



EUROPE 
British Isles 

England (including Isleof Wight and Isleot Scillyj 

Channel Isles: Jersey 
Guernsey. Alderney. and Sark 

Isleof Man 

Northern Ireland 

Scotland [including Orkney, Shetland, and Western Isles) 

Wales 
Gibraltar 
Malta 

GozoandComino 
AMERICA 
Canada 

Maritime Provinces 

Sable Isle 



G 

GJ.GC 

GU.GC 

GD 

Gl 

GM 

GW 

ZB2 

(ZB1)9H 

SH4 



VE1 
VE1 



British Virgin Islands 

Montserrat 

St. Kltts- Nevis 
Sandwich Group 
South Georgia 
South Orkney Islands 
South Shetland Islands 
Trinidad and Tobago Islands 
Turks and Gaicos Islands 
Windward Islands 

Dominica 

Grenada and Deps 

St. Lucia 

St, Vincent 
CALL AREAS WITH RESTRICTED DATE LIMITS 
Before June 1, 1961 
Union of South Africa: 



VP2 
VP2 
VP2 
VPS 
VP8 
VPB 
VP8 
(VP4)9Y4 
VP5 

VP2 
VP2 
VP2 
VP2 



St. Paul Isle 


VE1 


Cape District 


ZSi 




Province of Quebec 


VE2 


Cape Province(inctudlngZSl) 


ZS2 




Province of Ontario 


VE3 


Marion and Prince Edward Island 


ZS2 




Province of Manitoba 


VE4 


Southwest Africa 


ZS3 




Province of Saskatchewan 


VE5 


Orange Free State 


ZS4 




Province of Alberta 


VE6 


Natal (Including Zu I uland) 


2SS 




province of British Columbia 


VE7 


Transvaal 


ZS6 




Yukon Territories 


VE8 


Before July 1, 1960 






Northwest Territories 


VE8 


British Somaliland 


VG6 




Provinceof Newfoundland (including Labrador) 


VO 


Before April 25, 1964 






Bahama Islands 


(VP7)C6 


Zanzloarand Pemba 


VQ1 




Barbados 


{VP6)8P6 


Before December 1, 1967 






Belize 


VP1 


Aden 


VS9 




Bermuda 


VP9 


KuriaMuria 


VS9 




Cayman Islands 


[VP5)ZF1 


Kama ran 


VS9 




Falkland Islands 


VPB 


Before February 1, 1972 






Grahamland 


VP8 


Pakistan 


AP 




Guyana 


<VP3)BP 


OCEANIA 






Jamaica 


6Y5 


Australia 






Leeward Islands 




Australian Cap Ita I Terri t ory 


VK1 




Angullla 


VP2 


New South Wales 


VK2 




Antigua and Barbuda 


VP2 


Victoria 


VK3 





104 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



their OSLfl venhed through their affiliated 
organization 

All stations contacted must be fixed 
land stations Islands around Africa or its 
coast do not count for this award. All con- 
tads must be made atter November. 7945, 
wtth a minimum CW report of 338 or phone 
report ot 33 Th«s award is issued free to 
SARL members, it is $ 50 US or 10 IRCs for 
nonrnempers 

Countries List: Algeria, Angola, Sudan, 
Congo Kinshasa, Burundi, Rwanda. 
Somali Republic, Cameroons, Egypt 
Eritrea, Central Africa Republic. Republic 
of Congo Brazzaville, Gabon. Chad. 
French Morocco, French Somali land. 
Ivory Coast. Dahomey Republic, Volta 
Republic. Mauritania. Senegal. Niger 
Republic. Republic of Guinea. Gambia. 
Ghana, Kenya, Liberia. Libya, Mozam 
Pique. Nigeria, Zambia, Malawi. Por- 
tuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, Rhodesia, 
Spanish Morocco* or Ifni or Rio de Oro or 
Spanish Guinea, Tangier, Tanzania, 
Tunisia* Togoland, Uganda, Botswana. 
Lesotho, Swaziland, Southwest Africa, 
Republic of South Africa (ZSVZS6), Trans 
keE, Soph u that swan a. 

Applications and the appropriate award 
tee should be addressed to the attention 
of: F. van Greunen ZS1IT. Awards Man- 
ager, South African Radio League. PO Sox 
39tl. Cape Town 8000, South Africa 

AWARDS FROM 
CERTIFICATE WORLD 

i was very pleased to receive a letter 
from a new subscriber and to learn of his 
raw adventure of collecting various ama- 
teur operating awards. Meet Stu Herring 
WB5ULD from Fulton, Mississippi. Slu 
features some very attractive awards for 
the parchment pursuer 

Represenlmg Certificate World, we find 
his awards are made available to all US 



and foreign amateurs for two-way commu- 
nication in the separate award areas. Alt 
modes of communications are accepted 
with the exception of those contacts via 
repeater. 

All awards have a tee of $1 .00 each or 6 
IRCs. GCR apply Apply by sending your 
list of contacts to: Certificate World, Rt 2. 
Box ?2. Fulton, Mississippi 38343 

The Old South Award 

This certificate depicts a scroll listing 
the ten stales of the Old South. It is awarded 
lew contacts from each of the states ol 
Alabama. Arkansas. Florida. Georgia. Loui- 
siana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina. Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 

Old Man River Award 

A certificate picturing the mighty Mis- 
sissippi River and the ten states bordering 
the river can be yours tor contacting the 
stales of Arkansas, Illinois, lowa H Ken- 
tucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, 
Missouri, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, 

Mississippi State Award 

II you Ihought your first Mississippi 
OSO was hard to get, try making a total of 
ten to earn Ihis award. A state outline and 
statistics add up to an interesting award 
For your hard work 

Capitals of the United States 

This one will not come easy. You must 
have two-way communication with all 50 
US stale capitals, plus Washington DC. 
Fifty<ine QSOs will earn you an award 
if sting some facts about the US Capital 
and proof of a lot of hard work and fun. 

There's a good chance you may have 
already qualified for some of these 
awards, if not , good iucft on earning them 
Let Certiltcale World hear from you and 
be sure to ten our Iriend Stu W85ULD mat 
you read about it in 73'$ Awards column. 



SMIRK AWARDS 

Ray Cfarfc K5ZMS. representing the Six- 
Meter International Radio Klub (SMIRKI, 
has forwarded some very impressive 
achievement awards for fellow si x« meter 
enthusiasts to pursue. 

To become a member of SMIRK, appli- 
cants must make 2-way contact by any 
normal emission with other members of 
SMIRK, US stations must log S contacts, 
white stations outside the US must log at 
least 3 member stations. AW contacts 
must be made after October 14. 1973. 
Once this is accomplished, forward your 
Claim along with $4.00 for a lifetime 
membership certificate 

Once a member you then become eligi- 
ble to apply for the other awards spon- 
sored by this six-meter group, Separate 
awards are given for making contacts 
with 100, 250, 50Q\ and 1000 SMIRK 
members, utilizing the same guidelines 
already mentioned. Cost is free lo 
members of SMIRK. 

And for those who want the ultimate 
Challenge on 6 meters, SMIRK offers the 
DX Decade Award for having contacted 
ten OX countries on six meters. Endorse- 
ments are given for 15, 20. 25. etc. In In* 
crements of 5 DX country contacts. 

To apply tor the DX Decade Award, list 
all logbook Information and enclose $3.00 
For ten countries and Si .00 tor each 
^country endorsement seal being applied 
for For all correspondence with the 
SMIRK group, write; WAtKYH. SMIRK 
Award Manager, 18 Laurel Drive. Medfiefd 
MA 02052 USA. 

ROCKWELL COLLINS 

The amateurs at Rocfcweii-Colllns wiJl 
be manning AD0C within the Coffins Tele 
communications Products Division com 
plex throughout the rest ot the year 
(phone 28600, 2 1300. 21 355. 14280. 14210. 
7276. 7190. 3950: CW: 30 kHz up). The sta 



tion will commemorate the 50th anniver 
sary since the incorporation of Collins 
Radio Company hi 1933. A special QSL 
card will be available for amateurs con 
tacting the station during 1963 QSL to 
Rockwell-Collins, Son 728. Cedar Rapids 
IA 52496, 

CHELSEA FAIR CERTIFICATE 

A special certificate will be presented 
to any ham radio operator making com act 
with the Chelsea Communications Club 
from August 30 through September 3 
Contact can be made with WDS1EL on 40 
and 80 meters from 23002 to DtOQZ. Send 
an SASE lo 104 East Middle Street. 
Chelsea Ml 43118. 

OK CORRAL 

On Labor Day weekend, September 3, 4, 
and 5, 1983, the famous OK Corral in 
Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona, 
again will be the site of a special-event 
station. Operations will be carried on only 
a few feet from the actual site ot the 
shoot-out between the Earp and Clanton 
factions. This station (KB7KZ1 will operate 
*n conjunction with the second annual 
Rendezvous of Gun Fighters. Operations 
will begin at 1500 UTC, September 3, and 
continue through 2400 UTC, September 4, 
on CW and SSB- Frequencies as follows 
SSB — 2B680. 21380. 14280. 72B0; 
CW— 21T30, 7130. A certificate will be 
awarded to alt who work us as well as 
SWLs Please send a large B' * * 1 1 SASE 
(40* postage) to KB7KZ, PO Box 3603Z 
Tucson AZ 85740. 

NORWALK OYSTER FESTIVAL 

The Greater Norwalk ARC will operate a 
special-event station. WAiRXA, from the 
Norwalk, Connecticut, Oyster Festival on 
September 9, TO. and 1 1 . Any ABS contact 
Ing WA1RXA will receive a special cent 1 1- 



Queensland 


VK4 


South Australia 


VK5 


Western Australia 


VK6 


Tasmania 


VK7 


Northern Territories 


VK8 


New Zealand 




Auckland District 


ZL1 


Wellington District 


zu 


Canterbury Dislnct 


ZL3 


Of ago Di strict 


2L4 


Auckland and Campbell Islands 


ZL 


Australian Antarctic Territory 


VK» 


Bftttah Phoeni* Islands 


VR1 


British Solomon (stands 


VR4 


Brunei 


VS5 


Chatham Island 


2L3 


Christmas island (Indian Ocean) 


VK9 


Cocos Keeling Island 


VK9 


Cook Islands (including Rarotonga) 


2K1 


Fanning Island [including Christmas & Washington Islands) 


VR3 


Fiji Islands 


(VR2J3D2 


Gilbert and Ocean Islands 


VR1 


Heard Island 


VK0 


Kermadec Group (including Sunday Island) 


2L1 


Lord Howe Island 


VK2 


Macquarie Island 


VK0 


Malaysia East 


<VS4.ZC5)9M6,9M8 


Manlhikl Group 


2K1 


Nauru Island 


(VK9)C2I 


New Guinea (Including Bismarck and Admiralty Islands) 


(VK9) P29 


New Hebrides Condomln lurn 


YJ8 


New Zealand Antarctic Territory 


ZL5 


Ntus 


ZK2 


Norfolk Island 


VK9 


Papua 


(VK9JP29 


Pltcairn Island 


vm 


Samoa 


(ZM6J5W1 


Tonga or Friendly Islands 


(VR5JA3 


Tokelau or Union Islands 


ZM7 



Tuvalu 
Willis Inland 

AFRICA 

AgalagaandSt, Brandon 

Aldabra Islands 

Ascension Island 

Lesotho 

Botswana 

Chagos Archipelago 

Oes Roches 

Farquhar 

Gambia 

Ghana 

Kenya 

Malawi 

Mauritius 

Nigeria 

Rhodesia 

Rodriguez Island 

St. Helena 

Seychelles 

Sierra Leone 

Swaziland 

Tanzania 

Tnstan da Cunha and Go ugh Island 

Uganda 

Zambia 

ASIA 

Andaman andNicobar Islands 

Bangladesh 

Cyprus 

Hong Kong 

India 

Laccadive Islands 

Malaysia West 

Maldive Islands (Gan only} 

Sfkkim 

Singapore 

Sri Lanka 



VRS 

VK4 

(VQS)3B6.3B? 

VQ9 

ZDB 

(ZSa)7P 

(ZS9i A2 

(VQ8)VQ9 

VQ9/D 

VQ9rF 

(ZD3IC5 

|ZD4j9Gt 

tV04)5Z4 

<ZD6)7Q7 

lVOB)3Ba 

(ZD2I5N2 

ZE 

(V0813B9 

Z07 

(VQ91S7 

(ZDH9L1 

(ZS7)ZD5 

fV03t5H3 

ZD9 

<VG5)5X5 

(VQ2J9J2 

VU 
$2A 

(2C4J5B4 
VS6 
VLI2 
VU4 

9M2.9M4 

VS9M 

AC3 

9V1 

(VS7)4S7 



73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 105 



cate upon sending an SASE- 1o Joseph 
Beck, 26 Ambler Drive, Norwalk CT 06851. 

Times: Sept. Q. 2200 to 0100 GMT. Sepl 
10 1500 to 0200 GMT, and Sept, 11: 1500 to 
0000 GMT- 

Frequencies; phone; 3890, 7240, 14305, 
213&5. 28600; CW: 3720, 712Q, 14090. 
21090,26090, 

BEAR BRYANT 

The West Alabama Amateur Radio 
Society (WAARS1 will operate a special- 
event station on Saturday September 10, 
in com me mor at ion of the birth a ate of col 
lege football's wmntngest coach, Paul 
'Bear" Bryant, 

WAARS will operate station W4WYP 
from 1300Z to 240QZ on thai date. Fre- 
quencies will be f he bottom 25 kHz on the 
General 40-15-meter phone band, The 
club will also work Novices on ihe bottom 
25 kHz of the Novice band The club will 
offer a handsome commemorative ceriih- 
cate of the event to an y station worked by 
sending Si and a large SASE to the West 



Alabama ARS, PO Box 1741, Tuscaloosa 
AL 354Q3 



STARVED ROCK 

RADIO CLUB 

The Starved Rock Radio Club in 
Oglesoy. La Salle County. Illinois, will op- 
erate their club station, W9MKS, on all 
amateur bands from their clubhouse on 
September 10 and It. A suitable OSL >s 
being designed For this period of opera- 
tion m celebration of 50 years of amateur 
radio in central Illinois. 

JESSE JAMES DAYS 

The St. Paul Radio Club (KGAGF) will 
operate a "railroad mobile" special-event 
station aboard a steam-powered train op- 
erating out of Northfield, Minnesota, dur- 
ing their Jesse James Days celebration. 
Operations will be from 1400 UTC until 
2300 UTC each day. September 10 and 1 i 
Frequencies S3 B— 3.948, 7.267. 14.288. 



and 21.377. CW— 3352 + 7,107, 14.057, and 
21 057 A special certificate and QSL will 
be issued to ihose furnishing a 9 * 12 
SASE (37<c postage) and a OSL to those 
furnishing an SASE with 20$ postage, OSL 
to St. Paul RG. PO Bok 30313. St. Paul MN 
5517541313. 



GEN. STERLING PRICE DAY 

The Chariton Amateur Radio Society of 
Keytesvikie, Missouri, will operate KBDCC 
from 1400 to 2200 UTC on September 17, 
1963. m celebration of the town's 150th 
anniversary and Ihe annual General Ster- 
ling Price Day. honoring its iavpnte son of 
Civil War tame and governor of Missouri 
Frequencies: phone— 7 280 and 21.240. 



LARGEST BLAST FURNACE 

The inland Steel Employees" Repeater 
Association «s sponsoring special evem 
station KB9PQ t whose theme is "The 
Largest Blast Furnace in the Western 



Hemisphere, #7 At Inland Steel." The sta 
tion will be set up In Ihe Inland Steel park- 
ing lot and will be on the air from 1300Z 
Saturday. September 1 7. to 24002 Sunday, 
September 18, operating all bands In Ihe 
first 10-15 kHz of the General and the 
Novice portions of the band. The station 
will also boon 146.52/.52 FM Certificates 
ia full-color picture of a blast furnace) will 
be available from ARS KB9PQ. 7605 South 
eastern, Hammond IN 46324. 

APPLE FESTIVAL 

The Smithfieid Apple Festival, held at 
5 rm infield OH, is sponsoring a special 
event station Operation will be from 2300 
UTC to 0400 UTC on September 23 and 
September 24. 1983. Operation freouen 
cies will be- SSB— 3.900 plus or minus 5 
MHz; Novice— 7.110 plus or minus 5 MHz. 
The station cail will be N8CUX. Special 
certificates depicting the bed race will be 
sent to those who send a 4Vi" * S 
SASE to Robert Carson NBCUX, 259 Mtll 
SU Smithfietd OH 43948. 




NEW PRODUCTS 



IC-751 HF TRANSCEIVER 

I com announces the IC-751 HF trans- 
ceiver, featuring a new general ion of tech- 
nology and compuier control, looms new 
CPU. with internal -battery memory back- 
up, provides 32 memories with memory 
storage ol mode and frequency, and the 
scanning capability to cover large seg- 
ments of the spectrum very siowly, or to 
scan the memories by selected mode. 

The IC-751 provides Instantaneous 
band selection and has a 3-speed tuning 
system. Other features Included are fuli 
break-in keying, passband tuning, notch 
filter, HIT and XIT with separate readout, 
FM bull! in as standard, a very steep-sided 
FL44 sideband filter, continuously adjust- 
able noise- blanker levels, dual vto opera- 
tion, and ail-mode squelch. A two-color 
fluorescent readout showing the frequen- 
cy in white and the control functions m 
red. for visibility ill all ambient light eonm 
tlons. Is standard The lO- 751 Is equipped 
standard for operation from 12 volts dc. 
and there is an optional internal ac power 
supply 

For more information, contact rcom 
America, inc.. 211frt1$fh Ave N£. Bette- 
view WA 95004, f206, 454 fl *55 



RTTY FOR THE VIC-20 

Microfish Software Products has 
released two programs which use the 
Commodore VIC-20 as an inexpensive 
Baudot and ASCH RTTY terminal These 
programs. RTTY3K and RTTY8K feature 
60-, 6fr, 75-, and 100-wpm Baudot. 1 10-. 
300- . G0Q-, and 1200-baud ASCII, CW ID 
with the operator's calisign built-in, key- 
board-operated transmit/receive control. 
and special-display screen formatting for 
a more readable display. 

These programs allow the VIC-20 to be 
connected to any terminal unlL commer- 
cial or home-brew, allowing flexibility in 
choice of RTTY equipment. Simple hook- 
up Instructions are given for connecting 
the ViC-20 to the TTL, RS-232, or current 
loop input/output of the selected terminal 
unit as we 1 1 as the PTT connections to the 
Iransmitter or transceiver. 

The RTTYSK version includes 10 large 
message buffers. These buffers ate pan 
of the program and do not have to be 
typed in or loaded from tape each time the 
RTTY program is loaded. Ati 10 butters 
can be programmed and reprogrammed 
easily by following the instructions sup- 
plied. These buffers can also be changed 



easily while operating by using simple 
keyboard functions. 

To eliminate repetitive typing. RTTYSK 
features three automatic messages. The 
automatic CO message keys the trans** 
ter, sends COs followed by OE and the op- 
erator's calisign, sends the CW ID, and 
then unfceys ttte transmitter, all at the 
push ol one key Similarly the automatic 
stan-ot-transmission message sends DE fol- 
lowed by the operator's call sign The 
automatic en dot- transmission message 
sends the other st a lion's call sign lot towed 
by DE and the opera I or" & calisign, the CW ID. 
and then unkeys the transmitter. 

On screen status display la accom- 
plished by an "intelligent cursor" that In- 
dicates whether Baudot or ASCII is in use, 
the speed, which message buffer is being 
sent, transmit or receive mode, and other 
special functions. 

RTTY3K requires 3K of memory, while 
RTTYSK needs en 8K memory expansion. 
Both programs are available on cassette 
and Include complete installation and op 
eraling instructions. 

For more Information- contact 
Micro fish Software Products. PO Box 
920342, Norcross GA 3QQ92, Reader Ser- 
vice number 477. 



THE TU 470 TERMINAL UNIT 

The New Flesber Corp. TU-470 
RTTY/CW terminal unit offers many siaiv 
darri h*gh-pefformance features tor your 
money. It recedes up to 300 baud on all 
three shifts, provides TTL- and RS-232- 
compatible I/O including bipolar CW and 
PTT outputs for complete remote control 
and isolation of computer-level I/O keying, 

Each TLM70 RTTY filter board is a high* 
sensmvity, high Q, 3 stage, 6- pole active 
bandpass filter which provides excellent 
stability and sharpness. A signal- balance 
restorer circuit has been incorporated to 
allow reception of nonstandard RTTY 
shifts on mark only. The CW filteridemod- 
ulator has a 3-stage, &-pole tiller centered 
at 750 Hz for CW reception. 

The TLM7Q also provides crystal-con- 
trolled AFSK, FSK, a 170-H* narrow pre- 
selector filter, built-in 20- or GO-rnA loop 
supplies, autostart, threshold control 5 

LED indicators, bar-graph tuning, scope 
outputs, reverse receive, and reverse 
transmit. 

For more information, contact Ftesher 
Corporation. PO Box 976. Topeka KS 
66601; (dOOhHAMftJTV, Reader Service 
number 479, 





'corn's /C-75f HF transceiver 

106 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



The TU-470 RTTYfCW terminal unit irum the Fiesher Corporation 




I 



MAXCOM 

HIGH SM€D AUTOMATIC 
ANTENNA HATCHED 



1,000 



WATTS CEP, 



J TO TO HHZ 




TJ 




The MAXCOW highspeed antenna matcher. 



ANTENNA MATCHER 

Magnum Distributing has introduced its 
MAXCOM automatic highspeed antenna 
matcher. 

By using the latest ed solid- state tectv 
oology MAXCOM will automatically lune 
one antenna from .3 MHz to 70 MHz with a 
vsuirr of Less than 15. without extern af 
■Control leads. >n etfhef the dipoie or Long- 
wire configuration. MAXCOM matchers 
are available in ihree models covering 
200. 1000, and 2000 Watts PEP. Their light 
weight and small physical size make rhem 
ideal lor sell supporting dipote installa- 
tions. (MAXCOM 300 and 1000: weight. 2 
lbs . size, 4.75" W, 3.75" H, 2-25" D, MAX- 
COM 2000: weight, 4 lbs.; size, 7 50" W. 
4.75" H, 2JS" D y 

MAXCOM matchers are manufactured 
Dy Terramar Systems, Inc. ol Fort Lauder 
la He FL and were Initially developed for 
hi i Hary and commercial applications thai 
equired extremely wide- spectrum, high- 
speed transmit and receive capabilities. 

For more information, contact Magnum 
ytstnbunng. Inc.. 10O0 S. Dixie Hy, W §3 t 
>ompano Beach FL 33060: (305}-7S^2002. 
leader Service number 484. 



FUNCTION BOARDS FOR 

S-100-BASED COMPUTERS 

industrial Computer Designs has an- 
ounced four special function boards for 
■ 10O based computers, together provid- 

•\g calendar, clock, alarm, llmer, and 64- 
hannel analog-digital-analog conversion 
apabiirties. 



The CCA- 100 calendar/ clock/at arm 
board can be used to display hours/ 
mingtes/seconds and d a yy month/year on 
a CRT\ time events in second increments, 
end produce musical alarm tones over a 
four octave range, its brother CCT-100 
cai end arte lock/timer board can control 
events with V 100th -second accuracy, 
keep track of computer time used, or 
calculate days elapsed between dates, all 
as hardware functions. Time/date infor- 
mation may be sent to a printer or stored 
as data, with all functions under software 
control Both cards have long-term ball cry 
backup and utilize a minimal number of 
Z8GV3080 ports for operation. 

The Df A64- 100 produces 64 analog out- 
puts with 8-bit converter resolution, while 
the sister A/064- 1 00 board performs A/D 
conversion with similar accuracy, Vofl- 
ages may be generated or read over a 0-to- 
5-V-dc range in 255 increments. The 
boards are port -selectable so that multi- 
pie cards may be used to create large sys- 
tems as controllers for energy manage- 
ment, security, industrial control, or 
robotics. 

ICD products are available through 
computer hardware distributors and deal- 
ers throughout I he US and Canada, and 
will be supported by advertising in both 
trade and consumer publications An 
owner's operation/ service manual accom- 
panies each card, which includes applica- 
tion and suppori software listings. 

For more information, contact indus- 
trial Computer Designs, 31 121 Via Cottnas 
#10Q5 T Westtake VUtage CA 91362: (2l3h 
389*3179. Reader Service number 482, 



New soldering irons from Ungar 




UNGAR INTRODUCES NEW 
SOLDERING IRONS 

Three new low-priced "consumer "^ 
soldering irons with Thermo- Dune healers 
have been introduced by the Ungar Divi- 
sion of Eidon Industries, Inc. 

Thermo-Duric heating elements reach 
soldering temperature faster, use less en- 
ergy, last longer, and take less space than 
earlier wire- wound heating elements. 
Since the heaters were developed for 
industrial soldering systems, the new 
"consumer" line has soldering qualities 
and dependability appropriate for elec- 
tronics technicians and prices to attract 
hobbyists arid do-it-yourselfers. 

The CM 25 has an integral nickel-plated 
cone tip suitable for small and large con- 
nections. The 25-Wait Iron heats lo 750 
degrees F The 45- Watt CM 45 and 80- Watt 
CM -80 can use any of 11 standard Ungar 
screw-on lips, and have ihree- wire cords 
to prevent leakage current damage. The 
CM-45 comes with an Iron-plated pencil- 
tip point. Operating temperature is 700 
degrees F The targe-capacity CM-BO 
comes with an iron-plated chisel lip and 
operates at 800 degrees F 

Slimmer, cooler handles were made 
possible by the efficiency of the "Thermo* 
Ouric" heaters. 

Further information Is available from 
Ungar. TOO w ManvMe St., Compton CA 



90220; in Canada: Eldon industries of Can- 
ada, inc.. 500 Esna Park Or. w Markham On- 
tario L3R 1H5:14t6h49&9407 Reader Ser- 
vice number 481. 

PERSONAL HAM-TAGS 

BHC. Inc.. has announced its new 
"Ham-Tags." Ham-Tags are license plate 
frames personalized with ham radio call- 
signs. These frames are made from black 
molded AB5, the same material used for 
(rim on most new cars. 

A set of Ham-Tags consists of two 
black frames with white, permanent vinyl 
letters in the Cargo Imprint area. License 
plates differ from state to state, so you 
would have to check your plate lo see if 
your call would go at the top or bottom of 
the frame In states thai have only one 
plate, BHC will furnish a frame tor the rear 
and a piate for the front 

For more Information, contact BHC. inc., 
1776 Woodhejid, Houston TX 77019; (71 3h 
522-5755. Header Service number 483. 

REMOTE-BASE CONTROL 

A new mteftie control has been Intro; 
duced by Hell, Ltd, of Marissa IL The 
R&1 allows two-way control of two FM 
transceivers. A 2-meter transceiver can be 
connected to a UHF or 1 0-meter FM trans- 
ceiver for remote-base operation. Sepa 




Function boards tor SrlQO-based computers 



The Hett R6- 1 remote in ten te 

73 Magazine * September, 1985 107 



— 




The Bird wattmeter field-strength plug in element. 



rale squelch and audio lines are fed from 
each rig, as <s Ifie PIT control line 

As The squelch of one rig is activated, 
the RB-1 will turn the transmitter Of the 
second transceiver on. The reverse of this 
also happens, allowing complete remote- 
base control between the two transceivers. 

The R8*i can aTso be used as a com- 
plete repeater control for simple repeater 
systems or emergency operation. 

For more Information, contacl Bob HeiK 
PO Box 68, Matissa IL 62257: (6l8)-29& 
3000 Reader Service number 476 



PROKEY SOFTWARE FOR 
THE VIC-20 

The Prokey (and Prokey Deluxe) Software 
turns your VlG-20 into a full-featured CW 
keyboard. Qf the two programs, one is de- 
signed to run on an un expanded VIC-20. 
This program will provide normal CW key- 
board sending with a ten-character buffer 
and a visual Indication whan the buffer is 
starting to get lull. It also provides the 
capability ol storing three user- program- 
mable messages which can be changed 
white the program is running. You can 
also display me stored messages in older 
to check them. An abbreviated version of 
the ser i aii/ed-con test number generator 
is included, and an electronic notepad writ 
let you keep track of the station you are 
talking to. 

The second program requires a total of 
7K ot user memory and therefore expanded 
memory for the VIC-20. This program in- 
cludes all of the features for I he hasic pro- 
gram and some special additions A built- 
in clock will sent} the lime in Worse code 
with just a single keystroke; a real- time 
cJock will display the t ime on the comer of 
the screen: the beacon mode will allow a 
beacon message to be sent at any interval 
up to 23 hours 59 minutes: the lodging 
mode will display log information auto- 



matically when you send SK, and a screen- 
sized buffer allows editing capabilities. 

For more information, contact Jim 
Grubbs K9&, PO Box 3042, Springfield ft 
B27QS. Reader Service number 47ft 

WATTMETER FIELEVSTRENGTH 
PLUG IN ELEMENT 

The latest addition to the line of plug-In 
elements used wUh Bird directional 
wattmeters is an extremely sensitive 
relative field-strength element. Model 
4030 expands the usefulness ol Thru* 
ItneTM wattmeters in the field by helping 
10 optimize the radiated signal of any 
transmitter from 2 to 1000 MHz. 

It is easy to increase the reach of busi- 
ness or personal transceivers, to extend 
the range of HTs by tuning, adjusting, and 
positioning antennas for maximum meter 
indication on the host wattmeter 

Model 4030 employs modern broad- 
band circuitry Instead of the highly reac- 
tive resonant networks of most field 
strength meters. The element consists of 
a flexible receiving antenna, a single high- 
pass net work, and a variable gain rf am- 
pirher /detect or A battery saving feature 
turns everything off when the element is 
removed from the watl meter. 

Typically full-scale def feet ion is ob- 
tained from a one- Watt CW source at 150 
MHz through a quarter- wave antenna 8 
feet distant. Dynamic range is at least 30 
dB. and battery life is 100 hours or more. 

For more information, contact Bird 
Electronic Corporation, 30303 Aurora 
fload, Gtevefand {Soio-n} OH 44139. Reader 
Service number 480. 

MOBILE PRODUCTS 

FROM BEALE ELECTRONICS 

Beaie Electronics has announced sev- 
eral new products tor the mobile operator. 
The CH 20 mobile antenna, designed by 



ovr 















OOOO 











Contemporary Technology's TMC-1B computer menace. 



W0C2R and modified by KD3U. is com 
patible with Hustler and Hy-Gain masts 
The antenna consists of a resonator and 
whip which, when added to yourmast, has 
an overall height of 10 feet. This antenna 
has a broad bandwidth and is designed to 
handle full legal power 

The DX-15 mobile antenna is also avail- 
able. It is simitar to the CH 20 antenna enrj 
also has an overall height of 10 feet 

A new mobile mast has also been intro- 
duced, ft can be ordered in one 54- inch 
section, two 27-inch sections, or three 18- 
inch sections, or it can be custom cut 

The Power Cable Package includes all 
the connectors, wires, fuses, and plutqs 
you need to connect a solid-state trans- 
ceiver to your vehicle. The package also 
includes a cigarette-lighter plug for tem- 
porary installations 

Top it a^l off with the Beaie magnetic 
mount ti has a S inch- diameter base and 
rs compatible with standard HF mobile 
masts The mount comes complete with 
coax. PL-259 connector, and cord for mast 
stabilization. 

For more informal ton, contact Beaie 
Electronics. PO Box 264 1 t Evergreen CO 
S0439. Reader Service number 492 

TMC-1B COMPUTER 
INTERFACE 

Contemporary Technology has an- 
nounced the TMC-TB computer interface 
lor RTTtVCW. The TMOIB will work with 
most home computers, including Commo- 
dore V1C-2Q, Commodore 64, Apple, Atari 
and more. Software for the VIC-20 is |r> 
eluded at no extra charge 

Some of the features of the TMC-iB in- 
clude auto-start circuit on RTTY with a 
variable control on the front panel— you 
can adjust il to prim only when you are on 
a solid RTTY signal; IC-tuned-circult filter 
with a Q of 300 which offers greater serial* 
tlvity to weaker RTTY signals and also Is 
more selective with crowded band condi- 
tions; and CW sense and CW frequency 
controls which give a threshold setting to 
copy a CW signal With t he CW frequency^ 
adjust control you are able to adjust your 
rig farther from noise, it also will allow you 
to use most CW audio filters 

Cm has a built-in monitor speaker to al- 
low you to hear the signal as it is sent m 
CW and HTTY mode Also, an external 
speaker can plug Into the TMC-tB for a 
loop through from your rig (or rigs) to a 
speaker. 

The TMCMB Interface uses a CW LED to 
tune In CW. Mark and space LED a indi- 
cate that you are on the RTTY signal, al- 
lowing you to see mark and space on an 
incoming RTTY signal 

With CTT. there is a single switch be- 
tween two rigs {HF and VHF>— no plugs 
and cables to move And no need to worry 
about +■ or - keying since CTI uses reed 



relays on the output for compatibility. 
There is high front end gain (90 dB) for a 
wide-range In volume adjustment. 

Other features included In the TMC-1B 
are: an RS-232 interface, a built-in printer 
loop supply (jus i add an optional trans- 
former and power relay for printer motor), 
and an amateur 170-Hz shift as well as a 
425-Hz shift for monitoring commercial 
signals. 

The CTI TMOIB is solidly housed In ar 
11"W * 3V^H * 1G'D metal case for rf 
shielding. Simple hookup used RCA jacks 
for hookup to transceiver. Just run a line 
to MlC f to PTT, lo speaker, and to CW key 
Only one cable lo the computer. All plugs 
for the computer are supplied as Stan 
dard. The TMCM a will work up to 300 bauc 
ASCII. 

The TMC-lB Is fully guaranteed for one 
full year on all parts and labor 

For more information, contact Contem 
porary Technology, Inc., PO Box 1 083 
Salem Oft 97308; (503tf99-137Q Reade 
Service number 491. 

HUSTLER ANNOUNCES 
FIXED-STATION ANTENNA 

The all-new Hustler 22Q-MH* veriica 
fixed station amateur antenna, desig 
nated the Model G7-220. was recently in 
t reduced by Hustler, Inc. The G722' 
marks Hustlers entry into the now 
popular 22Q-MH7 band and complement: 
their existing base and mobile amateti 
antenna line. The 7-dB gain of theanienn; 
For both transmitting and receiving make: 
it the most powerful omnidirectional M/4 
meter antenna available. The an new de 
sign keeps the signal radiation pattern a 
the lowest possible angle to the horizon to 
maximum efficiency and longest range. 

The Model G7220 has an swr of 1,5: 
across Its entire 5-MHz bandwidth, win 
swr at resonance of 1,2:1 at the antenne 
The radiating element is dc -grounded, an^ 
the antenna has a 50-Ohm base impedance 

This new Hustler 220 MHz venrcal use 
the best available corrosion resistar 
materials for long life. Only Hustler use 
all stainless steel hardware in amateu 
and professional products. 

The 122" long vertical element and foe 
14-3/4 long radial s of the G7 220 ar 
made from high-strength, heat-treate 
aluminum Each radial is 3W o.d- Th 
N-type connector used on all new Hustti 
amateur verticals provides an all-weathr 
seal and virtually perfect rf character!' 
tics under all conditions. 

The antenna weighs only 7 pounds an 
is easily mounted on any capable verticr 
support up to 1-3M" o.d- Wind loading 
only 26 pounds at 100-rnph velocities. 

For further information on this or otfn 
Hustler amateur products, writer Salt 
Department. Hustler, Inc. 3275 North 
Avenue. Htssimmee FL 32741. 



108 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



ALL HF BANDS ! 



sv\^ N 



w»v 



\*» 



The SUNKY Dl POLE Antenna 

A broadband, low SWR dipole that realty works in apart- 
ments, small yards, attics, anywhere a small antenna is a 
must. Indoors or out, you can work ANY HF BAND, in- 
cluding 1 MHz. No gimmicks or add-ons. Imagine 
80JVI in as little as 24 ftJ Complete kit and instructions, 
plus 50 ft. of coax. Easy to set up and adjust. More 
information available -just call or write. 



Blacksburg Group 

Box 242 Suite 500 
Bfacksburg, Virginia 24060 
703/951-9030 



567,95 postpaid (in USA) 
Money Back Guarantee 
Virginia residents 
add 4% safes tax 





^rWt y 




ORBIT is the Official Journal for the 
Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation, 

For a SAMPLE COPY please 
send $2 to: 

(AMSAT), P.O. Box 27, Washington, DC 

20047. 




Daisy wheel quality 
without daisy wheel 







-p expense* 

| You need the quality print chat a daisy wheel 
printer provides but the thought of buying one makes your 
wallet wilt. The Sdeetric™ Interface % a stcp-by-step guide to 
interfacing an IBM Selectric I/O Writer to your microcom- 
puter, will give you that quality at a fraction of fhe price 
George Young, co-author of Microcomputing magazine's 
popular "Kilobaud [Classroom 1 * series, offers a low-cost al- 
ternative to buying a daisy wheel printer. 
The SeJectnc™ Interface includes: 

•step-hy-step instructions 

•tips on purchasing a used Selectric™ 

• information on various Selectric™ models, in- 
cluding the 2740, 2980, and Dura 1041 

•driver software for Z80, 8080, and 6502 chips 

• tips on interfacing techniques 

With T7ie Selectric Interface and some background in elec- 
tronics, you can have a high-quality, low-cost, letter-quali- 
ry printer- Petals not included. 

Credit card orders call TOLL-FREE 1-S00-258-5473. Or 
mail your order with payment plus SI. SO shipping and 

handling to: Wayne Green Inc. Attn: Retail Book Sales, 
Peterborough, NH 0*458. j j 

Dealer inquiries invited. d? -1 *T r\rj 

ISBN 0-88006-05 1 -4 1 28 pages 4* I Z • 9 7 

□ Yes, 1 want Selectric Interface {BK 7 388), Enclosed is $12.97 per 
copy plus $1.50 for shipping and handling. 

□ MASTER \ DVISA DAMEX 
Card # . ^ 






_^_„ Expires 



Signature 
Name 






Address 
City _ 






State and Zip 

All order* shipped UPS if (.oroplcie street address ii given. 



339B6S 



See List at Advertisers on page 114 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 109 



I 

I 

1 

I 
I 

I 
I 

I 

I 

I 
I 

I 
I 

I 




MOVING? 

Let us know 8 weeks in advance so that you won't 
miss a single issue of 73* 

Attach old label where indicated and print new ad- 
dress in space provided. Also include your mailing 
label whenever you write concerning your sub 

scription. It helps us serve you promptly. Write to: 
0m^^ Subscription Department 

g*^ Amateur Radioes P.O. Box 931 

m +^ Technical Journal Farmingdaie NY 1 1737 

Extend my subscription one additional >ear for only SI 9.97 
Paymenl enclosed Bill me 

Canada and McsJco $2 2-97 J 1 v* only US funds dr*wn on US bank. Foreign Surface 
SJ997/1 yt. only US fundi drawn on US hjnk. Foreign Airmail, plejui' inquire 

If you have no label handy, pnnr OLD address here. 



S3 



Name 



Address 
City 



Stale 



Zip 



P'-mt N£W address hc/v. 



Name 




Address 
City 



i 

i 

l 
i 

l 
i 

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I 

I 

I 

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i 



State. 



Zip, 




Selling 73 will 
make money for 
you. Consider the facts: 
Fact #1: Selling 73 increases 
store traffic— our dealers tell 
us that 73 is the hottest-selling 
amateur radio magazine on the news- 
stands. 
Fact #2: There is a direct correlation between 
store traffic and sales — increase the number of 
people coming through your door and you'll Increase 
sales 

Fact #3: Fact #1 + Fact #2 = INCREASED SALES, 
which means more money for you. And that's a fact 
For information on selling 73, call 800-343-0728 and 
speak with Ginnie Soudrieau, our bulk sales manager. 
Or write to her at 73, Route 101 & Elm St. t Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 



zzz^ 



73 



Amateur Radios 
Technical Journal 



80 Pine Street Peterborough, NH 03458 

800-343-0728 






MAKE SAVING MONEY 

A WAY OF LIFE 

With LIVING ON A SHOESTRING: A Scrounge Manual for the 
Hobbyist. Almost anything you find can be put to good use if 
you follow the techniques of a master scrounger. George Ew- 
ing WA8WTE shows you how to: 

•Find electronic parts * Locate tools and other surplus 

•Scrounge by the rules »Read up on scrounging 

•Scrounge a vehicle • Scrounge a place to live 

Cartoons and case histories of scroungers add a humorous 
touch. With LIVING ON A SHOESTRING, you can't always get 
something for nothing, but you can certainly get it for f~j7 
less. $7,97 Softcover. 7x9. I 28 pp, approx.. 

ISBN 0-88006-059-X 




Call TOLL FREE I -800-258 5473 for credit card orders. Or mail your 
order with payment or complete credit card information, Include 
$ I 50 for shipping and handling. Send to: 

Wayne Green Inc. 

Attn: Book Sales 

Peterborough, NH 03458 

A Wayne Green Publication Dealer Inquiries Invited 



YES, I want to scrounge! 339B6L 

Send me copies of LIVING ON A SHOESTRING 

Enclosed is 17,97 (BK7393) per copy plus $1.50 
shipping and handling. 

D MASTERCARD bankff DVISA n AMEX 

Card # 



Empires. 



Signature 
Name 



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City 



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110 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



RADO 



FOR THE NOVICE 

New, updated editions 

of our famous novice 

license study guide and novice study tapes. 




tar -xt 




-»v 



II CUl' I 



NOVICE 
LICENSE 

saaa STUDY 

KL7GQD (jfJJQC 



tiki, 

■ir 

hue 



KtRK 



• NOVICE LICENSE STUDY GUIDE— toy Timothy M Darnel N8flK Here te the most tip to date novice 
guide available. It is complete with information about learning Morse Code, has the latest FCC amateur 
regulations and the current FCC application forms. This guide i$ not a quest lon/answer memorization 
course but rather it emphasizes ihe practical side of getting a nam license and putting a station on the 
air. II reflects what the FCC expects a Novice to know without page after page of dull theory. The most 
curreni information still available al last year's price SG7357 S4 95 * 

• NOVICE STUDY TAPES— It you are just getting started lit ham radio, you'll find these tapes indispen- 
sable? This up- lo-t he minute revision of the 73 Study Course is the perfect way to learn everything you 
need to breeze through the Novice written exam. Theory, FCC regulations, and operating skills are ail 
covered, and you 'H be amazed al how fast you learn using these tapes! 

Once Ihe test is behind you. these lapes will go right on being useful, because they are packed with the 
latest Information on setting up your own ham station, and getting on the air. 

Thousands of people have discovered how easy learning from cassette can be — order now and enter 
the fascinating wcrfd of ham radio' CT7300 Set of 3— $15.95.* 

Scientists nave proven that you learn faster by listening than by reading because you can play a cas- 
sette lape Over and over in your spare time— even while you re driving' You get more and more info 
each lime you hear it You can t progress without solid fundamentals these t h ree no ur long tapes give 
you all the basics you'll need to pass the Novice exam easily You II have an understanding of the ba- 
sics which will be invaluable to you for the rest of your hie 1 Can you afford to take your Novice e*am 
without Jural listening to these tapes 7 

Special Offer! Both Novice License Study Guide 
and Novice Study Tapes $19.95 Order NP7300. 



GENERAL LICENSE STUDY GUIDE 




GENERAL 
LICENSE 
STUDY 
GUIDE 

fry Timothy W Oarttl 






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GENERAL LICENSE STUDY GUIDE- By 

Timothy M. Daniel N8RK This is the 
complete guide to the General License. 
Learning rather than memorizing is the 
secret. This is not a question-and- 
answer guide that will gather dust when 
the FCC issues a new test. Instead, this 
book will be a helpful reference, useful 
long after a ham upgrades to General. 
Includes up-to-date FCC rules and an 
application form. Order yours today and 
talk to the world. SG7358 $6.95 

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any four tapes for 
$15.95! $4.95 each 



"GENESIS" 

5 WPM — CT7306— ThiS is Ihe beginning I ape lor people 
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6+ vVPM— CT7306— This Is the practice tape tor the 
Novice and Technician licenses. It is made up ol one 
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spaced tor 5 wpmj This tape is not memorable; unlike 
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"BACK BREAKER" 

13+ WPM— CT 73i 3— Code groups again, at a brisk U 
per so you writ beat ease *nen you sit down m front o< me 
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20+ WPM— CT7 320— Code is what gels you when you 
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"OUTRAGEOUS" 

25+ WPM— CT7325-This is ihe tape for thai small 
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BACK ISSUES— Complete your collection; many are 
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73300 73 BACK ISSUE- BEFORE JULY 1QB0 

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'Use the order card In this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mall to: 73 Radio Bookshop • Peterborough nh 03456. Be sure to include check or 
detailed credit card information- No COD. orders accepted. $1,50 tor the first book h $1.00 each additional book for U S delivery and foreign surface. For foreign airmail $10,00 
per book Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please wriie to Customer Service at the above address. (Prices subject to change on books not 

» published by 73 Magazine.) 

v FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



RADIO BOOKSHOP 



HAND BOOKS FOR 
NEW- THE HAMSHACK 

AMATEUR RADIO CALL DIRECTORY, 1982-1963 Edition, 
Compiled by. Jack A Speer N l BIC and Ashok K Anancl 
Here It is, and at a price you can afford! A directory of 
over 410,000 radio amateurs in the United Stares (as 

licensed by Ihe U.S. Gov't). Completely updated tor 1983. 
Easy to handle 6V? * II format. BK1254 $14,95 

THE TEN METER FM HANDBOOK— by Bob Hell K9EID. 
This handbook has been published to help Ihe tan meter 
enthusiast learn more about the many methods of con- 
versions and I ricks thai are used lo make existing units 
work better Join the g real "tinkerets" of the world on tan 
fm and enjoy Ihe fantastic amount of fun in communi- 
cating with amateur stations worldwide on ten meter 
FM, 8*0190 54,95* 

THE COMPLETE SHORTWAVE LISTENER'S HAND- 
BOOK, 2nd EDITION by Hank Bennett and Harry L- 
Helms. This comprehensive volume contains loads of 
new information from all ova* the world on the latest 
developments in SWL Technology clubs, associations, 
practices and stations A thorough guide to stations of 
the worfd by general continental area and frequency *a 
included. BK1241 S9 95 

THE PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF AMATEUR RADIO FM 
REPEATERS-by Bill Pasternak WA6ITF {aulhor of 73 
Magazines monthly column "Looking Wast") This Is the 
book for the VHF/UHF FMer, compiled from material 
submitted by over a hundred individuals, clubs, 
organizations and equipment manufacturers A "must 
have" tor your ham shack shelf, BK11B5 $12.95.* 




f THE 73 TEST "\ 

EQUIPMENT LIBRARY ' 

VOL II AUDIO FREQUENCY TESTERS- Jam-packed 
with all kinds of audio frequency lest equipment, ft 
you're Into SSB, RTTY, 5STV, etc. this book is a must for 
you ... a good book for hi-fi addicts and experimenters, 
tool LB7360$1.95.* 



VOL 111 RADIO FREQUENCY TESTERS— Radio frequen- 
cy waves, the common denominator of amateur radio. 
Such items as SWR T antenna impedance, line imped- 
ance. RE output, and field strength; detailed instructions 
on testing these items includes sections on signal gen- 
erators, crystal calibrators, grid dip oscillators, noise 
aenerators, dummy toads, and much more, 
37361 $l 95.* 



VOL IV IC TEST EQUIPMENT-Become a tfouble- 
s hooting wizard 1 Here are *2 home construction proj- 
ects for building test equipment to work with your ham 
station and in servicing digital equipment. Plus a 
cumulative index for all four volumes for the 73 TEST 
EQUIPMENT LIBRARY LB7362S195." 

ALL THREE OF THE ABOVE 
ONLY $4,95 ORDER LR7365 

RF AND DIGITAL TEST EQUIPMENT YOU CAN 
BUILD — QK1D44 — Rf burst, function, square wave gen 
eraiors. variable length pulse generators— 100 kHz 
marker, If and rf sweep generators, audio osc r al/rf sig- 
nal injector. 146 MHz synthesizer, digital readouts for 
counters, several counters, prescaler, microwave 
meter, etc 252 pages 9K1G44 S5 95 .* 



THE 73 

TECHNICAL 

LIBRARY 



TOOLS A TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONICS— by A. A 
Wicks is an easy to-underst and book written tor the 
oeg inning kit-builder as well as the experienced hob- 
byist, ft has numerous pictures and descriptions of the 
sale and correct ways to use basic and specialized tools 
for electronic projects as well as specif zed metal 
working tools and the chemical aids which are used in 
repair shops. BK7346 I4J&-* 

BEHIND THE DIAL— This book explains, in detail 
what's ooing on on all the frequencies, from shortwave 
up to microwave. It gives the reader a good idea of what 
he can find and where to find it. including some of the 
secret stations such as the C.I.A. and Ihe FBI 
Everything is covered short of microwave monitoring. 
Anyone interested in purchasing a shortwave receiver 
should have a copy of this book, surveillance, station 
layout consideration, antenna systems, interface, and 
the electromagnetic spectrum are Included 
BK7307 $4,95 

THE NEW WEATHER SATELLITE HANDBOOK -by Dr 
Ralph E- Taggart WBfiDQT Here is the completely up- 
dated and revised edition containing all the informa- 
tion on the most sophisticated and effective space- 
craft now in orbit This book serves both the experi- 
enced amateur satellite enthusiast and the newcomer 
It is an introduction to satellite watching, providing an 
the information required to construct a complete and 
Highly effective ground station Sond hardware 
destgns and an the instructions necessary to operate 
the equipment are included For experimenters who 
are operating stations, the book details ail procedures 
necessary to modify equipment for the new series of 
spacecraft Amateur weal her satellite activity repre- 
sents a unique blend of interests encompassing elec 
Ironies, meteorology and astronautics Join the privi- 
leged few mi watching the spectacle of earth as seen 
from space on your own monitoring equipment. 
BK7383S8.95.' 



PROPAGATION WIZARD'S HANDBOOK- by J. H. 
Nelson, When sunspots riddled the worldwide com- 
munications networks of the 1940s, John Henry Kelson 
looked to the planets for an answer. The result was a 
theory of propagation forecasting based upon inter- 
planetary alignment that made the author the most re- 
liable forecaster in America today. The book provides an 
enlightened look at communications past, present and 
future, as well as teaching the an of propagation 
forecasting. BK7302 S6.9S." 

SSS THE MISUNDERSTOOD MOOE-Oy James B 
Wilson Single Sideband Transmission thousands of 
us use it every day. yet it remains one of the least 
understood facets of amateur radio J B Wilson 
presents several methods of sideband generation, am- 
ply illustrated with charts and schematics, which will 
enable ihe ambitious reader to construct his own side- 
band generator. A must for the lechnicaiiy-serious ham. 
BK7351 $5.50. * 

INTERFERENCE HANDBOQK-by William R, Nelson, 
WA6EQG— This timely handbook covers every type of 
RFI problem and gives you ihe solutions based on 
practical experience. Covers interference to TV. radio, 
hr-ll, telephone, radio amateur, commercial and CB 
equipment Power line interference Is covered in depth 
— how to locate it, cure it, work with the public, safety 
precautions, how to train RFfl investigators. Written by 
an RFt expert with 33 years of experience, this profuse- 
ly illustrated book is packed with practical easy-to- 
understand information. BK1230 $11.05 

OWNER REPAIR OF RADIO EQUIPMENT— by Frank 
Glass K6RQ Here's a book that will teach you an ap- 
proach to troubleshooting without a shack full Of test 
equipment vVnrlen m a narrative, npn- mathematical 
style. >t wilt encourage you to successfully fix your own 
ng problems 80 to 90 *■ of the time, Even if you don't 
want to fix. you can learn a lot about how things work 
and tail. Add to your library and personal expertise 
BK7310S7 9S* 



FOR THE 
CONTESTER 



THE CONTEST COOKBOOK— This hook reveals the 
secrets of that elite group of operators who top the list 
when the contest results are published. II contains 
detailed suggestions for the first-time eontester as weli 
as tips for the advanced operator Domestic, DX. and 
specialty contests are all discussed, complete with 
photographs and diagrams showing the equipment and 
opeiating aids used by the lop scorers. For the serious 
contester. BK7306 15.9E J 





ft 



WORLD 
PRESS SERVICES 

4pA%FH£QU£NCtES 



■ 



...' '. " 



n »9**m 



2 NEW RTTY BOOKS 

WORLDWIDE RADIO TELETYPE CALL SIGN LIST OF 
UTlLfTY STATIONS— Slh EDITION Compiled by Univer- 
sal Electronics, Inc. Contains more than 4000 call 
signs In alpttanumericai order All types of stations are 
listed. 183 utility station mnemonics and name abbre- 
viations. Plus abbreviations tor regional states in 
Australia, Canada, U5A and USSR All ITU Symbols 
designating countries or geographical areas Table of 
allocation of international call sign series. Revised 
radio regulations on indent iiication of stations, includ- 
ing formation or call signs Ail services listed 
BKJ271 $4.95 

70 YEARS OF RADIO TUBES AND VALVES— by John 
Stokes "Great, the besl book on the history of radio 
lubes thai I've ever seen! " raved 73s technical editor, 
Written by an expert who has been involved In radio 
since 29, this book will be of special Interesl to "old- 
timers" and will provide those younger hams wilh a 
unique sense of the history of their hobby. BK1272 
521.95 

WORLD WIDE RADIO TELETYPE STATIONS IN FRE- 
QUENCY ORDER— 8th EDITION Compiled by Univer- 
sal Electronics. Inc. Contains 2198 frequencies of sta- 
tions that have been fogged m 1982 Frequency, call 
Sign, name of station, fTU country symbol, times of 
reception and details are Included All types of RTTV 
stations are listed including schedules of 82 press and 
news agencies operating on 637 frequencies. Includes 
77 meteorological stations on 279 frequencies. Covers 
all RTTY stations ffom 3 MHZ to 30 MHZ air, metro, 
government , military, diplomatic, covers all services. 
Thvs is the most accurate RTTY jrst there is and a must 
for the serious RTTY enthusiast BK127Q $1095 

EVERYTHING YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW 
ABOUT AMATEUR TELEVISION, {but were afraid to ask) 
—By Mike Stone WB0QCD. This book is a complete 
guide to setting up your own amateur radio television 
station. II contains— A history, what equipment you 
need, video theory, cameras* recorders, lighting, special 
effect s H sound ATV DXing, mobile FSTV, ATV repeaters, 
ATV groups, building projects, jest equipment, dealer di- 
rectory, a cumulative Index of over 1000 articles on ama- 
teur TV and much more. Thti li the new, 1962 edition 
From the publishers of Amateur Television Magaitne, 
BK1244S995 

WORLD PRESS SERVICE FREQUENCIES - by 
Thomas Harrington Can't wait to hear the evening 
news, or are you wondering about the news that you 
aren't hearing? Receive by Radio Teletype (RTTY) att 
the world news and financial happenings from the 
wo r id capi t ol s on a 24 ho u r a day bes ■ s Th ■ s book g i ves 
you the frequencies and irmes of broadcast ot such 
news services as AP, UPt, Reuters, TASS, VOA and 
London Press Also included is an introduction to 
RTTY with information on equipment, antennas, abb re 
vial ions— everything you need to get started In RTTY 
BK1202 17.95" 



"Use the order card In this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to: 73 Radio Bookshop • Peterborough NH 03458, Be sure to include checker 
detailed credit card information No COD. orders accepted. Si ,50 tor Ihe first book, $1 00 each additional book for US delivery and foreign surface. For foreign airmail S10 00 
per book. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. (Prices subject to change on books not 
published by 73 Magazine) 

FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 ' 



RADIO 

ANTENNA BOOKS 




- 



CUBICAL. 

QUAD 







^■^pnpmiPff 






VHF ANTENNA HANDBOOK-The new VHF Antenna 
Handbook details I he theory, design, and construction 
of hundreds of different VHF and UHF antennas . . a 
practical book written for the average amateur who 
lakes joy in building, not full of complex formulas for the 
design engineer. Packed with fabulous antenna projects 
you can build, BK73SB S5.95." 

ALL ABOUT CUBICAL QUAD ANTENNAS (2nd edi- 
tions—The "Classic" on Quad design, theory, con- 

struction, and operation, New 2nd edition contains 
new feed and matching systems and new data. BK1196 
16.95. 

THE RADIO AMATEUR ANTENNA HANDBOOK-AII 
about wire antennas, beams, tuners, baluns, coax, 
radial s. SWR and towers* Clear and complete Informs 
tion. BK1 199 $7.95 

SIMPLE, LOW-COST WIRE ANTENNAS FOR RADIO 
AMATEURS— All new data and everything you want to 
know about low-cost, multi-band antennas, inexpensive 
beams, "invisible" antennas for hams in "tough" loca- 
tions. BK120Q S7.95 

BEAM ANTENNA HANDBOOK (New 5th edition}— by 
William I. Orr & Stuart 0. Cowan. Yagi beam theory, con- 
struction and operation. Information on wire beams. 
SWR curves and matching systems. A "must* 1 for 
serious DXers. BK1197 $7.95. 




Dipoleanc 
Long-Wrre 

Antennas 



RADIO ANTENNAS— by Stephen Gibson. A complete In- 
traduct Ion to radio antennas for the amateur radio oper- 
ator. Clearly written and fully Illustrated with diagrams 
and photographs, Radio Artt&nnas makes an excellent 
resource book. It covers the various types of antennas 
and how to design, construct, and erect them. Antenna 
testing, measuring instruments and techniques, and 
possible sources of supply components are also dis- 
cussed. In addition, Radio Antennas provides a thorough 
background in propagation theory. BK12&7 softcover 6 
by 9 165 pp. ISBN 08359-6358-6 fleston Publishing Co,, 
Inc. 1963. 

73 DIPOLEANO LONG-WIRE ANTENNAS— by Edward 
M, Nofl W3FOJ. This is the first collection of virtually 
every type of wife antenna used by amateurs. Includes 
dimensions, configurations, and detailed construction 
data tor 73 different antenna types. Appendices 
describe the construction of noise bridges, line tuners, 
and data on measuring resonant frequency, velocity 
factor, and swr. BK1016 S5.50,' 



COOK BOOKS 

TTL COOKBOOK— by Don Lancaster Explains what 
TTL is, how it works, and how to use It. Discusses prac- 
tical applications, such as a digital counter and dis- 
play sy&iem. events counter, electronic stopwatch, 
digital voltmeter and a digital tachometer. 
QK1063S9 50.- 

CMOS COOKBOOK — by Don Lancaster. Details the 
application of CMOS, the low power logic family 
suitable for most applications presently dominated by 
TTL. Required reading for every serious digital ex- 
perimenter! BK1011 $10.50." 

TVT COOKBOOK— by Don Lancaster Describes the 

use of a standard television receiver as a micropro- 
cessor CRT terminal. Explains and describes charac- 
ter generation, cursor control and interlace informs 
lion in typical, easy-to-undersiand Lancaster slyle. 
BK1 064 $9,95/ 

IC OP-AMP COOKBOOK— by Walter G. Jung. Covers 
not only the basic theory of the IC op amp in greal 

detail, but also includes over 250 practical circuit ap- 
plications, liberally illustrated. 592 pages, SVixBtt, 
softbound. BK102S $14.95* 

THE WELL 

EQUIPPED 

HAM SHACK 




OTLi JU/l^ 1 






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HOW TO DEFEND YOURSELF AGAINST RADAR— by Bruce F. Bogner and James R Bodnar, a lawyer and radar 
expert. This book gives you the ammunition to challenge the radar ''evidence" that usually ieads to a speeding 
conviction. The major part of the book details the inner workings of radar — you'll become more of an expert than 
most police officers and judges. The remainder of the book outlines how to defend yourself against a speeding 
ticket— the observations, measures and testimony you must obtain to defend yourself without the help of a 
lawyer. The price is a Jol less than a fine! BK1201 $6.95.* 

^ ; 

MICROCOMPUTER BOOKS 



A*. 




$ 


m 







V 



RADIO ELECTRONICS BUYER'S GUIDE. Locate all the 
parts you need. This guide can be used to locate a wide 
variety of parts, which are listed alphabetically, giving 
numbers, descriptions and suppliers. Supplier Informa- 
tion includes the supplier's address and phone number, 
cost to obtain a catalog, minimum order information and 
whether their parts are new or surplus. BK12&B S4.95 
softcover 6 bv 9 95 pp. Hal I ward Products 1983. 

WORLD REPEATER ATLAS— Completely updated, over 
230 pages of repeater listings are indexed by location 
and frequency. More than 50 maps pinpoint 2000 repeat- 
er locations throughout the USA. Foreign listings in- 
clude Europe, the Middle East, South America, and 
Africa. BK73l5$2-00 

THE MAGIC OF HAM RADIO— by Jerrold Swank 
WSHXfl. Under various callsigns, W8HXR has been 
heard on the ham bands since 1919. He has watched 
amateur radio crow from the days of Model A spark coils 
to an era of microprocessors and satellite communica- 
tions. Jerry has responded to calls for help from earth- 
quake striekn Managua and tornado-ravaged Xenia. Ant- 
arctica, one of mans loneliest outposts, has been a bit 
less lonely, thanks to Jerry's tireless phonepatching ef- 
forts. Drawing on his own colorful experiences and 
those of many other hams, Jerry has compiled this word- 
picture of ham radio during the past six decades, 
BK7312S4.95 

A GUIDE TO HAM RADIO-by Larry Kahaner W82NEL 
What's Amateur Radio ail about? You can learn the 
basics of this fascinating hobby with this excellent 
beginner's guide, it answers the most frequently asked 
questions in an easy-going manner, and it shows the 
best way toco about getting an FCC license, A Guide to 
Ham Radio is an ideal introduction to a hobby enjoyed 
by people around the world. 8K7321 $4.95." 

WORLD RADIO TV HANDBOOK 19S3, 26TH EDITION 
— This book Is the bible of international broadcasters. 
providing the only authoritative source of exact In for 
mation about broadcasting and TV stations world 
wide. This 1983 edition is completely revised, giv- 
ing comprehensive coverage of short, medium and long 
wave, 560 pages of vital aspects of world listening. 
BK11S4 $16.50 

*Use the order card in this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to: 73 Radio Bookshop • Peterborough MH 03458. Be sure to include check or 
detailed credit card information. No CO.D. orders accepted. $ 1,50 for the first book, 51,00 each additional book for U.S. delivery and foreign surface. For foreign airmail $10.00 
per book Please al low 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. (Prices subject to change on books not 
published by 73 Magazine,) 



THE SELECTRIC INTERFACE— by George Young. You 
need the quality print that a daisy wheel printer pro- 
vides but the thought of buying one makes your wallet 
wilt. SELECTRJCTM INTERFACE, a stepby-step guide 
to interfacing an IBM Selectric NO Writer to your micro- 
computer, will give you that quality at a fraction of the 
price. George Young, co-author of Kilobaud Microcom- 
puting magazine's popular "Kilobaud Klassroom" 
series, offers a low-cost alternative to buying a daisy 
wheel printer. SELEGTRIC INTERFACE includes: step- 
by-step instructions, lips on purchasing a used Select 
trie, information on various Selectric models, Includ- 
ing the 274Q, 2980, and Dura 1041, driver software for 
Z80, 8080, and 6502 chips, tips on interfacing tech- 
niques. With SELECTRIC INTERFACE and some back- 
ground in electronics, you can have a high-quality, low- 
cost, letter-quality printer. Petals noi included. BK73S8 
$12-97 



40 COMPUTER GAMES FROM KILOBAUD MICROCOM 
PUTfNG— Forty games in nine different categories. 
Games for large and small systems, and a section on 
calculator games. Many versions of BASIC used and a 
wide variety of systems represented, A must for the 
serious computer g a mesm an. BK73&1 $7.95 4 

KILOBAUD KLASSROOM — By George Young and Peter 
Stark. Learning electronics theory without practice isn'l 
easy. And it's no fun to build an electronics project that 
you can r t use. Kilobaud Kiassroom the popular series 
first published in Kilobaud Microcomputing,, combines 
theory with practice. This is a practical course in digital 
electronics It starts out with very simple electronics 
projects, and by the end of Ihe course you" I J construct 
your own working microcomputer! BK7336 $14.95 



TEXTEDIT— A Complete Word Processing System In 
kit form — by Irwin Rappaport. TEXTEDIT is an inexpen- 
sive word processor that you can adapt to suit your 
needs t from writing form letters to large texts. It is writ- 
ten in modules, so you can load and use only those por- 
tions that you need. Included are modules that perform 
right justification, ASCII upper/lowercase conversion* 
one-key phrase entering, complete editorial functions, 
and much more! TEXTEDIT Is written In THS-80* Disk 
BASIC, and the modules are documented in the 
author's admirably cleartutoriaf writing style. Not only 
does Irwin Rappaport explain how to use TEXTEDIT; he 
also explains programming techniques Implemented 
in the system. TEXTEDIT is an inexpensive word pro- 
cessor that helps you learn aboul BASIC program- 
ming. It is written for TRS-80 Models I and HI with TRS- 
DOS 2 2/2.3 and 32K. ' TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trade- 
marks of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corpora- 
tion. BK7387 £9,97 



COMPUTER CARNIVAL— by Richard Ramella. Your 
child can become a crackerjack computerlst with the 
sixty TRS-&0 Level II programs in COMPUTER CARNI- 
VAL. This large-type, spiral bound book for beginners 
is a veritable funhouse of games, graphics, quizzes 
and puzzles. Written by 80 Micro columnist Richard 
Ramella, the programs are challenging enough to en- 
sure continued learning, yet short enough to provide 
your child with the immediate delight and reward of 
mastering basic comput Ing skills. And for even greater 
enjoyment, get the CARNIVAL COMPANION, a 30-mi- 
nute cassette containing all the programs in the book. 
Eliminates tiresome typing and lets your child spend 
more time enjoying the programs. BK73S9 $16 97 
CC7389 Book and Cassette $24.97 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 





H- S, No. 



Pag* R. Sw No. 



A E A/ Advanced E lee Ironic 

Applications ,.,..33 

448 Advanced Communications 

International 117 

124 Advanced ComputerControls ..14 

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114 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



NEW TS830S for $1 50? 



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73 Magazine • September, 1983 115 




W2NSD/1 

NEVER SAY DIE 

fa/ kyy Wayne Green 



so we*ll be needing 200 or 300 
people to tietp out— editors, 
writers, technicians, program- 
mers, people for advertising 
sales, typesetting, graphic arts, 
circulation, data processing, 
and so on. 

Then there are a number of 
special projects such as my 
planned technical/business col* 
lege. We're going to need man- 
agement teams to get these 
projects going and run them. 
Most of this is going to be done 
in New Hampshire* but eventual- 
ly we'H be growing into other 
areas of the country. 

If you are interested in getting 
involved with some exciting new 
ideas, you should get a letter off 
to me telling me what you think 
you might be able to do, I'm 
looking right now for non- 
smokers with a history of en- 
thusiasm and the ability to 
make things happen with a mini- 
mum of supervision. 

There won't be any astronom- 
ical salaries when we are start- 
ing new projects, but we will 
plan to make it well worthwhile 



from page 6 

group that puts out Computer 
world, Moworfd, and so on. . .a 
company several times the size 
of my firm in sales. The date was 
significant to me because it was 
eight years to the day from when 
I called the editor of a small 
micro newsletter to come up 
and discuss starting a mag- 
azine — and we agreed to give it 
a try. Five weeks later, the first 
issue of Byte went to the printer. 
Those were five frantic weeks. 
I'll tell you. 

Getting Byte started was ex- 
hausting work but fun. We'd just 
gotten it off to a good start when 
the editor and my office man- 
ager moved the magazine out in 
the middle of the night a stunt 
which I still haven't gotten over. 



The merger means that we' 
be able to do more promotion of 
our current magazines. It means 
well be abie to start more maga- 
zines—and I have a bunch of 
them all planned out. Each mag- 
azine is going to require a staff, 



FUN! 




John Edwards Kt2U 

PO Box 73 

Middle Village NY 11379 

RADIOTELETYPE 

Like most who became involved with radiotefetype before the days of microcom- 
puters, my entry into the world of me green keys was not an easy one. While i had no (rou- 
ble conquering the technical Side o* the field, f*ndmg a functioning teleprinter at a 
reasonable cost was another story 

After several weeks of searching, it was best-friend Jonathan Bird WA2MJK mow 
KA9BYW) who located a Model 19 for me The next Saturday, we headed aver to ihe 
Garden Slate lo pick up the unit 

I'll never forget the face of the fellow I bought the machine from as we told him we 
wanted to stuff the unit into my subcompact Mustang {1. tit also never forget almost los- 
ing Jonathan and my new machine halfway across the George Washington Bridge 

This month, FUN J looks at me world of ftTTY. The column is dedicated to those who 
got their start m the days when you could tell a radioteleiype operator by the musty, 
greasy smell o< his shack 



Across 
1|i ftTTY keyboard selling 
5) Full or . duplex 



ELEMENT 1— CROSSWORD PUZZLE 
(Illustration 1) 

8) Amplification factor 

9) Adjustable aperture m SSTV camera 
IT) QSL 



for those who are the most help- 
rut in starting the new projects. 
For Instance, there are a num- 
ber of products that Pd like to 
have made in Asia and imported 
for sale here. I've got the con- 
tacts in Asia to handle that end T 
but I need the people to handle 
the project from the New Hamp- 
shire end. . .setting up the 
advertising, importation, and 
distribution of the products. 
This should be able to grow into 
a substantial business by itself. 

Why New Hampshire? Well, 
mostly because this is one of 
the best places in the country to 
live. Trie quality of life is wonder™ 
ful and the cost of living is far 
less than New York or Silicon 
Valley. We still don't have any 
state sales or personal income 
taxes in New Hampshire We're 
in a small town with all of the 
advantages of a small town. The 
people are friendly and the 
crime rate is so low that few peo- 
ple even bother to lock their 
homes. 

If you are looking for the 
chance of a lifetime to get in on 
some new projects . . . and if you 

think you can hack it. , .let me 
know. You're going to have to 
prove you can get things done* 
We have no free rides here t just 
a bunch of enthusiastic people 
all having the time of their lives 
working hard and turning out 
first-rate products. We're work- 
ing out of old houses, converted 



motels, barns, and so on. This Is 
not IBM. 

You can be old, young, black, 
white, red, brown, male, female, 
undecided, but if you smoke, 
please don't bother me, okay? 
The air up here is invisible and 
we want it to stay that way; 

We need people who astound 
us by how much they get done, 
not people looking for a way to 
laze through life, producing 
more baloney than work. We've 
already tried a bunch of those 
people and sent them on to work 
for our competitors. 

The merger means that we 
have a guarantee of the money 
we need to move ahead on as 
many projects as I can find 
teams to work on. And if we run 
out of projects to get started, I'll 
have more. I come up with an 
idea for a good solid project 
every few days. 

When you think about it, by 
the time you put my six maga- 
zines together with those Pat is 
already publishing, we're a very 
strong combination. I think well 
be able to parlay this group into 
a pilot model of the college of 
the future or into perhaps an 
educational satellite television 
network. 

Pat is much like me— full of 
ideas and enthusiasm. I think 
we're going to really make 
things hum in the communica- 
tions field. Care to join us? 



12) Audio compression Is said to add 
this 

15) Terminal unit {abbr) 

16) Computer section (abbr i 

17) Computer memories 

20) Partner to 17 across 

21) Austria prefix 

22) Slang for CPU: electronic 



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29) Trademark for teleprinter 



Down 



1) Local circuit 



3) Interference type (abbr, ) 
4} Sweden prefix 
6) Popular amplifier brand 
71 36125 MHz. 88Q kHz. 1 GHz 
10) Slang for unwanted output 

13) Opposite to 1 across 

14) Nc-keyboard TTT (abbr.) 
tfl) 32 

19) Look 

23) Discharge between electrodes 

24) 170 Hz 

25) To subject a component to an action 

27) Slang lor current unit or power 
booster 

28) German prefix 



ELEMENT 2— MULTIPLE CHOICE 

1} Which of the following amateurs never wrote a fiTTY series For CO magazine? 

1) Wayne Green W2NSD/1 
2} ByrOfl Kretzman W2JTP 
3) John Edwards KJ2U 

4j Al Gorithm W2HY 

2) At which of tha following frequencies can you send data at f 200 baud? 

T) 17000 kHz 

2) 3.625 MHz 

3) 14 090 MHz 

4) 28.300 MH2 

3) What does the FCC call Baudot? 

1] Murray 

2) International Telegraph Alphabet Number 2 

3} Morse 

41 The FCC never refers to Baudot 



116 73 Magazine • September, 19&3 



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220 MHz Converter far 2 M Handheld 
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Call 601-323-5869 in Miss .outside continental 
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Box 494, Mississippi State, MS 39762 



Sea Us! of Advertisers on page T14 



73 Magazine • September, 1 983 117 



1 




2 




3 


10 


4 




5 


6 




1 




















































14 






B 
























9 










11 






























18 


19 


IS 


12 




13 


































16 
























T 


E 


R 


M 


1 


N 


A 








17 




20 






























2\ 








22 




33 
















[T 


R 


E 


A 


K 






















24 








25 


















































































JZ6 




27 




































■I 




26 


















29 










I 






























■ 













illustration 1, 

4) AMTOR is: 

1) A new, error-free digital transmission method forbidden on 
a matey r frequencies. 

2) A new, erroMree digital transmission method permitted on 
amateur frequencies. 

3) A type of nine-level code. 
4J A teleprinter brand. 

5) Which of the following companies has never manufactured teleprinters? 

1) Olivetti 

2) Creed 

3) Seimans 

4) Remington 



Illustration 2. 

6) Novices can send RTTY within Novice bands. 

7) General-, Advanced^ and Extra-class amateurs can send 
RTTY within Novice, bands. 

0) The Teletype 1 Company is owned by RCA. 

9} Under traditional AFSK standards, the mark tone is the 

lower frequency signal. 
10) One of Ihe founders of the Teletype Company was Joy Mor 

ton, who also was founder of the Morton Salt Company. 



ELEMENT 3— TRUE-FALSE 

1) The two signals generated by RTTY are called "mark 11 and 
"trade," 

2) The maximum RTTY signal shift permitted by the FCC is 
SSOHz 

3) Baudot and Murray codes are one and the same. 

4) ASCII is a seven-level code. 

5) Baudot is a four-level code. 



Tnie 



False 



ELEMENT 4— H AMAZE 

(Illustration 2) 

Heres a new type of maze specifically geared to hams. The object is to start at 'Ter- 
minal and trace your way to "Break" by filling in the answers to the clues given below. To 
help you on the way 3 we've already given you the first and last clue answers. All words 
read either vertically downward or from left to right. Each new word is on a perpendicular 

angle to the previous word. Words jom on a common letter. Good luck! 
i) Computer operating console 



2) RTTY power circuit 

3) Energy 

4) Tuning 

5) Display unit 

6) What this month's column Is about 

7) RTTY test letters 
B) Printing fabric 



9} Natural noise 

10) What the brown fox is 

11) Automatic reply system 
12} Skyhook 

13) German prefix 

14) To joke with someone 

15) Make and 



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►--236 



ELECTRONICS INC 

5355 Avenida Encinas • Dept. B 
Carlsbad, CA 92008 • [619) 438-2326 



118 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



RF TRANSISTORS 



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• Individually calibrated resistance range 

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CALL TOLL FREE . . . 800-647-1800 



^260 



Call 601-323-5869 in MS, outside continental USA 
or for tech ./order/repair info. Telex 53-4590 STKV, 

ENTERPRISES, 

INCORPORATED 

Box 494, Mississippi State, MS 39762 



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**>$£€ L*st of Atfvert tsers on page U4 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 119 



LET 

oHr 
p|m 

mEM 


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■■p U N C Hp 

■ t u!u|a l 


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■ 
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ROM 


SlR A m|H 


^■o. 


eHHb r a i 


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eFFJoTn" E ■ R ■ 


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Illustration 1A. 





THE ANSWERS 



Element 1: 

See Illustration 1A. 



Element 2. 

1 —4 And the checks are still in the mail. 

2—4 Below 10 meters you're stuck with 300 baud. 

3—2 You expected something simple from our government? 

4—2 So long, CW jammers, 

5_4 And you thought the world began and ended with Teletype. 

Element 3: 

1 — False Mark and space, Trade and Mark are the Smiih Brothers. 

2— False Nine hundred is the magic number, 

3 — False A rose Is a rose is a ... 

4 — False Nope, Eight-level. 

5— False Nope, Five-level. 

6— False Not yet, anyway, 

7— True Lefs all confuse the Novices. 

8— False AT&T. 

5— True Mark- 2125 Hz, Space: 2975 Hz. 

10— True Could I make something like that up? 




Illustration 2 A. 



Element 4: 

See Illustration 2A. 



SCORING 

Element 1: 

Twenty-five points for the completed puzzle, or one-halt point for each question correctly 

answered. 

Element 2: 

Five points for each correct answer. 

Element 3: 

Four points for each correct answer. 

Element 4: 

Twenty-five points for the completed puzzle, or one point for each word solved. 

Are you a friend ot the green keys? 

1-20 points— You run a CW net on 14.090 MHz. 
21-40 points— Know a friend who used to own a Model 12. 
41-60 points— Casual operator. 
61-80 points— You keep an oil can on your night-table. 
81-100+ points— You copy RTTY by ear. 



HM HELP 



Wanted: schematic for the KLM model 
10-160BL 2-meter amplifier and sche- 
matics, cables, connectors, and control 
head tor the Motorola U43GCT-l0lCrB 

transmitter, type CC3006. I also need the 
solid-state power modules, both low and 
voltage, for the T-195B transmitter. 



I am looking for a manual and 
schematics for an SG12 1300-4400- MHz 

signal generator. It was manufactured by 
Empire Devices, Inc. 

Bill Stevenson W83F2V 

PO Box 51 8 

Ridge MD 20630 



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FOFI ADD NX INFO on these and other unique antennas: send SASE 

W9INN ANTENNAS ' ==== 
BOX 393-S MT PROSPECT, IL 60056 



And I would like to hear from anyone who 
has converted the R-392 receiver to solid 
state. 

Tommy Norris KA4RKT 

Rt. tf 1 , Box 41? 

Auburn KV 42206 



I need the first part of the assembly 
manual for the Heath GR-269 color TV. I 



bought this kit in Mexico, but all of the PC 

boards and their parts are missing. I have 
all of theother manuals except the one de- 
scribing the PC boards, I also need infor- 
mation on the Venus SS 2 TV camera. 

Hans U NadlerXEl HUH 

Gabino Barreda 54 B 

Cto. Ed u cad ores 

Cd. Sate lite, Erio. de Mexico 

Mexico 



8th Annual Elmira Hamfest 

Chemung County Fairgrounds 

- Horseheads, NY 



Saturday, Sept. 24, 19G3 Tickets: $2.00 advance 

Time: 6AM-5PM 53.00 at gate. 

First Prize: ICOM 740 with power supply. 
Second Prize; fCOM IC25H 
Third Prtzw /COM tCZSA 
plus dozens of door prizes given oul ihroughoul ihe day 

Free Ilea marker tech lalk, dealer displays breakfast and lunch available. 

and much more 



Talk-in On: 

^47.96/,36 
146,107,70 
146.52^52 



For more information and advance ticket purchase contact: 

John Breese. 340 West Avenue, Horseheads, NY 14845 



120 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



SYNTHESIZED 

SIGNAL GENERATOR 



MADE IN 
USA 




MODEL 

SGI ODD 

S349.95 

plus shipping 



•Covers100to185 MHz in 1 kHz steps with thumb^ 
wheel dial ■ Accuracy 1 part per 10 million at all fre- 
quencies • Internal FM adjustable from to 1 00 kHz 
at a 1 kHz rate * Spurs and mjtse at feast 60 dB be- 
low carrier • Rf output adjustable from 5-500 mV at 
50 ohms * Operates on 12 Vdc # 172 Amp * Avail- 
able for immediate delivery * $349.95 plus shipping 

• Add-on Accessories available to extend freq. 
range, add infinite resolution, voice and sub-audible 
tones. AM, precision 120 dB calibrated attenuator 

* Call for details • Dealers wanted worldwide, 



VANGUARD LABS 

196-23 Jamaica Ave M Hollis, NY 11423 
Phono: (212) 46S- 2720 



^311 



Custom Ma fhng Lists on Labels / 

Amateur Radio Operator NAMES 

Custom lists compiled to your specifications 

■ Geographic by ZIP and/or State 

■ By License issue or Expiration Date 

■ On Labels of Your Choice 

Total List: 415,000 Price: $25/ThOusand 
Call 203; 438-3433 for more information 

Buckmaster Publishing ^ 255 

70 Florida Hili Rd„ Ridq-fieid. CT 06877 



NEMAL ELECTRONICS 






COAXIAL CABLE SALE 



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POLYETHYLENE DJELECTHIC 
RG213 noncontarnfnaiing95 D /ci sheild mil spec.36c/ft. 
RGi74yu mil spec. 96% shield , , .10c/tt. 

RG1 1U 96% shield, 75-ohm mil spec 2$ertt 

RGBU9e*/ a shield, mil spec $27.95/100 rt, or 3 Itfft. 

8G6A/U double shield, 75^ohm 2S*m. 

RGS6AU stranded mil spec 12*m. 

RG58 mil spec. 96% shield 11t/H 

LOW LOSS FOAM DIELECTRIC 
RG8X95% shield „,$U.95/1O0 ft. or 17«/tt. 

RG&U80% shield i . f , lB*/ft 

RG58U80% shield, , ,....07e/1t. 

RG58U95% shiefd lOe/lt 

RG59U 100% foil shield. TV type $7/100 ft ioc/Jt 

RG6U97% shield 11 ga.{equiv Belden8214) 31c/ft. 

Heavy Duty Rotor Cable 2-T6ga, 6-1 &ga 36ctf1. 

Rotor Cable &-con. 2-13 ga, 6-22 ga , I9e/<|. 



RGSU-20 ft., PL 259 ea. end $4.95 

RG214U db! silver shield, 50 ohm . . $1.55/ft. 

100 ft RGSU witfl PL 259 on each end S 19.95 

BELDEN Coax In 100 It rolls 

RG58U#9201 $11.95 

Grounding strap, heavy duty tubular braid 

3/16 in. tinned copper. 10*tft 

3/8 in. tinned copper 30e/(1. 

CONNECTORS MADE IN USA 

Am phenol Pl-259..... 79* 

PL-259 TeflonfSilver SI. 59 

PL-259 push on adapter shell ...1GSS3.B9 

PL 259 & SO 239 , ..10JS5.89 

Double Male Connector..., , „..,, SI .79 

PL-258 Double Female Connector...,. 98* 

1 ft patch cord w/RCA type plugs each end 3rS1,00 

Reducer UG-175 or 176.... . .10/11, 99 

tiG-255 (PL-259 to BNC) ;i $3,50 

ElbOW (M359) $1,79 

F&9A (TV type) 1<W$2.15 

UG 21 D/U Amphenol Type N Male lor RGB .....$3.00 

BNC UG88C/U, male $1 r 25 

3/16 inch Mike Plug for Collins etc $1.25 

UG273 BNC to PL-259 $3.00 

FREE CATALOG 
COD add S2.00-FLA. Res. add 5% Sales Ta* 



Orders under $30. 00 add $2.00 

Connectors— shipping 10% add'l, $3.00 minimum 
Cable— shipping $3-00 1st 100 ft $2,50 each add 1 ! 100 ft 



*^4t2 






1327 NE 119th Street, Dept. 73 , No. Miami, FL 33161 Call (305) 893-3924 



2 GHz Dual Stage Microwave Preamplifiers 

Use the Ampire 2001 to improve the performance of 
your microwave receiving system. The broadband de- 
sign lowers the system noise figure and increases the 
overall system gain. Use the Ampire 2001 for the micro- 
wave TV band and the Ampire 1690N for the GOES and 
METEOSAT weather satellite band. 



Ampire 1690N .»139" 

Ampire 2001 *129*° 

Shipping: USA...*2" Foreign .. .'10 w 

Data Service Company 

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• 




MICROWAVE COMPONENTS 



25 MW EXCITER 
45 MHZ SUBCARRIER 
AM VIDEO MODULATOR 
50 MW UP CONVERTER 



$49.95 

$19.95 

$19.95 

$149.95 



GIZMO ELECTRONICS, INC 

P.O. BOX 1205 

PITTSBURG, KS 66762 

PH. 316-231-8171 

Kansas residents 3% safes tax * 



229 



PRESERVE 



73 



WITH 




I 



BINDERS & FILE CASES. 

Keep yrui r issues of 73 Magazine handy and protect- 
ed in handsome and durable library file boxes ur 
binders. Both stylos are bound in red leatherette 
with Ihe magazine logo stamped in gold. 

File boxes: eac:h file box hu Iris 12 issues, with spines 
visible for easy reference, 

$.V95 each, 3 fur $17,00. 6 for $30,00 
Binders: eauh binder holds 12 issues and opens flat 
tor easy reading. 

$7.50 earh t 3 for $.21,75, B for $42.00 
(USA punlage paid. Foreign orders must include 
$2*50 per item.) 

Please state years desired (1977 to 1944). 
Send check ur money order to: 

Jesse Jones HiixCurp.. P.O. Box 572ih Philadelphia* 
PA 19141; please allow b to weeks fnr deli very + 
Sorry, no CO. D. ur phune nrclerm. 



Subscription. 
Prdblsrn? 



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Please send a description of the 
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73 



Amateur Radio's 
TechriMl Jour™* 



Subscription Dept, 
PO Box 931 
Farmingdale, NY 11737 



Thank you and enjoy your subscription, 



this publication 
is available in 
microform 



University Microfilms international 



300 North Zeeb Road 

Dept PR. 

Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 

U.S,A, 



18 Bedford Row 
Dept. PR. 

London, WC1R4EJ 
England 



**See Ltsi of Advertisers on page 1 f4 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 121 



Mi 



California Antenna Systems 

\nlrnri4i t/frrFMlfn '« ftit tht Htulm \tTUilrUr 



Introducing 

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HU'STACK Slwfrjng Tow*, 10 10 120 
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TT237 Jr *#M tuppon. § so ti 1439 * 

TT354 M' frfl support 9 « ft *799. • 

end 



We hdv« a fcui to* of inijar trtnd 

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^53 





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SEND »l.## (REFUNDABLE I FOR CATALOG 

ADD »4.23 BMIf PING /HANDLING 
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HYB ADD SALES TftK -C.G.D, 'S OK 

24 HOUR ORDER LINE 
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Lunar' s line of RF actuated in-line receiving pream- 
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Send: Call -name-ana address 

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We pay US postage. (Foreign- add S2-5Qi J item). 
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122 73 Magazine • September, 1963 



CONTACT-80. 




RTTY your TRS«) with CO NT ACT 80 MARKUPS 19S3' 

TBS-eO. MOO WYN INTEflFACE pndudwJ w«h system* 
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2-12 MHZ USB 
TRANSCEIVER 

RT-671/PMM7 TRANSCEIVER — 

2-12 mi JSB 
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waErs PEP. Par- 
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ized Collins-de- 
signed set uses PL-177WA lube in P-A Requires 
either 24 V0C 20 amps or 115 VAC 400 Hz power 
7x21 l Ax\TA"„ 45 lbs sh. Used-reparabfe $375. 
wm H-33 handsel and AS- 1 320 tong-wire anfenra $395. 
Manual, partial reproduction 5 1 7 a set purchase. 

PRC-47 ACCESSORY PACK, transit case wrth 
15' whip, speaker, headset, key. backpack harness, 
etc; 95 lbs. sh. wi $55 with RT-671 purchase 

R'389/URR WLF RECEIVER — Collins-built set 
covers 15-1500 Khz AM-CW In rwo ranges, 7-banrJs; 
4-place mechanical digital tuning. Requires 115/230 
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toy?xi9xl7%", 90 ibs sh Used-reparable $250, 
Power connector $3, Manual, partial repro $17. 
Prtws FOB. Lima, • W5A. MASTTfRCARD Accepted . 
Alow for Shipping * Send for New FREE CATALOG 83 
Address Oepl 73 • Phone: 419/227-8573 



101* E, f UBflfA - Sot H05" ' L'MA. O^'O **»0* 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 123 



* 






"too**'*** 



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Eimc «QO*OQ0tY8i71 with SK300 and SK13Q6 

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This attractive watch has the following modes; 

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$5,00 


10/ $40,00 


lOOOpf/.OOH 


if +-10% 


DS85-04C 




400vdc 


SOAmps 


$10.00 


10/ $80.00 






IN 3269 




600vdc 


160 Amps 


$15.00 


10/$ 120. 00 


4/$ 1.00 or 100/520.00 or 


275241 




LOOvdc 


2 50 Amps 


$20.00 


10/$ 175, 00 


1000/S150.0C 


1 


7-5754 




300vdc 
i 5KVDC 


400Amps 
2. Una . 


S30.00 
$3.00 


10/$250,00 
10/ $20.00 






RCD-15 


E PROMS 




SMFR20K 




20KVDC 


20aa. 


$4.00 


10/ $30,00 




IN4148 




signal 




30/51.00 


100/ $3,00 


2708 1024x1 
2716 2048x8 
27L32/25L32 


$2.00 each 


FA1RGHILD 


4116 16K DYNAMIC RAMS 2Q0ns* Part # 


16K75 


$4.00 each 


25 For $25.00 


or 100 For 


390.00 or 


1000 For $750.00 


$10.00 each 


HEWLETT PACKARD MICROWAVE 


DIODES 










IN 57 11 




(5082-2800) 




Schottky 


Barrier Diodes 


$1.00 or 10 


for $ 8.50 


1N5712 




£5082-2810) 




M 


■i n 


$1.50 or 10 


for $10*00 


1N6263 




(HSCH-1001) 




tl 


■I ii 


$ .75 or 10 


for $ 5.00 


5082-2835 








II 


II M 


$1.50 or 10 


for $10*00 


5082-2805 




Quad Hatched 


M 


pei 


: set $5*00 or 10 


for $40.00 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-01 80 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



JM^z elect roqic§ 



Ail parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable pans 
1 1 we are out of stock of an item " 



E 



124 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



"MIXERS" 



rtATKINS JOHNSON wJ~M6 Double Balanced Mixer 

LO and RF 0.2 to 300MHz 
Conversion Loss (SSB) 



Noise Figure (SSB) 
Conversion Compression 



IF DC to 300MHz 
6.5dB Max. 1 to 50MHz 
8.5dB Max. .2 to 300MHz 
same as above 
8.5dB Max. 50 to 300MHz 
,3dB Typ. 



$21.00 

WITH DATA SHEET 



NEC (NIPPON ELECTRIC CO. LTD. 

NF Min F=2GHz dB 2.4 Typ. 

F=3GHz dB 3.4 Typ. 

F=4GHz dB 4.3 Typ. 



Ft Gain Bandwidth Product at Vce=8v, IcMQma. 
Vcbo 25v Vceo llv Vebo 3v Ic 



NE57835/2SCZ150 Microwave Transistor 



MAG F=2GHz 
F=3GHz 
F=4GHz 

GHz 4 Min. 
50ma. Pt. 



dB 12 Typ. 
dB 9 Typ. 
dB 6. 5 Typ 

Typ. 
250mw 



$5.30 



UNELCO RF Power and Linear Amplifier Capacitors 

These are the famous capacitors used fay all the RF Power and Linear Amplifier 
manufacturers, and described in the RF Data Book. 



5pf 

5.1pf 
6.8pf 

7pf 

8.2pf 



lOpf 
12pf 
13pf 
lApf 
15pf 



18pf 
22pf 
25pf 

27pf 
27 . 5pf 



30pf 
32pf 
33pf 

34pf 
4Cpf 



51pf 
60pf 
80pf 



lOOpf 

HOpf 
120pf 
130pf 
UOpf 



200pf 1 to 
220pf 11 to 
470pf 51 up 
500pf 
lOOOpf 



lOpcs, 

50pcs. 

pes . 



SI. 00 ea 
$ .90 ea 

$ .80 ea 



NIPPON ELECTRIC COMPANY TUNNEL DIODES 

Peak Pt. Current ma. Ip 

Valley Pt. Current ma. Iv 

Peak Pt. Voltage mv. Vp 
Projected Peak Pt. Voltage mv. Vpp Vf=Ip 

Series Res. Ohms rS 

Terminal Cap. pf. Ct 

Valley Pt. Voltage mv. VV 



MODEL 1S2199 
9min. lOTyp. Umax. 
1.2Typ. 1.5max. 
95Typ. 120max. 
480min. 550Typ. 630max 
2.5Typ. 4max. 
1.7Typ. 2max. 
370Typ. 



1S2200 $ * 50 
9min. lOTyp. Umax. 

I.2Typ. 1.5max. 

75Typ. 90max. 

440min. 520Typ. 600max. 

2Typ. 3max. 

5Typ. 8max. 

350Typ. 



FAIRCHILD / DUMONT Oscilloscope Probes Model 4290B 

Input Impedance 10 meg., Input Capacity 6.5 to 12pf., Division Ratio (Volts/Div Factor) 

10:1, Cable Length 4Ft. , Frequency Range Over 100MHz. 

These Probes will work on all Tektronix, Hewlett Packard, and other Oscilloscopes. 

PRICE $45.00 



MOTOROLA RF DATA BOOK 



Listsall Motorola RF Transistors / RF Power Amplifiers, Varactor Diodes and much much 
more. 



PRICE $7.50 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 



^/l G t\x electronic * 



Alt parts may be new Of 
surplus and parts may be 
substituted with comparable pans 
il we are oul of stock of an item." 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 125 



RF TRANSISTORS. MICROWAVE DIODES 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICK 



1S2199 


$ 7.50 


2N6083 


$ 


13.25 


CA2612 (TRW) 


$ 25.00 


1S2200 


7.50 


2M6084 


r 


15.00 


CA2674 (TRW) 


25,00 


2N1561 


25-00 


2N6094 /M9622 


1 1 . 00 


CA2881-1(TRW) 


25-00 


2N1562 


25.00 


2N6095 /M9623 


12.00 


CA4101 (TRW) 


25.00 


2N2857 


1,55 


2N6096 /M9624 


15.50 


CA4201 (TRW) 


25.00 


2N2857JAN 


2.55 


2N6097 




17.25 


CA4600 (TRW) 


25.00 


2N2876 


11.00 


2N6136 




21,85 


CD 1889 


20,00 


2N2947 


18,35 


2N6166 




40.25 


CD2545 


20 , 00 


2H2948 


15.50 


2N6201 




50.00 


CMD514AB 


20,00 


2N2949 


3.90 


2K6459 




18.00 


D4959 


10.00 


2N2950 


4.60 


2M66Q3 




12.00 


P4987M 


20.00 


2N3375 


8,00 


2N6680 




80.00 


D5147D 


10,00 


2N3553 


1,57 


2SC756A 




7,50 


D5506 


10.00 


2N3632 


13.80 


2SC781 




2.80 


D5827AM 


20,00 


2N3818 


5.00 


2SC1018 




1.00 


DMD6022 


30.00 


2N3866 


1,30 


2SC1042 




12.00 


DMS-2A-250 


40.00 


2N3924 


3,35 


2SC1070 




2,50 


HEP76 


4.95 


2N3927 


17,75 


25C1239 




2.50 


HEPS3002 


11.30 


2N3950 


25.00 


2SC1251 




12.00 


HEPS3003 


30.00 


2N4072 


1.80 


2SG1306 




2.90 


HEPS3005 


10.00 


2N4127 


21.00 


2SC1307 




5.50 


HEPS 3006 


19.90 


2M427 


1.30 


2SC1760 




1.50 


HEPS 3007 


25.00 


2N4428 


1.85 


2SC1970 




2,50 


HEPS 3010 


11.34 


2N4957 


3.45 


2SC2166 




5.50 


HTEF2204 H.P, 


112-00 


2N4958 


2,90 


SB 1087 


(M.A,) 


25.00 


5082-0112 H.P. 


14.20 


2N4959 


2.30 


A5(M2 




20,00 


5082-0253 H,P. 


105,00 


2N5090 


13,90 


A283B 




5.00 


5082-0320 H.P. 


58,00 


2N5108 


4.00 


ALD420ON (AVANTEK) 


395.00 


5082-0386 H.P. 


POR 


2N5109 


1.70 


AM123 




97.35 


5082-0401 H.P. 


FOR 


2N5160 


3,45 


AM688 




100.00 


5082-0438 H.P. 


POR 


2N5177 


21.62 


BB105B 




.52 


5082-1028 H.P, 


POR 


2N5179 


1,00 


BD4/4JFBD4 (G.E.) 


10.00 


5082-2711 H.P. 


23.15 


2N5583 


4,00 


BFQ85 




1.50 


5082-3080 H.P. 


2.00 


2N5589 


8.65 


BFR90 




1.30 


5082-3188 H.P. 


i.oo 


2N559Q 


10.35 


BFR91 




1.65 


5082-6459 H.P. 


POR 


2N5591 


13.80 


BFW92 




1.50 


5082-8323 H.P. 


POR 


2N5635 


10.95 


BFX89 




1.00 


35826E H.P. 


POR 


2N5637 


15,50 


BFY90 




1,00 


35831E H.P. 


29,99 


2N5641 


9,20 


BGY54 




25-00 


35853E H.P, 


71.50 


2N5642 


10.95 


BGY55 




25.00 


35854E H.P. 


75.00 


2X5643 


15,50 


BGY74 




25. 00 


HPA0241 H.P. 


75.60 


2N5645 


13.80 


BGY75 




25.00 


HXTR3101 H.P, 


7.00 


2N5646 


20.70 


BL161 




10.00 


HXTR3102 H.P. 


8.75 


2N5691 


18.00 


BLX67 




LI .00 


HXTR6101/2N6617 


H.P. 55, 00 


2N5764 


27.00 


BLY568CF 


25.00 


HXTR6104 H.P. 


68.00 


2N5836 


5.45 


BLY87 




13-00 


HXTR6105 H.P, 


31.00 


2N5842 


8.00 


BLY88 




14.00 


HXTR6106 H.P. 


33.00 


2N5849 


20.00 


BLY89 




15.00 


QSCH1995 H,P, 


POR 


2NS913 


3.25 


BLY90 




20. 00 


JO 2000 TRW 


10.00 


2N5922 


10.00 


BLY351 




10.00 


JO2001 TRW 


25.00 


2N5923 


25.00 


C4005 




20,00 


JO4045 TRW 


25.00 


2N5941 


23.00 


CA402 


(TRW) 


25.00 


K3A 


10.00 


2N5942 


40.00 


CA405 


(TRW) 


25.00 


MA450A 


10.00 


2N5944 


9.20 


CA612B 


(TRW) 


25,00 


MA4U87 


POR 


2N5945 


11.50 


CA2 1 00 


(TEW) 


25,00 


MA41765 


POR 


2N5946 


19.00 


CA2113 


(TRW) 


25.00 


MA43589 


POR 


2N6080 


9,20 


CA2200 


(TRW) 


25,00 


MA43636 


POR 


2H6081 


10.35 


CA2213 


(TRW) 


25.00 


MA47044 


POR 


2N6082 


11.50 


CA2418 


(TRW) 


25.00 


MA47651 


25.50 



Toll Free Number 

800-528-0180 

(For orders only) 



■Alt parts may be new or 
surplus, and parts may be 

substituted with comparable parts 
If we are out of stock of an Item," 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 

JVl^fJz elect roi\ic$ 



126 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



GaAs, TUNNEL DIODES, ETC. 



1 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICE 



PART 



PRICE 



MA47100 


$ 3.05 


MA47202 


30.80 


MA47771 


FOR 


MM 78 52 


FOR 


MA49558 


POR 


MB402 1 


POR 


MBD101 


1,00 


MD0513 


POR 


MHW1171 


42.50 


MHW1182 


48.60 


MHW4171 


49.35 


MHW4172 


51.90 


MHW4342 


68.75 


MLP102 


25.00 


MM1500 


32.32 


MM155G 


POR 


MM1552 


50.00 


MM1553 


50.00 


MM1614 


10.00 


MM2608 


5.00 


MM3375A 


11.50 


MM4429 


10.00 


MM8000 


1.15 


MM8006 


2.30 


M0277L 


POR 


M0283L 


POR 


M03757 


POR 


MP102 


POR 


MPN3202 


10.00 


MPN34Q1 


. 52 


MPN3412 


1.00 


MPSU31 


1.01 


MRA2023-1.5 


TRW 42.50 


MEF212/208 


16.10 


MRF223 


13.25 


MRF224 


15.50 


MRF237 


3.15 


MRF238 


12.65 


MRF243 


25.00 


MRF245 


34.50 


MRF247 


34.50 


MRF304 


43.45 


MRF315 


23.00 


MRF420 


20.00 


MRF421 


36.80 


MRF422 


41-40 


MRF427 


16. 10 


MRF428 


46.00 


MRF450/A 


13.80 


MRF453/A 


17.25 


MRF454/A 


19-90 


MRF455/A 


16.00 


MRF458 


19.90 


HRF463 


25.00 


KRF472 


1 . 00 


MRF475 


2.90 


MRF477 


11.50 


MRF502 


1.04 



MR F 503 


$ 6. 


00 


MRF504 


7-00 


MRF509 


5-00 


MRF511 


8.65 


MKF605 


20.00 


MRF629 


3.47 


MRF644 


23.00 


MRF816 


15.00 


MRF823 


20.00 


MRF901 


3.00 


MRF80G4 


2. 10 


MS261F 


FOR 


MT4150 Fair. 


POR 


HT5126 Fair. 


POR 


MT5481 Fair. 


POR 


MT5482 Fair. 


POR 


MT5483 Fair. 


POR 


MT5596 Fair. 


POR 


1*15764 Fair. 


POR 


MT8762 Fair. 


POR 


MV109 


.77 


MV1401 


8. 


75 


MV1624 


1. 


42 


MV1805 


15. 


00 


MV1808 


10, 


00 


MVI817B 


10. 


00 


MV1863B 


10, 


00 


MV1864A 


10, 


00 


MV1864B 


10. 


00 


MV1864D 


10, 


.00 


MV1868D 


10, 


.00 


MV2I01 




,90 


MV2U1 




.90 


MV2115 


1, 


.55 


MV2201 




.53 


MV2203 




.53 


MV2209 


2. 


.00 


MV2215 


2. 


.00 


MWA110 


7, 


,45 


MWA120 


7. 


.80 


MWA130 


8, 


,25 


MWA210 


7 


.80 


MWA220 


8 


.25 


MWA230 


8 


.65 


MWA31Q 


8 


.25 


MWA320 


8 


,65 


MWA330 


9 


.50 


NEC57835 


5 


.30 


ON 382 


5 


,00 


PPT515-20-3 


FOR 


PRT8637 


POR 


PSCQ2-160 


POR 


PT3190 


POR 


PT3194 


POR 


PT3195 


POR 


PT3537 


POR 


PT4166E 


POR 


PT4176D 


POR 





PT4186B 


$ POR 


PT4209 


POR 


PT4209C 


POR 


PT4566 


POR 


PT4570 


POR 


PT4571 


POR 


PT457IA 


POR 


PT4577 


POR 


PT4590 


FOR 


PT4612 


POR 


PT4628 


POR 


PT4640 


POR 


PT4642 


POR 


PT5632 


POR 


PT5749 


POR 


PT6612 


POR 


PT6626 


FOR 


PT6709 


FOR 


PT6720 


FOR 


PT8510 


POR 


PT8524 


POR 


PT8609 


POR 


PT8633 


POR 


PT8639 


POR 


PT8659 


FOR 


PT8679 


POR 


PT8708 


POR 


PT8709 


POR 


PT8727 


POR 


PT8731 


POR 


PT8742 


POR 


PT8787 


POR 


PT9790 


41.70 


PT31962 


POR 


PT31963 


POR 


PT31983 


POR 


PTX6680 


POR 


RAY-3 


24.99 


40081 


POR 


40281 


POR 


40282 


POR 


40290 


POR 


RF110 


25.00 


SCA3522 


POR 


SCA3523 


POR 


SD1065 


POR 


SS43 


POR 


TP1014 


POR 


TP1028 


POR 


TRW- 3 


POR 


UT0504 Avail tek 


70.00 


UT0511 Avantek 


75.00 


V15 


4.00 


V33B 


4.00 


V100B 


4.00 


VAB801EC 


25.00 


VAB804EC 


25-00 


VAS21AK20 


25,00 



Toil Free Number 
800-528-01 80 
(For orders only) 



"AM parts may be nsw or 
surplus., and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we S(fe out Of stock of an item. 



JVI^^z electronic*, 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 




73 Magazine • September, 1983 127 




COAXIAL RELAY SWITCHES SPOT 



Klectronic Specialty Co. /Raven Electronics 
Part # IB Part I 5U-G1 

26Vdc Type N Connector,. DC to 1 GHz. 



FSS 5985-556-9683 



$43.00 






NC 



COM 



NO 



it* NO 



4k A 



Atnphenol 

Part it 316-10102-8 

I LSVttC Type BNC DC to 3 GHz, 



$29,99 



FXR 

Part tf 300-11182 

12GVac Type BNC DC to 4 GHz 

FSN 5985-543-1225 

$39.99 



FXR 

Part # 300^1 1173 
120Vac Type BNC Same 
FSN 5985-543-1850 

$39.99 






BNC To Banana Plug Coax Cable RG-58 36 inch or BKC to S Coax Cable RC-58 36 Inch. 



$7.99 or 2 For $13.99 or 10 For $50.00 



$8.99 or 2 For $15,99 or 10 For $60.00 





SOLID STATE RELAYS 







P&S Model ECT1DB72 
PRICE EACH $5,00 

Digisig, Inc. Model ECS-2I5 
PRI(£ EACH $7,50 

Crigsby/Barton Model G37400 
PRICE EACH $7.50 



Svdc turn on 



5vdc tum on 



Svdc turn on 



120vac contact at 7 amps or 2 Gamps on a 
10'*x I0"x .124 aluminum. Heatsink with 
silicon grease. 

240vac contact Uaaps or AQamps on a 
I0 f 'x 10"x .124 aluminum. Heatsink with 
silicon grease. 

240V&C contact at 1 Samps or 40am ps on a 
k L0 M x .124 aluminum, Heatsink with 
silicon grease. 



NOTE: *** I terns may be substituted wich other brands or equivalent model numbers. *** 



V-* electronic* 



All pans may be new w 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted wilh comparable parts 
II we are out ol stock of an item 



Toll Fr«e Number 
800-528*0180 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



m 



128 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



RECALL PHONE MEMORY TELEPHONE WITH 24 NUMBER AUTO DIALER 

The Recall Phone Telephone employs Che latest state of art 
communications technology, It is a combination telephone 
and automatic dialer that uses premium^ quality, solid-state 
circuitry to assure high-reliability performance in personal 
or business applications. $49.99 





jf :-\ 



'"'V, 






ARON ALPHA RAPID BQNDIHG GLUE 

Super Glue #CE-486 high strength 
rapid bonding adhesive, Alpha 
Cyanoacrylate. Set-Time 20 to 40 
sec, ,Q.7fl,oz. (20gm, ) 

$2.00 





TOUCH TONE PAD 

This pad contains all the electronics to 
produce standard touch- tone tones, New 
with data. 



'. 'ix- ' 



♦ : ^^ 



i 



U I 






39,99 or 10/589,99 



MITSUMI UHF/VHF VARACTQR TUNER MODEL UVElA 

Perfect for those unscrambler projects. 
New with data. 




$19.99 or 10/SM9.99 



INTEGRATED CIRCUIT. 



MCI 372? 
MCI358P 
MC1350P 
MC1330A1P 

MC1310P 

MCI496P 

LM565N 

LM380NU 

LM1889N 

NE564N 

NE5&1N 



Color TV Video Modulator Circuit, 

IF Amp. ,Limiter jFM Detector.Audlo Driver Electronic Attenuator, 

IF Amplifier 

Lcjw Level Video Detector 

FM Stereo Demodulator 

Balanced Modulator /Demodulator 

Phase Locked Loop 

2Watt Audio Power Amplifier 

TV Video Modulator 

Phase Locked Loop 

Phase Locked Loop 



S 



1 to 10 


1 lup 


4.42 


$2.95 


5.00 


4,00 


1.50 


1.25 


1.50 


1.15 


4.29 


3.30 


1.50 


1,25 


2,50 


2.00 


1,56 


1.25 


5.00 


4.00 


10.00 


8.00 


10,00 


8,00 



FERRANTI ELECTRONICS AM RADIO RECEIV ER MODEL ZN414 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT, 
Features : 

1,2 to 1*6 volt operating range, , Less than 0.5ma current consumption. ISOKHz to 3MHz 
Frequency range. jEasy to assemble^no alignment necessary. Effective and variable AGC action, t 
Will drive an earphone direct. Excellent audio quality, , Typical power gain of 72dB.,TO-l8 
package. With data. $2.99 or 10 For $24,99 



NI CAD RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES , 

AA Battery Pack of 6 These are Factory 
New, $5*00 

SUB C Pack of 10 2.5Amp/Hr. $10.00 

Gates Rechargeable Battery Packs 



12vdc at 2.5Arap/Hr, 
12vdc at SAinp/Hr. 



511.99 
$15,99 




M0T0R0U MRF599 RF TRANSISTOR 

hfe 3Crnin 90typ 20Gnrjx, 
ft 300QH1Z 

gain 8db mln 9.5typ at 87Cfitiz 

13ab typ at 512rtiz 
output power .Swatts at 12.5vdc 
at 870ntiz. 

$2.05 or 10/$15,00 



c^f^z elect roi|ic$ 



"AH parts may be new or 
surplus, and parrs may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we are out of stock of an item," 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 
(For orders only) 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 129 



"SOCKETS AND CHIMNEYS" 



E1MAC TUBE SOCKETS AND GEIMKEYS 



SK110 

SK300A 

SK4QG 

SK4G6 

SKA 16 

SK500 

SK600 

SK602 

SK606 

SK607 

5K610 

SK620 

SK626 

SK630 

SK636A 

SK640 

SK64& 

SK.700 

SK711A 

SK740 

SK7 70 

SKSOOA 

5ECS06 

SK810 

SK900 

SK906 

SK1420 

SK1490 



Socket 

Socket For 4CX5000A,R t J , 4Oa0,000D, 4CX15,0G0A,J 

Socket For 4-i25A J 250A,400A,400C,4PRl2 5A t 40aA,4-500A>5-500A 

Chimney For 4-25OA,4Q0A l 4O0C,4PR4OaA 

imney For 3-4QGZ 
Socket For 4-10O0A/4PRIOOOA/E 
Socket For 4CX250B .BCFG.R^CXSSOA.F^J 
Socket For 4CX250B ,BC . FG ,R ,4CX350A t F t FJ 
Chimney For 4CX25OB,BC 1 FG,R*4CX350A l F,FJ 
Socket For ACX600J,JA 
Socket For 4CX600.J 1 JA 
Socket For 4CX600J,JA 
Chimney For 4CX600J,JA 
Socket For 4CX600J , JA 
Chimney For 4CX600j,JA 
Socket For 4CX600J.JA 
Chimney For 4CX6Q0J . JA 
Socket For 4CX300A.Y a 4CX125C,F 
Socket For 4CX300A t V ,4CXl25C f F 
Socket For 4CX300A,Y i 4CXl25C,F 
Socket For 4CX3G0A.Y 4 4CX125C,F 
Socket For 4CX1000A ,40X15008 
Chimney For 4CX1000A ,4CX1500R 
Socket For 4CX1000A t 4CXt500B 
Socket For 4X5O0A 
Chimney For 4X50DA 
Socket For 5CX300DA 
Socket For 4CV80O0A 



$P0R 

$520*00 
260,00 
74.00 
36.00 
390. 00 
51.00 
73*00 
11,00 
60,00 
60*00 
66.00 
10,00 
66.00 
34 . 00 
36,00 

71.00 

22 $.00 
225.00 

86.00 

86.00 
225*00 

40,00 
225.00 
300,00 

57.00 
650.00 
585,00 



JOHNSON TUBE SOCKETS AND CHIMNEYS 



12A-1U/SK606 

122-0275-001 

124-0113-00 

124-116/SK630A 

124-U5-2/SK620A 



Chimney For 4CX250B,BC,FG,R. 4CX3 50A,F,FJ 

Socket For 3-50QZ, 4-L25A, 250A, 40QA, 4-50GA, 5-500A 

Capacitor Ring 

Socket For 4CX2 5GB,BC I FG,R, /4CX350A,F*FJ 

Socket For 4CX250B.BC, FG t R, MCX350A,F P FJ 

813 Tube Socket 



$ 10.00 
(pair) 15. 00 
15.00 
55,00 
55-00 
20.00 



CHIP CAPACITORS 



.Bpf 








lOpf 






lOOpf* 


Ipf 








12pf 






HOpf 


l.ipf 








15pf 






IZfljJf 


l,4pf 








iapf 






130pf 


l.Spf 








20pf 






150pf 


l.Spf 








Z2pf 






160pf 


2.2pf 








24 pf 






lSOpf 


2.7pf 








27pf 






ZOOpf 


3.3pf 








33pf 






220pf* 


3.6pf 








39pf 






240pf 


3.9pf 








47pf 






Z70pf 


4.7pf 








Slpf 






300pf 


5.6pf 








56pf 






330pf 


6.8pf 








68pf 






360pf 


8.2pf 








82pf 






390pf 


PRICES: 


1 


to 10 - 


,99$ 


101 to 


1000 


.60£ * 




11 


to 


50 - 


. 90* 


1001 & 


UP 


- 35c 




51 


to 


100 


- ,804 




^ontro 




WAT KINS 


JOHNSOh 


1 WJ- 


■V907: Voltage i 


Ued Micro 



430pf 

470pf 

510pf 

560pf 

620pf 

680pf 

820pf 

lOOOpf/.OOluf* 

180Qpf/.0018uf 

2700pf/.0O27uf 

10 t 000pf/.01uf 

12 1 Q0Opf/.012uf 

15,000pf/.015uf 

18«000pf/.018uf 

IS A SPECIAL PRICE: 10 for $7*50 

100 for $65.00 
1000 for $350.00 



ve Oscfllator $110.00 

Frequency range 3.6 to 4,2GHz, Power ouput, Miru IQdBm typical, 8dBm Guaranteed. 
Spurious output suppression Harmonic (nf }» min. 20dB typical, In-Band Non-Harmonic, rrrin. 
60dB typical, Residual FM, pk to pk, Kax. BKtfz, pushing factor, Max. 8KH2/V, Pulling figure 
(1.5:1 VSWR), Max. 60Wz, Tuning voltage range +1 to +15vo1ts» Tuning current, Max. -0,1mA, 
modulation sensitivity range, Max* 120 to JOMHz/V, Input capacitance, Max. lOOpf , Oscillator 
Bias +15 +-0,05 volts d 55ntft, Max. 



TUBE GAPS (Plate) 


$11.00 
13,00 

14.00 
17.00 
20,00 


HR1, 4 

HR2,3, 6 4 7 
HR5, 8 
HR9 
HRIO 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0180 

(For orders onty) 



"AH parts may be new or 
Surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
«' we are out ol slock of an Hem." 



JVI G l|jt elect roiyc$ 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



130 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



TYPE 



TUBES 



PRICE 



TYPE 



PRICE 



TYPE 



NOTE * = USED TUBE 



NOTE P.O.R. = PRICE ON REQUEST 



PRICE 



2C39/7289 


S 34.00 


1182/4600A 


S500.00 


HL7815AL 


S 60.00 


2E26 


7.95 


4600A 


500.00 


7843 


107.00 


2K28 


200.00 


4624 


310.00 


7854 


130.00 


3-500Z 


102,00 


4657 


84.00 


ML7855KAL 


125.00 


3-10002/8164 


400. DO 


4662 


100.00 


7984 


14.95 


3B28/866A 


9.50 


4665 


500.00 


8072 


84.00 


3CX400U7/8961 


255.00 


4687 


P.O.R. 


8106 


5.00 


3CX1000A7/8283 


526.00 


5675 


42.00 


81 17 A 


225.00 


3CX3000F1/8239 


567.00 


5721 


250.00 


8121 


110.00 


3CW30O0OH7 


1700.00 


5768 


125.00 


8122 


110.00 


3X2500A3 


473.00 


5819 


119.00 


8134 


470.00 


3X3000F1 


567.00 


5836 


232.50 


8156 


12.00 


4-65A/B165 


69,00 


5837 


232.50 


8233 


60.00 


4-125A/4D21 


79.00 


5861 


140.00 


8236 


35.00 


4-250A/5D22 


98.00 


5867A 


185.00 


8295/PL172 


500.00 


4-400A/8438 


98.00 


5868/AX9902 


270.00 


8458 


35.00 


4-400B/7527 


110.00 


5876/A 


42.00 


8462 


130.00 


4-400C/6775 


110.00 


5881/6L6 


8.00 


8505A 


95.00 


4-1000A/8166 


444.00 


5893 


60.00 


S533W 


136.00 


4CX250B/7203 


54.00 


5894/A 


54.00 


8560/A 


75.00 


4CX250FG/8621 


75.00 


5894B/8737 


54.00 


8560AS 


100.00 


4CX250K/8245 


125.00 


5946 


395.00 


8608 


38.00 


4CX250R/7580W 


90.00 


6083/AZ9909 


95.00 


8624 


100.00 


4CX3O0A/8167 


170.00 


6146/6146A 


8.50 


8637 


70.00 


4CX350A/8321 


110.00 


6146B/8298 


10.50 


8643 


83.00 


4CX350F/8322 


115.00 


6146W/7212 


17.95 


8647 


168.00 


4CX350FJ/8904 


140.00 


6156 


110.00 


8683 


95.00 


4CX6D0J/8809 


835.00 


6159 


13.85 


8877 


465.00 


4CX1000A/8168 


242.50* 


6159B 


23.50 


8908 


13.00 


4CX100QA/8168 


485.00 


6161 


325.00 


8950 


13.00 


4CX1500B/8660 


555.00 


6280 


42.50 


8930 


137.00 


4CX5000A/8170 


1100.00 


6291 


180.00 


6L6 Metal 


25.00 


4CX1Q000D/8171 


1255.00 


6293 


24.00 


6L6GC 


5.03 


4GX15000A/8281 


1500*00 


6326 


P.O.R. 


6CA7/EL34 


5.38 


4CWSGQF 


710.00 


6360/A 


5.75 


6CL6 


3,50 


4032 


240.00 


6399 


540.00 


6DJ8 


2.50 


4E27A/5-125B 


240.00 


6550A 


10.00 


6DQ5 


6.58 


4PR6GA 


200.00 


6B83B/8032A/8552 


10.00 


6GF5 


5.85 


4PR60B 


345.00 


6897 


160.00 


6GJ5A 


6.20 


4PR65A/8187 


175.00 


6907 


79.00 


6GK6 


6.00 


4PR1000A/S189 


590.00 


6922/6DJ8 


5.00 


6HB5 


6.00 


4X150A/7034 


60.00 


6939 


22.00 


6HF5 


8.73 


4X150D/76O9 


95.00 


7094 


250.00 


6JG6A 


6.28 


4X250B 


45.00 


7117 


38.50 


6JM6 


6.00 


4X2 50F 


45.00 


7203 


P.O.R. 


6JN6 


6.00 


4X500A 


412.00 


7211 


100.00 


60S6C 


7.25 


5CX1500A 


660.00 


7213 


300 . 00* 


6KN6 


5.05 


KT88 


27.50 


7214 


300,00* 


6KD6 


8.25 


416B 


45.00 


7271 


135,00 


6LF6 


7.00 


416C 


62.50 


7289/2C39 


34.00 


6LQ6 G.E.- 


7.00 


572B/T160L 


49.95 


7325 


P.O.R. 


6LQ6/6MJ6 Sylvania 


9.00 


592/3-200A3 


211*00 


7360 


13.50 


6ME6 


8.90 


807 


8.50 


7377 


85.00 


12AT7 


3.50 


SUA 


15.00 


7408 


2.50 


12AX7 


3.00 


812A 


29.00 


7609 


95.00 


12BY7 


5.00 


813 


50.00 


7735 


36.00 


12JB6A 


6.50 



"ALL PARTS MAY BE NEW, USED, OR SURPLUS. PARTS MAY BE SUBSTITUTED WITH COMPARABLE PARTS IF WE 
ARE OUT OF STOCK OF AN ITEM. 

NOTICE: ALL PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 



Toll Free Number 
800-528-0160 
(For orders only) 



"An parts may be new or 
surplus, and parls may be 
substituted with comparable parts 

If we are out of stock of an Item." 



JVI^z electronics 



1 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 131 



"FILTERS 



59 



OM 



INS Mechanical Filter #526-9724-010 MODEL R55Z32F 



455KHZ at 3.2KHz wide. May be other models but equivalent, May be used or new, $15,99 

ATLAS Crystal Filters 

5,595-2.7/8/IiSB, 5, 595-2.7/ISB 

8 pole 2-7KHZ wide Upper sideband, Inpedence SOOohms 15pf In/SOOphms Opf out, 19,99 

5*595-2.7/8/U, 5.595-2.7/USB 

8 pole 2*7Khz wide Upper sideband* Impedence SOOohms 15pf In/8Q0ohms Opf out, 19,99 

5. 595-. 500/4, 5.595-.500/4/CW 

4 pole 500 cycles wide CW. Impedance SOOohms 15pf In/SGOohms Opf out, 19*99 

9 . OUSB/CW 

6 pole 2,7KHz wide at 6dB, Impedance 680ohms 7pf In/300ohms 8pf out, GW-1599HZ 19.99 

KOKUSAI ELECTRIC CO. Mechanical Filter #HF-455-ZL/ZU-21H 

455KHz at Center Frequency of 453. 5KC, Carrier Frequency of 455KHz 2,36KC Bandwidth. 
Upper sideband, (ZU) 19.99 

lower sideband. (ZL) 19,99 

CRYSTAL FILTERS 



N1KKO 

im 

SDK 

TAMA 

rroo/cD 

MOTOROLA 

ITI 

PTI 

PTT 

COMTECH 

FEC 

FILTBCH 



FX-07300C 

FEC-103-2 

SCH-113A 

TF-31H250 

001019880 

4884S63B01 

5350C 

5426C 

1479 

A10300 

ERXF-15700 

2131 



7.3MHz 

10.6935MHz 

11,2735MHz 

CF 3179. 3KHz 

10.7MH2 2pole 15KHz bandwidth 

11.7MHz 2pole ISKEiz bandwidth 

12MHz 2pole 15KHz bandwidth 

21.4MHz 2pole ISKHz bandwidth 

10.7MH2 Bpole bandwidth 7,5KKz at 3dB, 5KH2 at 6dB 

45MKz 2pole 1.5KHz bandwidth 

20.6MHz 36KHZ wide 

CF 7.825MHz 



$10.00 

10,00 

10,00 

19*99 

5,00 

5.00 

5*00 

5,00 

20.00 

6.00 

10,00 

10.00 



«*#«>*****«#*#«* tt«***#**tt**fr**«**#***«*4###*tt**#tt##ft»^ 



CERAMIC FILTERS 



AXEL 
CLEVITE 

MURATA 



NIPPON 



TOKIN 



4F449 

TO-01A 

TCF4-12D36A 

BFB455B 
RFB455L 

CEM455E 
CFM455D 
CFR455E 
CFU455B 
CFU455C 
CFU455G 
CFU455H 
CFU455I 
CFW455D 
CFW455H 
SFB455D 
SFD455D 
SFE10.7MA 

SFE10.7MS 
SFG10.7MA 
LF-B4/CFU455I 
LF-B6/CFU455H 

IF-B8 
IP-C18 

CF455A/BFU455K 



12.6KC Bandpass Filter 3dB bandwidth 1.6KHZ from ll.8-13.4KHz 

455KHz+-2KHz bandwidth 4-7% at 3dB 

455KHz4-lKHz bandwidth 6dB min 12KHz, 60dB max 36KHz 

455KIIZ 

455KHZ 

455KHz -I-5,5KHZ at 3dB , 4-8KHz at 6dB , +-16KHZ at 50dB 

455KHz -I-7KHZ at 3dB , -f-lOKHz at 6dB . 4-20KHz at 50dB 

455KHZ 4-5,5KHz at 3dB , <4-8KHz at 6dB , -K16KHz at 60dB 

455KHZ +-2KHZ bandwidth +-15KHz at 6dB, -h-30KHz at 40dB 

455KHZ +-2KHZ bandwidth +-12.5KHz at 6dB , -I-24KHZ at 40dB 

455KHZ -H^lKHz bandwidth +-4.5KHZ at 6dB , 4-lQKHz at 40dB 

455KHz +-LKHz bandwidth +-3KHz at 6dB , 

455KH2 -i-LKHz bandwidth 4-2KHZ at 6dB r 

455KHz -KLOKHz at 6dB , 4-20KHz at 40dB 

455KHZ 4-3KHZ at 6dB , 4-9KHZ at 40dB 

455KH2 

455KHz +-2KHz , 3dB bandwidth 4.5KHZ +-1KHZ 

10,7MHz 280KHZ 4-50KHZ at 3dB , 650KHz at 20dB 

10,7MHz 230KHZ 4-50KHZ at 3dB , 570KHZ at 20dB 

10 , 7MHz 

455KHZ +-1KHZ 

455KHZ -I-1KH2 

455KHZ 

455KHZ 

455KHZ 4-2 KHz 



9KH2 at 40dB 
+-6KHZ at 40dB 



10,00 
5,00 

10,00 
2.50 
3.50 
6.65 
6.65 
0.00 
2.90 
2,90 
2.90 
2,90 
2,90 
2.90 
2,90 
2,50 
5 . 00 
2,50 
2,50 

10 , 00 
2,90 
2.90 
2,90 

10 . 00 
5.00 



MATSUSHITA EFC-L455K 4 55KHZ 7.00 



SPECTRA PHYSICS INC, Model 088 HeNe LASER TUBES 

POWER OUTPUT 1.6MW. BEAM DIA, , 75MM BEAM DIR, 2 . 7MR 

6SK OHM 1WATT BALLAST 1000VDC +-100VDC At 3.7MA 

ROTRQN MUFFIN FANS Model MARKVHU2A1 

115 VAC 14 WAITS 50/6 0CPS MFEDENCE PROTECTE3>F 

105cfm at eocps THESE ARE NEW 

Toll Free Number 



SKV STARTING VOLTAGE DC 

$59,99 



8SCFM at 50CPS 



$ 7.99 



dlH ^H z elect roi\ic$ 



All parts may be new or 

800*528^0180 surplus, and pans may be 

substituted with comparable pans 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE (For OfdefS Only) « «• « o* <" >»<«* °' «• I*™' 



132 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



HEWLETT PACKARD SIGNAL GENERATORS 



GflGA SOKMi to feSIWi in 6 sands *-Il,tfuTOul level out <usf arte C . 

IQ 5V Into 50 orns.r. in crystal CCti IEj- 2G0H2 

muiotiari. 

6068 Sane OS OOOve :_t has frequency Control feature to olio* 

operation mt& *P S7QSA Synchronizer* 

p08C lgpftU to <*80Mhz,^1uv-1v into SO arras, «r,tw, or pulse nod- 

ulatjon, collocated atttnuotar. 

: ?: imi 10 H2QHHZ, Q,luVH)*5V into 50 Qtm**-Q.$% accuracy, 

la^iQ built-in crystal caliarctor, Afl-cw or pulse output. 

608E Ifflprovea version or popular &0££.u* to IV output, Inrrovea 

staoilKv.low residual fH. 

-- 81 lOHHz to 4+55MH: In 5 bands *-i: Treauenty accuracy *lth 

built-in crystal calibrator. Can be used with HP a 706" 
syncnranizer. Output continuously adjustable from ,iuv to 
,5V Into 50 ohms, 

612A ^50-12I0MH.2 ,o,Juv-rj.5V into .50 unfits, cnllufnted Qi&pul . 

-A $00~?lOOMHz with many features Including calibrated out out 

and all modulation characteristics. 

616A/ tract reading and direct Control from 1.8 to 4, JbH^. The 

TS«Q3 H.P A 6HiA features +-1.5dB cal Jbratad output accuracy from 

-3l2?dBm to -dBro.The cutout Is directly callBrated in micro- 
its an:J dBm *jth continuous nonurjrmg f Simple operation 
frequency dlad accuracy is +-\l and stability exceeds Q,D05T 

hange tn ambient temperature. Calibrated attenuator fcs 
within *-i,5dB over entire outaut band. SO ohm impedance unit 
nas internal pulse modulation «ltn rea rate variable from 40 
Hz to 4tfrU,varia&le pulseuidthti to i usee i and war laDle Dulse 
delay" 3 to 3GGusecL External raodulotlna inputs increas ver- 
saiihtv, s 375.00 



IffX LABORATORIES TH5-2 RBCICOW rfflDEt 

trtse r^oaset = car* I Co hook x to a IGOR raaias dxi -my airier eouiorem, 

Pferfea for Airplaies , Heiianters , MoctJe feaios . or Just The Teienone. 
These Are Foctory He* in Seeled Boes, Limited Stpolv only 



/ 




#Vf^z 



elect roqicfc 



"All parts may ba new or 
surplus, and parts may be 
substituted with comparable parts 
if we are out of stock of an item 



• 



f 


ei&& 


I :.:0."v 


61SS 


IllDO 


Gift 


s 30Q.QQ 


bZQA 


i ir^.oo 


620B 
626A 


H4i5Q.OO 


3708A 


tiioo.oo 




* /5Q,m 




* snrj.oo 






EMC- 10 


- 


NF*10SF 



$«■* os ooove out later code I, * 600. 00 

5.fi to 7.Wj; range, Ml tn caliDroteo output ana selection 

jse-FK or sauare nave aodulQUon. » 690. GO 

sane as above dm later tnael. *22€0,00 

7 to llfiHt range^hltn calibrated output and selection of ,___ __ 

oulse-FK or sauare nave modulation. * 7>O.0u 

Sane as above Out later nooei. *220G.0D 

10 to 15&hz,1(*m output power wltti calibrated output and .___ __ 

pulse-sauare wave or FH modulation. 14700. go 



SyncnronUer used Nltti 6061, 60BF. The synchronizer is a 

phase- lock frequency slab llzer which provides crvsioJ 
oscillator Frequency stab llty lo ujQMH; in the &u8F si gnu J 
•'MrratDr,fViase loefcing e Imtnates islet option} ts and ti ': 

resulting in excellent frequency siuui l i ty. The 870BA Includes 
a vernier which can tune the reference oscUlator over a ronne 
of +-D.75X permitting frequency settablllty to 2 parts in 10 
to the seventh. Provides u very stable signal toot satisfies 
many critical applications* 

i tilth HP 606B or 60SF) * 

without) $ 



350.00 



ELECTROWFTRICS ErtC-10 flFJ/EMl RECEIVER 

Low frequency ona]yrer cover Inn 2vHZ to &0KH2 frequency 

ronge, Extendable to "SOU KHZ In wideband mode. 

Empire Dev.ces Flela Intensity Meter. 

Has WF-105/Ta,Jff-i05/TX.NF^O5/Tl^F-lO5/T2^NF-105/T3. 

Covers lu&tz to lOOOHHr. 

ALL EQUIPMENT CARRY A $0 MY GUARANTEE, 

EaiilPltM! IS »0? CALIBRATED. 



«5no.nn 



12100.00 



OnOERlMO rNSTWUCTlOil* 
OCFECTtve MATERIAL. AN ctern fat dwf«tr*« imuMtitf --it t* m«dw #it*i;r s-»tt ICOJ Usyi «»!•» 4C*i|if (W 
&*«C* AJlcijitT** rruflir»ciud»1tiBOetwcT«r» "-»'*' * "'^ irtf'^fl ptffPQ»H%. <** HWiBiOt n«t«wr arm ff»d«l» 
a* Durz^DM All rtrTurrs mutt tw D«C«#d prDP*ntf Of 1 1 *■!■ **X «n *aF"i->!fe5: 

DELivEftV O'de's *■* noirivfty shiptfec - • - ^B oou^ft i'tv *»e«<^« at cuittnvi otaer it • s#<f *v»i to cm 
HtCk o-f Qfto ttw ewiTom»f ■■ fkotif i«d Ouf norm*! im^«ne m«tno4 ►* v« Fir»t Clu* V*-> Cc U<PS Atpt^ng on 
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242 3037 

(602) 242-8R16 

2111 W. CAMEL8ACK ROAO 

PHOENIX, ARIZONA 06O1S 

Tall Frot Numbor 

rjoo-saa-otae 

{Fot attimn only) 



I 









Sec L*sl of Advertisers on page t 14 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 133 



international) 




from page 78 

procedure, and a 9 month freeze on is- 
suing new licenses 

There is an Increasing interest In VHF 
especial ly 2 meters. Being \n Region 1 , we 
are allowed only 1*4-146 MHz 146-147 
MHz is a popular commercial band since 
relatively inexpensive amateur rigs can be 
used on these frequencies The first at 
tempt at using a 2 meter repeater was in 
197B when a makeshift repeater was set 
up irr Monrovia. It was not very sat is fac- 
lorv, wim limited coverage and frequent 
breakdowns, but it was a begin rung Tr 
I he Bong Mine ARC installed a repeater In 
1979 a* their commercial site on the top ot 
Bong Mountain at 900 feet altitude It op- 
erates on 145 1 111 and 1457 out on a 7-5- 
dB gain vertical at 20 Watts output. It has 
five county coverage (hall of the counbes) 
\i proper power and antennas are used 

My path to Zorzor {pronounced zaw- 
zaw) is the longest path of anyone work- 
ing the repeater. It is 90 miles over nniy ; 
mountainous terrain. I delinltely have the 
a l exolic 2-meter anlonna In Liberia. 
With the help of EL2FE, EL2CA. and The 
ARRL VHF Manual ana Aftfll Antenna 
Handbook, I constructed a vertically po- 
lanzed rhombic. 58 feel on a side. It *s fed 
with 300-Onm Ladder line and then matched 
with a universal stub into a * i coaxial 
baiun and a short run of RG-&U into the 
shack The rhombic >$ unterm*nated and 
bidirectional It is easier to construct mat 
way. and there is a rather unlikely chance 
thai i Will ever be bothered by ORM from 
3X only 3 miles behind me This type of 
antenna might be very useful for an Amen- 
can ham in a rural area wiih poor repeater 
coverage trying to get Into a distant 
repeater. 

Galling 2-meter equipment m Liberia is 
a real problem, especially tor Libenans If 
there are any repealer ClUbfl or VHF en 
thusiasts that would like to help promote 
2-meter activity in a developing country by 
sending old Out serviceable crystal-con 
trolled hgs that are lying around please 
contact me 

Tom Vised EL£AV has done the tirsi 



OSCAR work from Liberia. On July 12. 
1979, he made the first Liberia-US contact 
using OSCAR 7, which is about the max- 
imum distance possible Torn lost interest 
after his initial success since most of the 
lime "there was no one lo hear but 
myiii'ii and since Tom lelt, there has 
been no one to fill the vacuum I have 
some interest in OSCAR, but time and 
equipment are the limiting factors 

For many years, the Wesl African Net 
has met on 7.060 at 0700Z on weekdays 
and 0800 on Sundays. This net is quite ac- 
tive and ts mostly EL with some regular 9L 
and TU and cccas.onat XT, 5U. TY 4 9G.6W, 
3X. and maritime mobiles 

Liberia has been independent for 135 
years and Libehans were probably the 
dr&t black Africans to be licensed as ama- 
teurs. Historically, the first Libenan ama- 
teur was John Lewis Cooper who worked 
for P&T and was rtcensed about 1938 It 
seems that some expatriates may have 
preceded him by a few years but the 
history Is not clear as to who was actually 
the first ham in Liberia. 

The next group ol Libenan amateurs 
was licensed in itie 40s and included 
Henry Grimes Ef_2M, Robert Taylor EL2H 
and Samuel Butler EL2L These people are 
presently alive but inactive In the 50s 
Came Sewefl Brewer EL2S, who presently 
works for the ITU in Geneva, The longest- 
licensed presently active amateur m 
Liberia is Sam Walking EL2P who was 
fust (incensed m 1956, Sam has been a 
key figure in the success ot amateur radio 
in Liberia as the Assistant Minister for 
Telec omrnun icatio ns 

Waccott Brjn Benjamin. Sr EL2BA is 
the Individual I consider Mr Ham Radio in 
Liberia, He has been a powerful force 
behind amateur radio, acting as president 
of the LRAA and looking after our In- 
terests on the domestic and international 
scenes. Although a busy businessman , he 
always has lime for amateur radio He is a 
member of the IARU Region i division ex- 
ecutive committee. He was an observer 
with the Libenan delegation to the WARC 
m Geneva and was a strong force behind 



the scenes which made the conference a 
success. Me is constantly driving around 
the country helping to administer tests 
and generously loans his person at equip- 
ment io those m need. He often tn. 
equipment from departing hams because 
he doesn't want to see a good rig leave the 
country an& somebody may need it m the 
future, He runs the QSL bureau and goes 
personally to LTC to assist others in get- 
ting their firs! Mcenses or even to renew 
their licenses His list of contributions Is 
unending He has been licensed since 
196B 

Other prominent Liberjans are Jacob 
Jake" Cisco EL2C, first licensed as EL4H 
in 1970, Jake Is Chief Pharmacist for the 
Ministry ot Health and is the man who 
helps get drugs for our hospital and many 
otnets Ashley ftennie EL2AR was licensed 
in 1970 as EL4N A and is Commute at ions 
Manager for the Firestone rubber planta- 
tion in Haibel Henry Hah EL7E is a 
chemistry teacher at Cuttin-gfon Universi- 
ty College in Suakoko. Henry was first 
licensed a* EL5N A in 1971 and is very ac- 
tive on 20 meters 

A promising new addition to the Uberian 
ham community is Kofculo Waiwatku. a 
young doctor from Zorzor who worked 
with me for a year after graduating from 
medical school. He was my personal re- 
cruit into ham radio. Firsi licensed as 
EL5NB In 1981 and now EL2CQ, Kokulo is 
presently specializing In pediatrics In 
Monrovia 

Steve Mmari EL2EM is a Tanzaman who 
recently Intished his studies in physics at 
ihe University of Liberia and is quile ac 
tive Steve is one of the lew Tanza- 
nians— if not the onfy one— to have a nam 
license. 

Expatriates like myself have a fairly 
high turnover and usually stay for only 2-4 
years Americans make up the largest 
number of expatriates. They most likely 
would be missionaries like myself or 
sponsored by the US government, such as 
Voice of America staff, embassy person 
neL and development people Gale 'Lee" 
Ruff EL2FE is one of the mosi prominent 
expatriates and Is known as "EL2 Fix 
Everything,.'* Lee has been in Liberia over 
10 year* and is the lop engineering man at 
the Firestone rubber plantation in Har 
about 50 miles down the coast from 
Monrovia. 

Operating from Liberia is en (oy able 
The country isn t on the lO-most war 
llsl. but we ate constantly informed that 



we are the first EL contact, and pre 
hunters go crazy with EL5 since there are 
only ttiree of us Pileups can oe generated 
:kly when there are strong signals dur 
<ng popular operating times especially 
with Europe and Japan. The best 
operators in a piteup are the Japanese, 
North Americans and northern Euro- 
peans, in that order The worst are the 
southern Europeans, eastern Europeans 
and South Americans, in that order 
operating under heavy pileup conditions 
with southern and eastern Europeans is 
impossible wimour operating split, and 
often I |ust Shut down. However, 
unbelievable plluups can be handled 
•-vthout a problem on simplex with Japa- 
nese stations 

When signals aren't strong and during 
off operating hours, often you can call CO 
without an answer or generate a short 
string of QSOs which trail out and stop 
(are you listening ORPers^i Fortunately 
we aren't so rare that you can't make a 
QSO with your buddies without being 
terrupted. We are, however, oiten asked 
for signal reports during short breaJ 
which is not too bothersome 

Stares ide propagation is most reliable 
on 20 meters between 2100 and OfiOO I 
usually keep a aked with my QSL manan. 
er, K3RB, at 2200 with universally good 
results. 15 meters can often be good dur 
iiMj those times but drags out a little latei 
in the morning, and quite reliable ski 
can be kept at 1 100 on Ihis band. The prob- 
lem with 15 and 20 meters is that they gel 
good when a working family man should 
be in bed That s wny you hear Africans 
protesting all the time that they want to go 
to bed. When 10 meters is open it is usual 
ly between 1 100 and 1900 On 40. SO. and 
160 metefs, niflhtlime is, of course the 
best chance for OX, and to the US it is 
usually early morning before sunrise 
<03OO-O6O0t Heavy QRN in the tropics 
quickly dulls your enthusiasm for the low 
dands 

There can be some mce long-path open- 
Ings on 20 meters, usually Into the Wesl 
Coast, between 1300 and 1800. I ran a 
beautiful patch on 1400 MHz by Ihis route 
recently to my brother-in-law m California 
The band is moi© consistently open inio 
the Pacific, and I once ran a patch into 
Guam at about Ifus same hme. 

Other i merest tng openings include the 
very consistent 20-rnetei path to the 
Pacific and long path VK at 0700-0900 






Waicott "Ben" Bent a mm EL2BA. Kokufo Waiwatku EL2CO, and Stew Mmari EL2EM dur- 
ing an antenna -raising parry for Kokuto (who erected a home-brew quad on a nome-brew 

guyed tower}. 

134 73 Magazine • September, 1983 




Larry Jormson EL5F is seen here ope fating Yaesu equipment in his bedroom, Larry is 
translating the Bibie into Kist. whtch is the same ethnic group that Henry EL7E comes 
from These two guys ere certainty the only trams to ever carry out a QSO in Ki&t. 



Oscar Ocampo EL9A is a Filipino who 
keeps a regular sked with his DU buddies 
on this long-path opening. Sometimes 
there is an unbelievable pipeline long- 
path into JA at this same time on 15 
meters. 15 is good to Africa and Asia in 
the afternoons between T600 and 2000. 
People don't realize how close Liberia is 
to Brazil, and there can be some tremen- 
dous signals from PY on any band at 
almost any time. EA8 puts in crushing 
signals. The bands seem to be open 
almost always to Europe, which is a piece 
of cake. ZL is over the South Pole and for 
some reason is difficult to work. 

We have ten call numbers. Each of the 
nine counties is designated a number 1 
through 9. (Keep In mind that Liberia is a 
small country about the size of Indiana 
and has only 2 million people.) Most hams 
are in Montserrado County, which is ELS 
and includes the capital. Monrovia. My 
county, Lofa. is EL5. it is the largest in the 
country and is nearly the size of Massa- 
chusetts. The LRAA offers a Worked All 
Liberia Award fWAEL) if you can confirm 
all 9 counties with contacts on at least 3 
bands. It is not that easy, as all the coun- 
ties are not presently acifve. 

ELO is maritime mobile since Liberia 
has a very large merchani marine. There 
are only a handf u I of EUBs and i he su I fixes 
all begin with A. Most EL0s are bootleg- 
gers; and they usually pick a call sign 
which doesn't begin with A, so they are 
easy to spot. 

My position as Chief Medical Officer at 
Curran Lutheran Hospital in Zorzor is very 
challenging. Our hospital was started In 
1924 and has 120 beds. It is hard to i mag 
me, but there wasn't even a road toZorzor 
until 1958, 

My training is as a specialist hi internal 
medicine, but my job includes everything 
that walks in the door including surgery, 
pediatrics,, obstetrics, public health, and 
even chemotherapy. Other things, not 
usually included in a doctor's job 
description, include creating a home- 
made solar water heater, maintaining 
15 old Heath^it/HF mission radios, repair 
Ing electrocardiographs and spectropho- 
tometers, designing and supervising con- 
struction of buildings, and almost any- 
thing else. 

Amateur radio Is a great hobby and has 
proven to be invaluable for the hospital as 
well. We have had emergency situations 
caused by breakdown of critical equip- 
ment such as an autoclave for sterilizing 
surgical instruments. The generous 
phone- patch assistance of US hams has 
gotten replacement parts to us in as little 
as seven days rather than the 2-3 months 
that conventional methods would take. 
Another occasion where ham radio saved 
the day involved a severe eye injury to a 
blacksmith caused by a splinter of iron 
wear your safety goggles). A phone pa I eh 
;o an opthalmolagisl in Pennsylvania sl- 
owed my colleague and I to perform eye 
iurgery which saved the man's eyesight. 

Our hospital has a long tradition of ham 
adio over the years. The maintenance 
;hief in 1972. Dave Urter EL5B, ran emer- 
gency communications with the Centers 
or Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta dur- 
ng that years Lassa fever epidemic 
vhich killed 4 people and left 2 completely 
teat. This won him a medal from the 
.Iberian government and a page in 73 
nagazine. Four other doctors who have 
worked at the hospital are hams. 

Hamming is a relaxing hobby for me, 

ind 1 enjoy construction projects, low-key 
)Xing, and rag-chewing. It is also amazing 
what help a guy can get if he only asks 
mother ham. If I have a technical prob- 
em, I can usually find the answer, any- 




QTM of Larry Johns ot) ELSE, which is located in Boy a /ess than half a mite from the Sierra 
Leone border, Boya is about a 5-nour drive from Zorzor when the roads are passable 



thing from aircraft antennas to castrating 
pigs for a local agricultural project. 

My HF rig Is an Icom 720 A which I 
recently acquired from a departing ham. I 
Uave found it to be as nice as it looks. It 
doubles as a general-coverage receiver 
and allows me to pick up football games 
and my favorite radio program, "All 
Things Considered," via the Armed 
Forces Radio and Television Service 
(AFRTS). It also serves as a frequency 
standard for my workbench. I have a Clip- 
perton L amplifier which really helps h but 
it Just blew a transformer and I'm waiting 
for the $145 replacement. I brought a 
Heights 64- foot, aluminum, foldover tower 
with me and use a Mosiey CL33 tri bander 
at the top of the tower. There is an 
8-element quagi on a 4-foot mast above 
thetnbander. I use a half sloper on 80 with 
a trap for 40 meters. I made a half sloper 
for 30 meters but was unable to get the 
swr down satisfactorily, so I am working 
on a rotatable shortened dipole. My 
vertically-polarized Z-meter rhombic for 
repeater work is 1 09 feel front to back and 
stands off the side of the tower. 

The hospital has two 75 KVA Caterpillar 
diesel generators which supply electricity 
to the hospital compound. Diesel fuel Is 
$3,00 a gallon, and spare parts are expen- 
sive and difficult toget. We presently have 
fairly reliable power for 21 hours a day, but 
I run my complete station except for the 
HF linear amplifier from a 120-Amp-hour 



battery with a 10-Amp battery charger. 
This gives me uninterrupted namming en 
joyment. 

I hope you have enjoyed this ham-radio 
tour of Liberia! On behalf of the vigorous 
amateur community in Liberia, I invite you 
to work us on the bands and learn 
something more about our country. 




MEXICO 

Mark K, Toutjian XE1MKT 
Apartado Postal 42-048 
06479— Mexico, D.F, 

Photos by Gabriel Stadller 

According to Aztec mythology, 
Teotihuacan is where the gods came 
together to create the sun and the moon. 
A giant pyre was made and the poor but 
brave god, Nanauatzin, threw himself 
fearlessly into the sacrificial fire, thus be- 
coming the sun. The richly-dressed Tec- 
ciztecatl, who had boasted of his bravery, 
hesitated before casting himself into the 
flames and thus became the pale moon. 
His light was now only a reflection of the 
sun's rays. From I his legend came the 




DXpedit toners (left to right} Jesus, Leobardo* Daniel, Freddy, Gabriel {photographer), 
Mark XE1MKT, Ruth XE1MKT, Eivia, Lizzy, Wendy, Joe. Renee r and Chns. 



names of the two largest pyramids of 
Teotihuacan, also known as "The City of 
the Gods." 

Teotihuacan is the most widely known 
of Mexico's major archeological zones- 
Located about 42 miles northeast of Mexi- 
co City, the area covers 91 square kilo- 
meters. There you will find majestic 
pyramids of all sorts, temples, and court- 
yards. Some archeologlsts estimate that 
Teotihuacan had some 125,000 people liv- 
ing there, making It one of the largest 
cities in \h® world of its time— in the third 
century BC. 

It was more than 2,300 years later thai 
my XYL (Ruth XE1RBT) and I obtained 
special permission from the National In- 
stitute of Anthropology and History in 
Mexico City to occupy the top of the 
Pyramid of the Sun (65 meters high) for a 
24-hour QSO. We asked for the date of 
February 12, 19B3— our sixth wedding 
anniversary! 

What a. way for a married couple of 
hams to spend their wedding anniversary! 
Within all those QSO plieups there would 
certainly be someone who would ask 
why — and we would be able to answer 
{and delightedly remind ourselves) that it 
was fust for the fun of it! 

The first obstacle that we had had to 
overcome was getting permission to un 
dertake this expedition to the archeo- 
logical zone. There is nothing like doing 
things properly right from the very be- 
ginning, so a detailed written petition 
was presented to Lie, Pablo Elhore Gar 
cia. Director of Legal Matters for the Na- 
tional Institute of Anthropology and 
History In Mexico City, and Emigdio Ar- 
royo Garcia, Administrator of the 
Teotihuacan Archeological Zone. The 
matter was considered and. Fortunately 
torus, approved! Then the real fun began! 

February 12 was a Saturday, so we de- 
cided the 24-hour OSO would begin that 
day at 6:00 am and end on Sunday, 
February 13, 1983, at the same hour. Pic- 
ture rights were obtained by the Institute, 
camping equipment was purchased at 
once, and Gabriel Stadtler fa good close 
friend of ours) got his camera equipment 
together and started making a study so as 
to capture our PXpedition on ftfm, step by 
step, for 73 magazine {and for our family 
album, filed under "wedding anniver- 
saries," with the themes "Just For The Fun 
Of It"). I made out my list of the radio 
equipment and antennas that I would be 
using. 

It just so happened that around prepa- 
ration time I got together a parasitic beam 
that Ralph Bilal WDQEJA made especially 
for me in order to work the 15-meter band 
I had never before owned a parasitic beam 
or any other antenna that works by induc- 
tance. Results: excellent! I was complete- 
ly satisfied with its performance, espe- 
cially because I could cover the enrire 
band and stay within a 1.5:1 swr. This 
three*element, 15-meter parasitic beam 
has a coil on each end of the elements. 
Each is a 15-meter antenna in itself. There 
is the driven element that is excited d Irect- 
ly through the transmission line (50^Ohm 
coax). The other two elements, each with 
its antennas, are parasitic and work by 
inductance from the driven element. The 
array is a combination of six 15-meter 
antennas, two on each element. Each an- 
tenna Is tuned separately by moving the 
stub on the end of the coil until the lowest 
swr is reached on a designated frequency. 
The other five antennas have to be discon- 
nected in order to tune up each one 
separately. 

When all six are tuned up, they are con- 
nected up again and you havestx 15-meter 
antennas working on just one beam! The 
boom is 6'2", excellent for Field Day use 
without getting Into the "big array," and is 
made out of 7/fi" aluminum tubing. The 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 135 




Thawing out early Sunday morning on top of the Pyramid of the Sun, with sunrise in 
background 



R&turning to ground fev&L 



elements are around 12" long with the 
radiating capacitor at the end 

Ralph manufactures three standard 
Isoiron antennas and makes antennas for 
other spectrum* of the 20-meier band lor 
individuals Mho request them, 

t n mfcing oi the co'd weather and ooss'- 
ble battery-power loss during our 24 -noor 
OSO i worked on getting together a bat- 
tery charger, using a sman gasoline 
engine voltage regulator, and alternator 
However time was pressing and I couldn't 
locate the gasoline power eo engine, so. 
Knowing of the tug ft winds on top or the 
pyramid thai we would later climb, I 
mounted fan t lades lo a wooden struc- 
ture along with the alternator and voltage 
regulator. However, our two 12-yoii car 
batteries were enough, and I did not sutler 
battery loss. We did not have to use the 
Charger system although we could have: 
When we first reached the peak of the 
Pyramid of the Sun. winds were high and 
bo were the revolutions ol the make-shift 
contraption that i called an emergency 
charge i 

The day 1 1 nelly arrived for our expedi- 
tion and we set off to TeoHhuacan WHh 
the help of local officials of the ar- 
cheological zone there, our initial camp- 
site was sought out. ending up right at the 
rear base of Ifie Pyramid of the Sun The 
pyramid stands 65 meters high, all hough 
originally, with a temple located up on 
top. it was said to be 10 meters higher It 
has a volume of one million cunic meters, 
and each of its sides is 225 meters long at 
the base Its mam facade is situated 
15*30' east of the astronomic north, 

There we set up out lent and the boys 
and I got to work on our antenna setup 
Ralph's parasitic beam was immediately 
put together, mounted, ana tuned up I 
used a twopieee, 9-foot teievisjon anten- 
na maat. On its point we mounted a Ringo 
Ranger two-meter vertical antenna {made 
In Mexico) Weil, there we had it for 15 and 
2 meters, so up with the half-wave dipoies. 
using Hy Gains 1:1 batons, For 40, 20. and 
10 meters We used a few focal tall trees to 
hang them between 

Our permit was for js to transmit from 
6:00 am until 9:00 pm within the ar- 
cheological zone. ! was told that over 
30,000 tourists visit the area in just one 
day! So I discreetly began my 24-hour 
050 ai tne beck side or tne Pyramid of the 
Sun until visiting hours were over Then at 
7:00 prn there was the first of two beautiful 
sound and light spectacles thai take 
place twice nightly (except Mondays and 
mid-October to mid- May). We nad lo wait 
until 9.00 pm, therefore, to make our climb 



to the lop and set up camp there, leaving 
pan of our expedition group at our base 
siaiion wiih two-meter equipment {Ken 
wood's TR-7850 and two hand ie talkies, 
one Kenwood TR-250G and an loom IC 
2 AT| for our own intercommunication 

Running ire front of the Pyramid ol the 
Sun and leading right to the Pyramid Of 
Ihe Moon is Ihe Otd Road or Highway of 
the Dead, il was named as such because 
many human skeletons have been dis- 
covered along it. Thai was our entrance 
way to the stairs of the Pyramid ol the Sun 
at 9 00 pm. sharp High winds and cold air 
greeted us as the six of us slowly made 
our climb to the peak, loaded with camp- 



ing gear radio gear, antennas, trans- 
mission tines {feedJinesf, 12 volt batteries, 
my "emergency wind-powered charger 
contraption, food, serapes, and heavy 
clothing. A local official from the ar- 
cheo logical zone was assigned to stay 
with us alt night long, Another was kind 
enough to illuminate ihe entire 65-metE-r 
high stairway with an airplane headlight 
that he had mounted lo his pickup Good 
old "Jose Luis "" was there when we 
needed him the most! The Teouhuatan 
tribe had built these pyramids with some 
dangerously sleep stairs. Our aim was not 
to look back until we had made it to 
the top' 
After a few rest stops we made it to the 




^•^ 



■ 



- £> 



Mark K Toutpan XE7MKT works 2 meters, using Kenwood's TR-2500 handie-tattoie; the 
Pyramid of the Moon is m the background 



peak, quickly gol organized, and began 
setting up ihe tent and the antenna 
system. Have you ever fried erecting a 
tent and a 9-toot masl with antennas up 
on top of a 65- meter- high pyramid with 
high winds in (feezing weather? Tent rope 
was stretched out to different angles and 
wrapped carefully around protruding 
blocks of the pyramid (you jus! don't start 
pounding tent stakes into a 2.000-year-old 
archeotogicat m on u menu We had to be 
extremely caretuf not to deface the srte in 
any way. 

:-t was just halt the tun Once the tent 
was set up. we took turns holding up the 
9-foot mast as two others tied down the 
ends of the dipoies using ihem as guying 
w i res as wel I The o I hers thawed out some 
within the tent until it was their turn 1 Oh 
what fun* *We saved ourselves plenty of 
work by using the dipoies on the masl as 
guying wires. We used the Uclamp pro- 
vided by Hy-Gain with rhp 1:1 balun, 
fastening the balun to the mast one way 
and the other balun crossing over for a 
lour-potnl counterbalance When all was 
tied down.) 

"OK, everybody inside nowl" was 
shouted. There was a Quick scramble for a 
good spot in the tent as I announced over 
2 meters to Ihe group below and other 
locai hams that the continuation of the 
24-hour OSO would begirt. 

After wrestling for so long with Ltiose 
high winds and cold weal he* . to our sur- 
prise everything calmed down suddenly 
and we had a quite unuSuat silence until 
ea; iy morning, with the exception of those 
wonderful sounds carried over fo us 
through radio wave activity 1 

It was one plleup after another 1 Real 
fine propagation* I had some nice conver- 
sations on 20 maters with stations such 
as VK3AON (Fred in Melbourne 
Australia}, ZL2AJR (Gordon In Waikanae 
New Zealand), and TI2MAO (Miguel in San 
Jose. Costa Rica), and on 10 meters, with 
KP4AAN (Pedro In San Juan. Puerto Rico), 
HK1ESZ (Edward in Cartagena, 
Colombia). WA4JUP (John on Merrit 
Island, Florida), and VE3lPP(Bob in Toron- 
to. Canada). We QSOed with dozens of 
states In the US on 40, 20. 15, and 10 
meters and had pileups from islands near 
Japan and olf South Amenca- 

Upon scanning the bands, I came 
acrossoneof those Mideast broadcasting 
stations playing some eerie chanted 
muse Up on top of the Pyramid of the Sun 
about 3:00 am, it produced a most unique 
setting, I didn't want to be selfish so J 
transmitted if on two meters for the group 



136 73 Magazine * September, 1983 



down beiow us and just about scared 
them to deal n 1 

Early Sunday daylight on February 13, 
1983. came around quick. It was beautiful 
lo see the sunrise over the nortron of 
Teoimuacan, tne City of the Gods, as I 
concluded my 24-nour QSO poco a 
poco.' »d get lo joking and even be a little 
silly on the air with my fellow hams 
around the world. "Hey! Did you hear the 
latest Mexican weather report? Chite to* 
day and hoi tamaie 1 ' 

We got to thinking about what response 
or reaction we would have had If ancient 
Teoirhuacan tribes were still Jiving there 
and saw us transmitting from their temple 
area on the high peak of their Pyramid of 
the Sun (Ail we were lacking was a time 
machine manufactured by Kenwood or 
some olher serious-minded manufac- 
turer^ One thing for sure, we would have 
had no complaints of TVI! We were com- 
forted by I he thought that the Taoii- 
huacans were not a violent, but a peaceful 
tribe compared wtlh others such as the 
A/iecs. known for their sometimes 
thousands of human sacrifices each year' 
Tm not Speedy GonzaJes on the air. I 
enjoy being conversational with others. 
For me, that adds the fun to ham radio. I 
meet and get to know differ em ones who 
become real friends, and I have enjoyed 
long-lasting friendships over the air from 
ail over the world, That's the name of the 
game for me. I do It just for the fun of II 

We finally left our fine abode on the 
Teotihuacan Peak, and ril never forget 
that hot cup of coffee that awaited me 
down below oi that last celebration, ended 
by saying adios to our amigos at the 
famous City of the Gods. 

Future DXpedihons may await us here 
m Mexico, since the country itsett is full of 
original sties such as the famous volcano, 
Popocatepetl, or Silent Valley. Durango 
(where astronomical expeditions are 
heldi Mexico is a country with a wide 
variety of beautiful and unusual sellings 
for field days or technical opera lions for 
amateurs Come on down whenever you 
wishl Organize a DXpedition as we do— 
jusi for (he fun of itf 




THE NETHERLANDS 

Nenk Meetman 
Zantivoottetweg 33 
?f HGfl Aer&entjoot 
The Weifie//a/itfs 

Sponsored by many tocai hams, a brand 
new repeater for two meters is now on the 
air in the Netherlands. In a small country 
like ours, a new repeater is quite an evenl, 

The repeater, homemade by Arl Sol 
PAQOHN, operates on 145,775. The 
machine Is now located on top of an old 
water tower near Heemstede, and If 
covers ihe midwest area of Holland, its 
callsrgn is PI3HLM Now almost the whole 
country is covered by VHF repeaters, with 
a total of 19* 

The club station PUHLM of the NCV ia 
Dutch radio society) wttf be on the air mis 
year on ihe 29th and 30th of October, on 
alt bands, Maybe a good tip for special 
prefi* Hunters 

In our country of wind and water, it Is 
easier to get a ticket for amateur radio 
lhan one for operating one of those old 
windmills we have. We have four license 
categories: A, B. C, and D, The easiest way 
of getting involved Is to pass an exam for 
a D license. II requires only a basic technh 
sal knowledge and no code. With a P h 



cense, you are allowed to operate a 
15-Watt FM ng from 144 9875 to 145 800 
MHz. 

Tne next step you can make is to get a C 
license; it takes a little more technical 
knowledge but stilt no code. When you 
pass this exam, you are able to operate on 
all bands above 144 MHz in all modes and 
with a power output of 30 Walls. Due to 
the introduction of the license, the two- 
meter band is very popular in Holland, 

Most of the Dutch hams use Japanese 
rigs, bul there are also many guys who 
work with homemade equtpment or con- 
verted ex-army and surplus machines. 

In Holland, there are three major 
amateur radio societies: VERON, which Is 
the Dutch section ol the kARU PO Box 
1166, 6801 BD, Arnbem. The Netherlands; 
VRZA. at PO Box 61420. 2506 AK, The 
Hague, The Netherlands; and NCV. PO 
Bo* 2999. 2002 R2. Haarlem, The 
Neiherlands. 

The VERON a (so has a special ctub for 
female hams called the Dutch VL Club it 
is there to encourage women to get in- 
volved in the hobby, keep contacts with 
other YLs around the globe, and join in to 
organize special contests. Address the 
DYLC at 1/ Lelylaan 69. 2103 HN. 
Heemstede. Holland, 

So, if you have any questions, or some- 
thing you would like to know about ama- 
teur radio In Holland, you can write to 
them. (Don'i forget an IRC for return 
postage.) 




NORWAY 

BfomHugo Ark LASYJ 
Postboks 33, Mangforud 
Enebakkveien 206 
Oslo 6. Norway 

REVISED RULES FOR vVALA 

Norgessertifkkatet r — Worked AH 
LA— is available to licensed radio ama 
leurs and SWLs all over the world. Con- 
tacts with LA and LB stations made after 
January 1, 1950. are valid for the award. 
The required number of contacts must be 
worked from the same QTH, within a ra- 
dius of 100 km. 

Requirements for HF: Applicants in 
Denmark, Finland, Faeroe Islands, Ice- 
land. Sweden, and Norway must produce 
evidence of two contacts on separate 
bands with each of Ihe 19 counties (fylkeri 
of Norway. Applicants in the rest of the 
world must produce evidence of one con 
laci wdh each of (he 19 counties on any 
band. 

Requirements for VHFOJHFrSHF: Ap- 
plicants In Denmark, Finland, Sweden, 
and Norway must produce evidence of 
contacts with at least 16 of the 19 coun- 
ties. Other applicants must produce 
evidence of contacts with at least 12 of 
the 19 counties In Norway. Contacts via 
repeater Of satellite are not valid- 
Contacts may be made on ail legal 
modes, Crossband coniacts are not al- 
lowed. WALA may be endorsed as appro 
pnate. Contacts wim arctic stations (JW 
or JX) count lor the award. Such contacts 
may substitute county W, X, or Y. 

The counties of Norway are A— Oslo. 
B— GsffoJd, C— AkershuS. D— Hedmark 
E— Opptand. F— Buskerud, 2— Vesttold, 
H— Telemark, i — Aust-Agder K— Vest- 
Agder. L — Rogaiand, R — Hordaland. S — 
Sogn og Fjordane, T— M*re og Romsdai 
U— Stir Tnfrndeiag. V — Nord-Trgndelag, 
VU— Nordland. X— Troms, V— Finnmark. 
JW— Svaibard/Bear (stand, and JX— Jan 
Mayen, 



The application shall include a list of 
ihe stations worked and must be accom- 
panied by QSL cards or the following in- 
formation extr acted from the OSL cards 
and verified by an officer of Ihe 
applicant's national radio amateur socie- 
ty: date and trme UTC. caHsign, signal 
reports, and QTH ol the station worked 
Other relevant information may be 
necessary if endorsements are required. 

The fee is N.kr. 20 or 10 iRCs ano^ apn 
plications may be sent to the Norwegian 
Radio Relay League. PO Sox 21 Refstad, 
Oslo 5. Norway, or to the NRRL Award 
Manager, ErJk Jahnsen LA7AJ h Kaupan- 
gruta 21, N-3250 Larvik, Norway. Applica- 
tions will be accepted until December 31. 
19&3. 

DIPLOMA HUNTERS 

Last month was about DX and recipro- 
cal licensing, but what about Norway 
itself for those not too interested in DXmg 
directly? Is there anything to gam far the 
diploma hunter? ¥es r indeed there is One 
ts WALA, described above Absolutely the 
same as Worked All States, WAS. from 
Norway {maybe a little harder, since (here 
are only 4000 amateurs in Norwayf- This 
one could be something for the diploma 
hunter looking for a real "goodie." Then 
when you have accomplished ihe difficult 
job of working them all. try lor an 80-meter 
endorsement— or what about 5 bands? 
You surely will have some great times 
ahead of you. 

Where do I find LA stations, you may 
ask. Well. 20 rneiers is a good place to 
start. Around T4 325- 300 MHi. you will 
hear the Norwegian MM net Many LAs 
check m there. SAC. the Scandinavian Ac 
tivity Contest, is one. By the way, the 
LAMM net is usually active in the late 
evenings UTC. or between 2000 to 2400. 40 
meters earfy morning UTC is another good 
1 >me. and of course i am sure many of the 
LA boys will be happy to give a call on 2 
meters lo give you a hand with a couple 
more counties. Have a good time, and 
good luck. 




PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

S*eg* FreymaW P29NSF 

PO Box 765 

Rabau? Papau New Guinea 

In Papua New Guinea, amateur radio 
licensing is handled by the Rad+o Branch 
of the Post and Telecommunication Cor- 
poration. The postal address is PO Box 
3783 T Port Moresby. National Capital 
District, PNG, The matter of reciprocal 
licenses is at present being sorted out. 
PNG has reciprocal agreements with 
member countries of the Commonwealth 
as well as Switzerland and the United 
States of America, but Japan, France, and 
the FederaS Republic of Germany have not 
replied to approaches from PNG, Singa- 
pore has advised thai Individual applica- 
tions w*M be considered. 

Visiting amateurs from these countries 
will receive a permit to operate in PNG 
upon presentation of a photocopy of entry 
visa, photocopy of the relevant page in the 
passport giving details for identification 
purposes, and a photocopy of the amateur 
operator s certificate and current license 
a resume giving details of residence and 
employment over the past 10 years is also 
required of the applicant. It a visiting 
amateur presents himself at the Radio 
Branch with all this information,, hewiil be 
able to walk away with a permit to 
operate. 



Amateurs who are coming lo Papua 
New Guinea to take up employment are re- 
quired to submit the same information as 
visitors. Tney will then be given permis- 
sion to operate and a he ens e writ be 
issued after about one month 

As far as maritime mobile operation is 
concerned, the situation is that when a 
yacht enters PNG waters it is allowed to 
operate MM P29, following written 
application. 

White PNG honors licenses obtained In 
ihe USA. the reverse does not apply, It ap- 
pears that art agreement at an in- 
tergovernmental level is needed. 

The minimum age for an amateur to be 
granted a license in P29 Ls fourteen. 

News has been received from Keith 
P29QA at Arawa. Bougainville Island, that 
6m activity was very good during April, 
when he contacted a number of Japanese 
stations Bob P29NBF can at times be 
heard operating aeronautical mobile at 
35,000 feet from his company's new 
1 1 seat jet 

Probably a great deal has already been 
written aboui the ill-fated Spraily island 
DXpedition. Howe vet, as I became in- 
volved also. I feel that I should set down 
my experiences 

On 16 April from approximately 1000 
GMT, i began to operate on 15m beaming 
towards Europe, as I frequently do. 
Signals were excellent and Ihe response 
very good. At that time, I was blissfully 
unaware of the Spratly Island DXpedition 
or any of the events surrounding it 

At 1028 GMT. t was called by a station 
giving a UK0 eallsign who then informed 
me that a Russian ship had rescued four 
persons from a boat and that these people 
had been placed in a hospital in Siberia 
and were receiving medical 1 real men t. He 
added that he could not give either ihe 
names ol the people or the name of Ihe 
yacht for security reasons He requested 
that I pass this information on to the MM 
Net on 20m I repeat once more that J then 
had no idea of the happenings in the 
South China Sea. 

As my license does not permit me to 
operate on 20m, I was going to ask either 
Shirley P29SM or Phil P29PM, who were 
slaying with us at the time, to pass on the 
Information. However, before I could do 
thJs I was called by Phil VS6CT, who told 
me to disregard the message as the OM 
who had passed it on was a well-known 
pirate who was in the habit of spreading 
bogus messages. I teti it at that and con- 
tinued to work European DX. but the UKU 
station kept on interrupting and repeatmg 
the already mentioned information Final- 
ly, he became very abusive towards 
VS6CT. ana: as I was not willing to put up 
with this sort of QRM any further, I went 
OR T, not a little bemused 

The following morning, our Sunday 
(2352 GMT Saturday), I was talking to 
some of my Australian friends when I was 
again called by Phil VS6CT Phil then filled 
me in on all the events regarding the 
Spratly Island DXpedition and Ihe yacht 
Sidftttrtu up to that date, as they were 
known to him, VS6CT and N0ZO/DU2 and 
a number of other stations had maintained 
contact with the yacht up to Its disap- 
pearance and since then had kepi a round- 
the-clock watch on ihe amateur bancs, hop- 
ing lo pick up signals from the S/dha/fa. 

The last transmission received had 
been at 0652 GMT of April 10 on 14.320 
MHz. and It was "fire on board " Phil, who 
was on vacation and due to start an over- 
seas trip, spent most of his days moni- 
toring the bands for a sign a J from the 
yacni. He and other amateurs were 
plagued by bogus distress messages, and 
a great deal of effort and money had been 
expended in following up the information 
while the fate of the yacht and survivors 
remained unknown. Phil also mentioned 









73 Magazine • September, 1983 137 



that the OM who had used the UKt call- 
sign the previous event nig hid as so been 
known to use s YB caiistgn He is easily 
identified because of hi& gravelly voice. 

Following this QSO I called m on the 
VK4 wiA taik-oack, passing on details of 
ihe events and the calls! gns used by the 
okfate. 

About a week or so later t heard that 
four survivors had been picked up by the 
Panamanian freighter linden which was 
on Its way from Singapore lo Hong Kong. 
The Linden picked up the survivors from 
the Stdharta who had taken to their life 
raft after being fired at on April 10. One of 
their group was Killed instantly and one 
was wounded ana died some days later In 
(he rati He was buried at sea. They had 
been adrift for nine days when the Linden 
sighted them near Am boy n a Cay ot the 
Sprat ly Group of islands 

Therefore, the triform at ion given to me 
on April* 16 by the pirate was a hoax and in 
very bad taste This and the bogus CW dis- 
tress signals caused a lot of people a lot 
of work and expense, all to no avail. One 
wonders wnat could motivate anyone to 
stoop so low as to deliberately spread 
false information 

See you ne *t month* 




POLAND 

deny Szymciak 
78-200 Btaiogard 
Bucika 2/3. Pofand 

VERIFICATION 

On the memorable day ol December 13. 
t96l r use of amateur rad-o equipment m 
Poland was forbidden.. Possessors of 
transmitters and sendmg-receivmg 
devices were obligated to place their 
equipment on deposit in 48 hours, and 
their licenses became void Polish hams 
ceased to modulate (he ether with their 
Signals. 

After martial law went Into force, other 
activities of the organization uniting 
Polish radio amateurs— Polish Radio 
Amateurs Association (PRAA)— did noi 
cease The Technical Commission of 
PR A A began to develop plans for modern- 
izing the equipment used by Polish hams. 

A harbinger ol a change for this long 
lasting hush in the el her came f tying on 
October 23. 1982, On that day, ihe meeting 
of ihe Presidium ot PRAA look place 
Warsaw The first action undertaken 
brought up to date all suspended 
licenses As a first step, the main Verifica- 
tion Board at PRAA was called Into being. 
After the meeting ot the Presidium of 
PflAA with presidents of district depart 
ments of PRAA. heid in Warsaw on No- 
vember a, 1982 1 District Verification 
Boards at PRAA were In the making. It was 
decided to enter upon {he subject 
outright. But one swallow doesn't 
make a summer. 

Every member of PRAA— there are no 
radio amateurs in Poland who do not 
belong to PRAA— who would like to have 
his license brought up to date was to com- 
plete a letter of application tilling out 
printed forms m duplicate, edited by 
PRAA An applicant was to txmg to light 
details of his former activity in PRAA. 
command ol foreign languages, member- 
ship in organizations, and so on. 

Letters of application would be assessed 
by the local club of an applicant. Com- 
pleted forms would be handed over to the 
District Verification Boards that once 
more would pass their opinions. District 



Ver ideation Boards then would turn them 
ovef to a District Inspectorate of State 
Radio Surveillance 

The presence ot appiteani s at meetings 
of District Verification Boards will not be 
necessary in some cases the board may 
demand tog books of radio stations or 
received OSL cards as evidence of pre- 
vious activity. License updating will tast 
to the end of 1963. Those who don't sub- 
mit before the day of expiration and want 
to regain licenses must apply in com- 
pliance With obligatory rules, as if they 
were applying for the first time 

The first sifting ol rhe main Vesication 
Board look place m Warsaw on November 
23, 1982. It was there announced I hat 
District Inspectorates of Stale Radio 
Surveillance will receive instructions 
relative to investigations ot applications 
It was decided to firs! investigate applica- 
tions ol the members of the Head Radio 
Board— a new body m PRAA that win take 
care ol comptymg with the rules binding 
radio amateurs. Their District Verification 
Boards have begun their work m most 
districts of Poland. 

All Polish radio amateurs are waiting 
for the moment when the Polish sky will 
sound with their cailsrgns and they Witt be 
able to establish contacts with their old 
friends, 




THAILAND 

Tony Watmam HStAMH 

eh Bangkok Post Newspaper 

963 Rama tY Road 

Bangkok 1Q50G 

Thailand 

The latest Issue of the international 
Cailoook tesfffies to the popularity of 
amateur radio in Thailand, with some 510 
radio amateurs listed and the number 
growing all the time, Bui what the 
Callback lisiing does not demonstrate Is 
ihe vast upsurge in interest In radio as a 
hobby, largely due to a pilot project begun 
two years ago by Thailand's Post and 
Telegraph Department. 

It was then that the PTO began what it 
regards as a forerunner for lull amateur 
radio licenses on a broad basis by 
granting permission for Thais who have 
passed a written test to own VHP trans 
ceivers and operate on spot frequencies 
I h the two-meter band. HS cailsrgns were 
not granted, however; and the operators 
received a number, preceded by the let- 
ters VPi. standing for volunteer radio 
operator. 

Many of these vfl operators— who now 
number over 600, along wi|h a waiting list 
of others who have pas&d the test— also 
hold the Ms caitsigns found in the 
Caltbook, and some are well-known 
operators Internationally. 

Thus there are a large number of Thai 
radio-hobby enthusiasts who can be met. 
in Thailand, only on the calling Irequency 
of 1 44 500 MHz— but f Of 1 he 1 ime being by 
oiher Thais only, as no foreigner has yet to 
be granted this status. 

Many ask where Thailand is on the HF 
map these days. Recently. Thailand used 
to be the only country active in Zone 26 T 
and not a few anxious DXers are seeking a 
contact with Thailand while Burma, Laos, 
Cambodia, and Vietnam stay ORT for their 
Own differing reasons. 

The Thai PTD is currently reviewing the 
status ot amateyr radio, and previously- 
active amateurs still possess licensed HF 
equipment— on the condition that they do 



not operate unless granted special per 
mission for the lime being. For those 
eager tor an HS contact, the best sugges- 
tion was to listen out during the JAPl 
organized AH As a DX contest <n June or 
during the SEA NET (Southeast Asia Net I 
contest which was to be In August. The 
station was to be Signing HSfi HS, and prob- 
ably chalked up close to 3,000 contacts if 
past performance is any ind teat ion 

Last Novembers SEA NET Convention 
was hosted by the Radio Amateur Society 
of Thailand |R AST) In Bangkok, and some 
10X3 hams Irom overseas attended to hear 
several eminent speakers, including 
ARRL Vice President Carl Smith and 73s 
very own Wayne Green. Events Included a 
trip out to Ihe VOA one-megawati me 
diunvwave transmitting facility full north 
ot Bangkok, as well as the usual eyeball 
ing and display of equipment 

Next year's event will be held in 
Singapore from November IB lo Novem- 
ber 20, and those seeking further info can 
write to the Singapore Amateur Radio 
Transmitting Society or. propagation will- 
ing, tune in to 14.320 MHz daily, the 
Southeast Asia Net frequency The net 
begins at 1200 UTC with net control usual- 
ly in BK2, VS5 VS6 or 9V1 It is not a OX 
net, but any station desiring to contact a 
check-In may call "contact" and the NCS 
will assign I hem both a clear frequency as 
standard net procedure. 




WEST GERMANY 

Ratf Beyer DJ3NW 
Opt&rk&mp 74 
3300 Braun$chwetg 
iVesf Germany 

WARC BEAM ANTENNAS 

The Federal Republic of Germany was 
one of the first countries where radio 
amateurs were allowed to operate on the 
new 1(K 18-, and 26-MH? bands. Foresee- 
ing this development, antenna designers 
in this country were a| their drawing 
boards right alter WARC T§. First designs 
tor new beam antennas were presented in 
1960 After some refinements, production 
began in t982. It is interesting to see what 




Frg, T, 




is available today and how to plan ahead 
regarding antennas in those places whom 
the new bands are yet to be opened. 

One manufacturer, the Kurt Ffitzel 
Company (Sonnenwendstr 41. 6702 Bad 
Duerkheim). offers a whole range of trap- 
beam antennas. Let's look at some of Ihe 
design principles and their implementa- 
tion They decided: mit rally that the size of 
the largest beam should be 11 x 7.5 
meters. Thts corresponds to the stee of a 
3-etement monobander for 20 meters, 
which constitutes an upper limit for the 
average ham regarding installation, ma- 
neuverability, and appearance ol the 
antenna. However, in the course of I he op- 
timization process, they ended up with a 
boom length ot up to 10 meters. Such a 
length was needed for their largest anten 
na, a 7-elementi6-band beam. They also 
decided to interlace two3-element beams 
for 10716/25 MHi and 1*2 1 2B MHz, each 
wtth its own coax leedhne in order to 
achieve 6-band performance Convention- 
al 3-eiement trap- beams with a boom 
length of approximately 5 meters thuscan 
be upgraded by interlacing it with a new 
•0. i a 25- MHz beam Calculations showed 
that a 6-band trapoeam with only a single 
feed line would have required 10 traps for 
the radiator, which could not be accom 
modated mechanically. 

Four types of beam antennas are ll* 
lustrated here as examples to demon 
strate essential features of their respec 
Live class. Fig. 1 is the conventional 
3 *elementr3'band design adapted for the 
new bands on 10O&25 MHz. With a boom 
length of ? 5 meters and a length ot the 
longest element ot 10.3 meters, the UFB 
33 beam covers an area of 77 square 
meters — twice as large as the conven- 
tional beam Three elements are active on 
each band and a gain of 7-ft€ dB com- 
pared to a di pole i & claimed The price of 
872 DM (USS350J is about 25' b higher than 
for rhe conventional 3he4ement'3-oand 
beam. 

For only 93 DM tUS$38| more, a 
4-elementJ6band beam for WftAnBi 
21/25/28 MHz is offered with the game 
lengih of the longest element and the 
boom length reduced to 5 meters (Fig, 2), 
The pecuniarily of the FB DX 460 beam IS 
that it has 3 active elements on The con 
ventlona! bands hut only one active ele- 
ment on the new bands Hence, a gain of 
Qf?/DY&0f? dB compared to a dipole is 
claimed, However, this antenna gives 




Fig. S. 




fig. 3, 



Fig. 4. 



138 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



6-band performance, Is not much larger, 
and with a price of 965 DM (US$386) is "on- 
ly" 40% more expensive than a conven- 
tional 3-e lenient '3- band beam. 

It is surprising to note that for almost 
the same amount of money, a 4-eiemem76- 
band beam (FB-DX 406), with longest ele- 
mem/boom dimensions identical to tne 
F&-DX 460, is available. However, this an- 
tenna has 2 active elements on each band 
and offers a gain of &S l 4. 5^4. 5*4.4 dB on 
the 6 bands when compared with a dipole 
iFig 3) 

A typical representative of the upper 
class — 6-band performance comparable 
1o the conventional 3-element/3-band 
beam— is iti* FBOX 66 (Fig. 4). With a 
length of the longest element of 10,3 
meters, a boom length of 8 75 meters. 5 
active elements on 18/25 MHz, and 3 ac- 
t tve elements on all other band s, it offers a 
gam ot 8/5/9/7/9/8 dB on 10714/1 0/2 1/25/Z8 
MHz compared with a dipole, Bui with a 
price lag of 1590 DM {USS636K It is more 
than twice as expensive as the conven- 
tional 3-e!©ment/3-band beam and costs 
as much as two separate beams For 
14/21/28 MHz and 10/13/25 MHz, But 
remember, Interlacing of the existing 
3-element/3'band beam for 14/21/28 MHz 
with a new beam (or 10'18'25 MHz, e.g.. 
the UFB 33. may be possible In order to 
achieve the same performance at half the 
pnce. 

Other characteristics of the UFB 33/FB- 
DX 450/FB-OX 408/FB-DX 66 antennas are; 
turning radius, 6,5/5 2/5,7/6-5 meters: 
weight. 23/22/23/38 kilograms; and wind; 
load at 135 hm/h, 6 70/ Bt 0/840/ 1200 
Newtons 

Trap less beams with uc-to-7-band per- 
formance (^eluding 40m) are offered by 
another German manufacturer (W, A. 
Sommer. Kandelsir. 35. 7809 Denzlingen). 
But the few examples discussed here il- 
lustrate quite well some basic alter- 
natives which are available today for the 
average ham And now, what can be ex- 
pected In the future from the US r Japan, 
and other parts of the world? 




SWEDEN 

Rune Wanda $M§CQP 
Frejavagen to 

S155Q0Nykvarfi 

Sweden 

SSA ANNUAL MEETING 

Sundsvaiis Radioamatorer, Club 
SK3BG. hosled this year s annual meetmg 
Of the national league. S van pes San- 
dareamaiofer {SSA}. on the fast weekend 
m April. 

This was an opportunity for the mem- 
bers to get together, meet their represen- 
tatives in the league, and express their 
opinions at I he meeting, Also, of course, 
the major dealers in ham equipment were 
exhibiting and selling their goodies, and 
the Saturday night dinner dance Is a nice 
way of getting to know each other better 

Sundsvall Radloclub had arranged 
everything under one rocf. It was a plea- 
sure to enter (he hotel room and to find 
beautiful flowers, chocolate, and refresh- 
ments as a gesture of welcome from the 
club. Sunday is reserved for the meeting 
that usually ends by early afternoon, after 
which many must drive several hours to 
get home. 

Saturday, however, is a busy day for 
everybody. This ts the opportunity to get 
an eyeball OSO with an old-time friend 



Area 


State 


Capital 


Deg/MIn 
(North) 


Deg/MIn 
{Wast) 


1 


Zulia 


Ma race i bo 


10 37 


71 40 




Falcon 


Coro 


11 23 


69 45 




TrujlUo 


Tfujlllo 


9 25 


70 20 


2 


Tachira 


San Cristobal 


7 30 


72 15 




Barinas 


Bannas 


9 37 


70 12 




Merida 


Men da 


S 30 


71 2 


3 


Lara 


Barquisimeto 


9 55 


69 15 




Yajaouy 


San Felipe 


10 10 


68 50 




Portuguesa 


Guanare 


9 03 


69 45 


4 


Carabobo 


Valencia 


10 37 


68 00 




Aragua 


Mara cay 


10 15 


57 35 




Cojedes 


San Carlos 


9 40 


68 36 


5 


Federal District 


Caracas 


10 25 


66 50 




Miranda 


Los Teques 


10 21 


67 03 




Guar+co 


San Juan de los Morros 


10 05 


67 23 


6 


Bolivar 


Ciudad Bolivar 


e oo 


63 30 




Anzoategui 


Barcelona 


10 \2 


64 45 


7 


Sucre 


Cum ana 


10 28 


64 10 




Nueva Esparla 


La Asuncion 


11 00 


64 00 


e 


Monagas 


Maturin 


9 42 


63 18 




Fed, Terr. Delta Amacuro 


Tucupita 


a os 


62 05 


9 


A pure 


San Fernando 


7 50 


67 30 




Fed. Terr. Arnazonas 


Puerto Ayacucho 


5 40 


67 35 





Aves Island 




15 41 


63 38 



with whom you have talked over the radio 
for years but never met personally, 

Sundsvall should be weft-known to 
every active DXer. It is the home town of 
Erik SMOAGO, a member of the DX Hail of 
Fame. Sundsvall DX Group handles his 
QSLing and they also do their own DX- 
pedit'oning, of which the most recent is 
me J5AG operation from Guinea-Bissau 
in Africa Leif SM3RL. one of the members 
of the expedition, gave a most interesting 
talk on their experiences and showed us 
beautiful Slides from 1 he trip. Unfortunate- 
ly, Erik S M0 AGO could not attend be- 
cause he was on his way to US and the 
Dayton Hamventiotv 

The hosts had put together an amazing- 
ly well-fllfed program The VKF/UHF 
forum was about the Phase III satellite 
program, Gudmund SM29YA talked about 
the Swedish Ionosphere research. Talks 
were also held about antennas and 
baluns, as well as fox-hunting and AM- 
SAT Uir SM6CVE exhibited his valuable 
radio stamp collection. 

No major controversial matters are 
under discussion amongst Swedish hams 
for the lime being, but two motions were 
aboul the planned change within IABU 
Region 1 for channel separation on the 
2-meter FM band from 25 kHz to 12.5 kHz. 
With only nine repeater channels, of 
which two have been taken by the satel- 
lites operating on 145.800 MHz and above 
this is an issue of concern amongst the 
fast-growing 2 meter FM population an 
over Europe 

SSA has a membership of about 7,000. 
Usually, this annual event draws about 
400 members, but many more are taking 
pan in the affairs through proxy. Election 
of the members of the Board is done by 
mail SSA president is Bo Lindberg 
SM0HDP and the secretary is Stig 
Johansson SMBCWC Every one of the 
eight call areas has one representative 
elected by the members in that area. 

WSRA AWARD 

How about getting an award from 
another of the capitals of the world? 
Stockholm Radloamateurs (SHA), SK&AR, 
Issues the Worked Stockholm Radio 
Amateurs Award. The rules are; 
t. Any licensed radio amateur can apply 
for the WSRA award. 

2. Two-way contacts with SRA members 
required as follows; Swedish hams— 10 
different SRA members; all others— 6 dif- 
ferent SRA members. 

3. The contacts shall be on phone, CW, 
mixed 



TaiJ/e 1. 

4 All amateur bands can be used 

5 Crossband contacts do not count 

6. All contacts have to be made from the 
same call area with the same callsign. 

7 Contacts made afler January t, 1960, 
are valid, 

8 Send your listing of QSL cards received 
I but do not send the cards) to WSRA 
Award Manager, Oils Engdahi SMQIEA, 
Morbydalen 1 8 Jr., S-102 32 DanrJeryd, 
Sweden. 

9. Please have the QSL listing verified by 
two licensed hams and enclose either 5w 
crowns 15.-. USSiOO, or IHCs with Ihe 
application. 

SCANDINAVIAN ACTIVITY CONTEST 

The SAC is sponsored by the four Scan- 
dinavian leagues with responsibility ro- 
tating so that each club has the job with 
the contest logs every founh year. The 
contest takes place the two last week- 
ends in September; in 1983, CW on Sep- 
tember 17-18 and phone, September 
24-25 

This is one of the contests that follow 
the IARU recommendation for national 
contests not to cover all of the bands 
Thai is the reason why you in the SAC 
should leave the lower and higher por- 
tions of each band free from contest 
operation so non-con (esters can chew the 
rag somewhere. The details 'or the con- 
test are usually published in contest col- 
umns. See you in the Scandinavian Activi- 
ty Contest m September. 




VENEZUELA 

Luts £. Si/mrez OA4KO/YV5 
Apartado 66994 
Caracas 106M 
Venezuela 

Foreign correspondent!! Can you imag- 
ine that? It was exciting to receive the of- 
fer Irom 7T& technical editor, Avery 
Jenkins WB8JLG, Sack home from the 
mall office. I shouted the news from my 
home's door. My wife and daughters Said 
almost at once: "You must accept it ! " I ac- 
cepted, and here I am, as a foreign cor- 
respondent for 73 in Venezuela. 

I'm Peruvian and have been Jiving In this 
beautiful country for around ten years I 
live with my wife Olga and two daughters, 
Barby, 13, and Susy, T2. Tm a communi- 
cations consultant and have been a M* 
amateur since 1959- As per 



Venezuelan communications regulations, 
I'm 0A4K0/YV5. 

I have talked about me. and now lei me 
talk about Ihe country where I live 
Venezuela is one of the eleven indepen- 
dent countries on the South American 
continent It was a Spanish colonial 
possession until April 19. 18 10 The na- 
tional territory is located at the north of 
South America between the Caribbean 
Sea, Brazil. Colombia and the Republic oi 
Guyana. The coordinates at mid-country 
am 8°4fl" North and 67* West, So you 
know roughly where (o beam your anten- 
na while listening to a VV. In the accompa- 
nying table, t have listed more accurate 
coordinates The surface area is 912,050 
square kilometers (1/B the US territory and 
twice That of France), The population Is 
14,500,000, There are around 16.000 
licensed amateurs and a zillion CBers. 
both licensed and pirates. 

A federal constitution sets Forth 20 
slates, a federal district, two federal ter- 
ritories and 72 Islands. Each state has a 
governor designated by the president and 
a legislature. There is a federal govern- 
ment with executive, legislative, and 
Judicial branches. The president tB 
elected for a 5-year period, but he cannot 
be reelected before an elapse of two 
presidential periods. 

The official language ts Spanish There 
is freedom of religion but most people pro- 
fess to be Roman Catholics The people 
here like baseball, boxing, basketball, aM 
football (soccer), in that order. So. trom a 
sports point of view, we tike the same 
athletic activities as people in the USA, 
Many Venezuelans are baseball players in 
the USA and many are well-known in 
Japan, too. Most baseball games from the 
US are retransmitted by local TV. and the 
most important of both the National and 
the American League games ace directly 
transmitted. Needless to say, the World 
Series ts also trans mil led directly, But 
don't think that baseball is the Jlrst sport 
in South America, No. sir, football (soccer) 
is number one in all SA countries except 
Venezuela. 

For radio communications purposes, 
the country is divided into the ten call 
areas (clrouitos) shown In Table 1. 

I will write In following columns about 
requirements for licensing, reciprocity. 
VHF repeaters, radio clubs, awards, con- 
tests, satellite activities, EME, etc., and 
also Include some news about YV0 {Isla 
de Aves) for all those DX chasers, Further* 
more, some paragraphs regarding this 
country will always be included to let you 
know more about Venezuela- 



73 Magazine * September, 1983 139 



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AUTH0K 
AUTHOR'. 



The call for authors is out! 

Wayne Green Books announces an 
October 1, 1983 deadline for submitting 
manuscript proposals for the upcoming 
publication list. Ideas for book-length 
manuscripts about any microcomputer 
system or area of electronics will be con- 
sidered. In addition to payment and roy- 
alties, we offer our distribution chan- 
nels and the marketing support your 
book deserves. 

Send proposals or requests for a 
copy of our Writer's Guide to: 
Editor, Wayne Green Books 
Peterborough, NH 03458. 
Or call toll-free 1 -800-343-0788. 





MAKE IT 

EASY TO SAVE 
your copies of 



73 Magazine 

Your magazine library is your prime reference source— keep it 
handy and keep it neat with these strong library shelf boxes 
They are made of white corrugated cardboard and are dust resis- 
tant. Use them to keep all your magazines orderly yet available 
for constant reference. 
Self -sticking labels are available for the following: 
80 Micro 73 Magazine Radio Electronics 

Microcomputing QST Personal Computing 

mOder CQ HOT CoCo 

Desktop Computing Ham Radio Interface Age 

OBeboxlBX1000|isS2,00 f 2-7boxes(BXi00!JaretI.50cach, 
and 8 or more boxes (BX 1002| are $1 25 each. Be sure to specify 
which labels we should send. 

Call TOLL-FREE for credit card orders: 

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73 Magazine 

Attn; Book Sales. Peterborough. NH 03458 

D SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGES S2.00 per order, up 
to and including a quantity of eight. 25c for each additional box 
ordered, □ 



140 73 Magazine ■ September, 1983 



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CtalO to T«n inausand Olfiar i i <* ■* J , i" *«• ahq new 

' I anail QW O ir) t ' 'arm «h a ■-■*!» ro« {|iiC4 O'C*' 

THE POPULAR SAT TEC RECEIVER IN Kft fO*¥' |pOum twtWr 



fi Sattoc TV 



p#ai j*kJ "-- 1 Oad-o EJoctror« 
itflr^ (Mar SB. «»* reksfifte 
•p i* mow op** attftg oi ti 
lues TH* R29 i* aaoy to I 
etai*d ncaviH *nft scnoonotf componont iafov» 
asw.TMAct^otodompofie^cAatamefltK^trit 
critKai tF ooctkw anc hocai rrtiitaalor am p*o> 
AAMinbiod am) atigned' An parti am tieiuood 
lot ttM R3B aitraclJiro case. DO»e« ouppiv 
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;fi>fi ■ 'i:.jde ouai conversion deaigii toi tHnt 



A ccHT«<eie SatafMa T¥ Sv«rem r»c- 
a flfflii arstorwA LNA He* notu am©* 
iwi, n a cc . i or *na Mort y iaoo t 
ftZBRaceAefiCic SS»oq 

R2fi -^ceiwr Wrrod and t#*tbo ssfltcc 
!30 - K Ananta* UJU Ute 00 

AWSRFWgOuLd- !*»» 

Prices include OpneSbC U^ Shipping 
and insurance 



Audio 
PrescsJ«r 

Makj:? high resolution audio 
meastrr'rricriTs. grr»a1 .or musical 
inslrumpnl lunging PL tonn'-. mi* 
Multtphos audio UP in frequency, 
selectable a 10 or xlOO gi v ^^ 
M2 resolution with I sec gate 
time f High sensitivity of 25 mv, t 
meg mput i and buHt-in filtennQ 
gives great performance Runs 
on 9V oatlery all CMOS 
PS-2 Hit $29 95 

PS 2 wited $39.9S 




600 MHz 
PRESCALEfl H 



extend the range ol your 
Counter to 600 MHz Works 
with all counters Less than 
150 mv sensitivity specify - 
10 or -100 

Wired tested PS-iB $59 35 
Kit PS- $44.95 



30 Wall 2 tntr PWR AMP 
Simple Class C power amp features 6 times power gain 1 Win 
for 8 out ? Win for 15 out 4 Wm tor 30 out Max output of 35 W 
incredttrte value, complete with all parts, less case and T-R relay 
PA- 1 30 W pwr amp kit 12295 

TR-V RF sensed T-R relay kil 6,95 



MFIF-23& iranbistor as used m PA-1 
B-iOdbgatn ISO mn; J11.9S 



RF actuated relay senses RF 

flW) and Closes DPDT relay 

For RF sensed T-R relay 

TR-1 Kit $695 



Power Supply Kit 

Comp^tr tnpif rerjuiated power 
supply provides trflnahlH 6 lo (flvolts .^i 
?00 ma and *5al T Amp Encollenl load 
regulation good filtaritig and snnaii 
ai^e Less rransforrnem '^Ni^ifilV 
4 » A and ?4 VCT 
Complefe kil PS 3LT »95 



OP- AMP Sp«cj*l 
Bl-FFT LF T37*t-Dir«:[(j.niof p.n Jd *V^\ satible b^T 500 000 MEG 
input t Super lo* 50 pa input c- Q^o* powwer dra»n 
50 lor only S9 0* & V V * tor f 2 00 



^ftMG 
79MG 

JtJvK 

7905 



$1 25 
11 25 

ISO 
SI 15 

$1 00 



p 

Regulaton 



7a i2 


Si oo 


78 T5 


Si 00 


7905 


St 25 


7912 


Si 25 


79iS 


ft 25 



Shrift* Tubing Nuba 

•**C» ptaClJl QCm\ Of Shrank $&£ 1 * . 

*hrtr>h to . Great *o« ip^c** SO»f i 0C 



Mint TOM Meal S"i*t 
Tr»a>rmaYflay Brand 4 lo* 1 1 00 

To 220 H«at 5>nkx 1 l« f 1 H 



Opto isolators - 4N23 type 

Opto Refleciors ■ Photo diode < LEO 



lirft 



$50 ea 
$1.00 M. 



Motan Ptni 

MoIp* airftuJy ptacu! ^n isoglti of 7 Feffarl 
rm 4 [in y K M»t^ 30 tliipf fQf ft 00 



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t*«n.islanr.e varies witti hghf ?bQ uhmi lo 
0w«r 3 meg 1 lor II DO 



See i tsf f)f Advertisers on page T /4 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 141 



NEW LOW-NOISE PREAMPS RECEIVING CONVERTERS TRANSMIT CONVERTERS 



New low- noise microwave transistors make 
preamps in the 0.9 to 1.0 dB noise figure 
range possible without the fragility and power 
supply problems of gas-fet's, Units furnished 
wired and tuned to ham band, Can be easily 
retuned to nearby freq. 




Mod&lsLNA( I 

P30.mndP432 

shown 



Model 

LNA 28 
LNA 50 
LNA 144 
IN A 220 
LNA 432 



Tunable 
Freq Range Noise Figure 



Gain Price 



20-40 

40-70 

120-160 

ISO- 2 50 

330-470 



0.9 dB 
0.9 dB 
1.0 dB 
1.0 dB 
1.0 dB 



20 dB 
20 dB 
iSdB 
l7dB 

18gB 



$39,95 
£39.96 
$39 95 
$39.95 
$44-95 



ECONOMY PREAMPS 



Our rraditionaf preamps, proven in years of 
service. Over 20,000 in use throughout the 
world. Tuneable over narrow range. Specify 
exact freq, band needed. Gain 16-20dB, NF = 
2 dB or less. VHP units aval fable 27 to 300 MHz. 
UHF units available 300 to 650 MHz, 

• P30K, VHF Kit less case $14.95 

• P30C, VHF Kit with case $20 + 95 

• P30VV, VHF Wired/Tested S29.95 

• P432K, UHF Kit less case S18 95 

• P432C T UHF Kit with case S2495 

• P432W, UHF Wired/Tested $33.95 

P432 also available in broadband version to 
cover 20-650 MHz without tuning. Same price 
as P432; add H B" to model #, 



HELICAL RESONATOR 
PREAMPS 




Our lab has developed a new line of low-noise 
receiver preamps with helical resonator filters 
built in, The combination of a low noise amplifier 
similar to the LNA series and the sharp selectivity 
of a 3 or 4 section helical resonator provides 
increased sensitivity while reducing in termed 
and cross-band interference in critical apph* 
cations. See selectivity curves at right. Noise 
figure = 1 to 1.2 dB. Gain ■ 12 to 15 dB, 



Model 

HRA-144 
HRA-220 
HRA*432 



Tuning Range 

143*150 MHz 
213-233 MHz 
420-450 MHz 



Price 

S49.95 
$49.95 
$59.95 




Models to cover every practical rf & if range to 
listen to SSB. FM, ATV, etc NF = 2 dB or less. 



VHF MODELS 

Kit $44.95 

Less Case $39.95 

Wired $59.95 



Antenna 
Input Range 

28-32 

50-52 

50-54 
144-146 
145-M7 
144-144 4 
146-145 
144 145 
220-222 
220-224 
222-226 
220*224 
222-224 



Receiver 
Output 

144-14B 
23-30 

144-14B 
26-30 
28-30 

27-2? + 4 

28-30 
50-54 

28-30 
144-148 
144-148 

SO-54 

28-30 



UHF MODELS 

Kit $54,95 

Less Case $49.95 

Wired $74.95 



432*434 
435-437 
432-436 
432-436 
439.25 



28-30 
28-30 
144-1^8 
50-54 
61,25 



SCANNER CONVERTERS Copy72-76 t 135- 
1 44, 240-270, 40O420 t or 606-694 MHz bands 
on any scanner. Wired/tested Only $79.95. 

SPECIAL FREQUENCY CONVERTERS made 
to custom order $11 9.95. Call for details. 



SAVE A BUNDLE ON 
VHF FM TRANSCEIVERS! 



FM-5 PC Board Kit - ONLY $159.95 

complete with controls, heatsinK, etc, 
10 Watts, 5 Channels, for 6M, 2M, or 220 




Cabinet Kit complete 
with speaker, knobs, 
connectors, hardware. 
Only $59,95 



While supply 
lasts, get $59,95 
cabinet kit free when 
you buy an FM-5 Transceiver kit. 
Where else can you get a complete transceiver 
for only $159.95? 



For SSB, CW t ATV, FM, etc. Why pay big 
bucks for a mult i mode rig for each band? Can 
be linked with receive converters for 
transceive. 2 watts output. 



For VHF, 
Model XV2 
Kit $79.95 
Wired Si 1995 
(Specify band) 



For UHF, 
Model XV4 
Kit $99.95 
Wired $149.95 



Exciter 


Antenna 


Input Range 


Output 


2B'30 


144-146 


26-29 


145-146 


28-30 


50-52 


27*27.4 


144*1444 


28-30 


220*222* 


50-54 


220224 


144-146 


50-52 


50-54 


144-148 


144-146 


26-30 


28-30 


432-434 


28-30 


435-437 


50-54 


432-436 


61,25 


439.25 


144-148 


432-436* 



•Add $20 for 2M Input 







VHF & UHF LINEAR AMPLIFIERS. Use with 
above. Power levels from 10 to 45 Watts. 
Kits from S69.95. 



LOOK AT THESE 
ATTRACTIVE CURVES! 















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Rt44 ft R220 Front Ends, HRA 144/220, 4 HRF-1 44/220 













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R451 Receiver Front End 



Rcvr l-F Selectivity 



of 



Cuhet 

and 




HHA-432, HRF-432 



• Call or Write for FREE CATALOG 

(Send $1.00 or 4 IRC'c for overseas mailing) 
• Order by phone or mail • Add $2 S& H per order 
(Electronic answering service evenings & weekends) 
Use VISA, MASTERCARD, Check, or UPS COD. 



ronics, inc. 

65-X MOUL RD. • HILTON NY t4468 
Phone: 716-392 9430 

Hamtronics is a registered trademark 



» < 



For years, Hamtronics * 

Modules have been used by 
individual hams and manufac- 
turers to make repeaters. Now, in 
the Hamtronics tradition of top 
quality and superb value, we are proud 
to offer a complete repeater package. 



«- 




JUST LOOK AT THESE PRICES! 



Band 



Kit 



6M.2M.22Q 
440 



S595 
S645 



Wired /Tested 

S745 
$795 



Both kit and wired untts are complete with all parts, modules, hardwam, and crystals 

CALL OR WRITE FOR COMPLETE DETAILS. 

Also available tor remote site Unkhg/crossband & tOM 



FEATURES: 

• SENSITIVITY SECOND TO NONE; TYPICALLY 
0.15 uV ON VHF, 0.3 uV ON UHF- 

• SELECTIVITY THAT CANT BE BEAT? BOTH 

8 POLE CRYSTAL FILTER & CERAMIC FILTER FOR 
GREATER THAN 100 dB AT ± 12KH£ HELICAL 
RESONATOR FRONT ENDS. SEE R144, R220, 
AND R451 SPECS IN RECEIVER AD BELOW. 

• OTHER GREAT RECEIVER FEATURES: FLUTTER- 
PROOF SQUELCH, AFC TO COMPENSATE FOR 
OFF-FREQ TRANSMITTERS, SEPARATE LOCAL 
SPEAKER AMPLIFIER & CONTROL 

■ CLEAN, EASY-TUNE TRANSMITTER; UP TO 20 WATTS OUT. 



HIGH QUALITY MODULES FOR 
REPEATERS, LINKS, TELEMETRY, ETC. 



INTRODUCING — 
NEW 1983 RECEIVERS 




R144 SfcOiOT 

• R1 44/R220 FM RC VR5 for 2 M or 220 MHz, 
0,1 5uV sens.; 8 pole xtal filler & ceramic ft Iter 
in i-f, helical resonator front end for exceptional 
selectivity (curves at left), AFC Incl., xtal oven 
avail, Kit only $119.95 

• R451 FM RCVR Same but for uhf. Tuned line 
front end, 0,3 uV sens. Kit only $1 1 9,95. 

• R76 FM RCVR for 10M, 6M„ 2M 1 220, Or 
commercial bands. As above, but w/o AFC or 
hel. res, Kits only S1 09.95. 

Also avail w/4 pole filter, only S94.S5/ kit. 



R1 10 VHF AM RECEIVER kit 1 or VHF aircraft 
band or ham bands. Only $84.95 

R110 UHF AM RECEIVER for UHF uses T 
including special 259 MHz model to hear 
SPACE SHUTTLE Kit S94.95 





HELICAL RESONATOR FILTERS available 
separately on pcb w/connectors. 

HRF-144 for 143-150 MHz $34.95 
HRF-220 for 213-233 MHz $34.95 
HRF-432 for 420-450 MHz S44.95 

(See selectivity curves at left) 





W 



COR KITS With audio mixer and speaker 
amplifier. Only $29.95, 

CWID KITS 155 bits, field programmable, 
clean audio. Only $59.95. 

DTMF DECODER/CONTROLLER KITS. 

Control 2 separate on/off functions with 
louchtones". e.g., repeater and autopatch. 
Use with main or aux. receiver or with Auto- 
patch. Only S89.95. 

AUTOPATCH KITS. Provide repeater auto- 
patch, reverse patch, phone line remote 
control of repeater, secondary control via 
repealer receiver Many other features 
Only 589.95. Requires DTMF Module. 

A1 6 RF TIGHT BOX Deep drawn alum case 
wilh tight cover and no seams. 7x8x2 inches 
Only S18.00 



TRANSMITTERS AND 
ACCESSORIES 




• T51 VHF FM EXCITER for 10M« 6M. 2M, 
220 MHz or adjacent bands- 2 Watts contin- 
uous. Kits Only $59.95 




T451 UHF FM EXCITER 2 to 3 Watts on 450 
ham band or adjacent Kits only $69 95. 

VHF & UHF LINEAR AMPLIFIERS. Use on 
either FM or SS8. Power I eve ks from 1 to 45 
Watts to go with exciters & xmtg converters. 
Kits from $69-95. 



mironics 



***33 



m SPCCIAUSTS • CUS*K RRFT • DRflKC ■ HUM H€ V • HUSTUft • HV GAIN • I COM • KRNTBOM l« • 



POPULAR VALUES FROM SPECTRONICS! 



£ 



8 

i 



S 







AM/FM/AIR/PSB/2 METERS! 



ONLY 



s 69.95 



plus 
>2 * UPS 





THE NEW PANASONIC 
RF-1405 HAS IT ALL! 

Portability and practicality 

are built right in to this 

newest Panasonic receiver, 

not to mention 

LOW PRIC£« 

" AC/DC powef 
■ AM 525 1610 KHz. 
' FM 88-108 MHz 
-AIR 108-136 MHz 
" PSB 136-174 MHz. 



if 



J 




Put Your Computer "On-The-Air 
The Interface™ 

ust s 149.95 

Plus S3. 00 Shipping 



Your personal computer becomes a complete CWfRTTY/ ASCII 
send and receive terminal with Thi tntarfica linking II to your trans- 
ceiver 

If you own an Apple II or Apple II Plus, Alan 400 or 800, TRS-B0 
Color Computer, or VIC-20, The Interlace will put your computer "Qn- 
The-Air" 

Software for each system features split screen display, buffered 
keyboard, status display, and message ports. Attach any Centronics 
compatible pnntet for nard copy Software is available, on d***k*ttt 
for the Apple ami program boards for ine o tilers, at additional cost. 
Apple Atari VIG-20 TRS-80C Tvgg VfC-2Q Commodore 64 
diskette board board board board H amte xi MamText 
529 95 S49.96 HoM 159.95 £99 96 5S9.9S 



2 



S9£ 



3 -* - '*» 3 



19 



S1Q95 



plush hu^s 



7' flod LED Numerals 
24 Hp Memory Alarm 
X Y«ir War rani py 



KEN-TEC 4 

24 HOUR DIGITAL 
MILITARY TIME 
ALARM CLOCK 



• QfOwtt Control 

• Dirk Prawn w limit Grain 



"aasy-talkY* VOX 
PORTABLE TRANSCEIVER 



B4W PORTABLE 
APARTMENT ANTENNA 



FAMOUS EAVESDROPPER 
SW RECEIVING ANTENNA 



ICOM HEADQUARTERS 

ICOM 



IC2A. 

IC2AT 



>COM b 

rC25A 




fit 



S* 



» >C3*T (320 MHf i 



■ i . 





CALL FOR PRICE & AVAILABILITY 



SUB AUDIBLE TONE 
HEADQUARTERS 
ENCODERS 



29 



95 IPiipip.flg 

ML* lCn«+r USA oni,, 



We ilocfc Comfflumcirtoni 
SpaciaUtti 55 12 a*d 55 32*1 

encodets ro* moir an* mcriiie or 
hand ne m jpcu. cations >rvei M .q 
png trie v*rv popu^ Icon* 
Hiftdhaidi 



* Up 10 VS mile FM Transmit ting 

* "Handi *■-«"• VOX optritton 

* LiflM *eii3n| — teas rnjn fi 0* 

ValuaDle aid for Amait 
use m antenna installation 
tuning Ap run i ng field day 
etc plus nundreds 0* ap 
plications in home 
business sports and 
recreation Uses 9 volt Dal 
lery (not supplied ) 



, -din TD-" n B T J r 'ft ? 1 ' 

■ttr»$sa/£w /3 i «m +»> ; 



AMECO 
PREAMPS 

itlippmg 

iCenri us* e 



Uod4lfLF7 IS? 95 

Modal PLF JE I240¥i 1ST IS 

Mo4«i PT 2 179 IS 

Mod* I PT 2E (2*0V J SSi 9e 




59 



95 



plyi 13 00 

(hipping 

iCop' I U 5 i 




REPLACEMENT NICAD 
FOR WILSON/YAESU 



Fit* Vtailion Mart II, 
and Marti IV p'u$ 
faeitj FTZQ? 500 
Man it t v Nichet 

Cadmium 




MORGAIN MULTI-BAND ANTENNAS 



£ 



3BB 



-ilf^lj— I 



^ 



3 



Add $5.00 
for shipping 

(Conl'lU.S.A' 



SONY VALUES! 



S0-40HD/A 80/40 Mtr bands (69i 
75/40HD/A 75/40 Mir bands I661 



99 00 75<10HD/A 75/40i20/15^i0 Mir f66j 12695 
94.5© 80-1QHD/A &0«0^0/1&/10 Mtr ,69) 13^.00 




FAMOUS AVANTI THRU-GLASS 
MOBILE ANTENNA 



«^ s 32 



95 



P 

00 



tneAvanu Ofi i me 'i' .-i iwo- 
■'. iv > I lEfnna lhal 



e giass E* 
,^ is achtdven 

1 u n> r»g . ,|.| 
. ■ '■ ■ ■ 

amoved lot i..n 
niti m end lo 



«*«* 2.8 dt)d GAIN 

BASE ANTENNA 
\ s 15 oo 



Here's an inexpensive 
omnidirectional t 144-148 
MHz ft wave antenna. 
Fits 1 V*" mast, 50 ohm 

impedance. A real problem 
solver' 





»69* 

plut S2 DO 

ihrpping 

(Confl US.) 



ICF-4800 , 

6-BAND 
POCKET WORLD RECEIVER 

• 6 band pxket world receiver— SW 1-5, plus MW 

• Exiremety compact and lightweight— palm sr«d! 

• SW band soread dial-easy tun&ia 

9-BAND ICF-7600A $ 1 09. 95 

plus $2.00 UPS 



CALL OR VVRJTE MASTERCARD VISA MONEY ORDERS. PERSONAL CHECKS TAKE 3 WEEKS 
TO ORDER: TO CLEAR ACCEPTED INTERNATIONAL ORDERS WELCOME. PLEASE REQUEST PRO FORMA 

INVOICE ILLINOIS RESIDENTS ADD 6= c SALES TA* . 



HOURS: 



MON Thru WED 9 30-6 00 ThuRS-FRi 9 30 BOO SAT 9 30 3 00 



STOP BY AND VISIT WHEN IN THE CHICAGOLAND AREA!! 



K 
S 

* 

3 
* 





rsmsai the first name in Counters ! 



9 DIGITS 600 MHz $129 




m i *c *si*Mii' 

in 1 i Ni«td t'N-.k - v, 

AiLirn*' C harpit 

[IV I WiiiHKpliiwir Oven 

lnw Kin 

F-fifnuJ Llmf Cwje >nfnJ 



The CT-90 is the most versatile, feature packed counter 1* triable for less 
than S3Q0.00! Advanced design features include three selectable gate time*, 
nine digits, gale indicator and a unique display hold fu net tun which holds the 
displayed count a/ler the input signal is removed? Also, 1 1 OmHi TCXO time 
bis* is used which enables easy *erQ beat calibration checks against WWV. 
Optionally; an intern ul mead battery puck, external time base input and Micro- 
power high stability crystal oven time base are available The CT-90. 
performance yuu can count on! 



SPECIFICATION & 



WIRED 



Range: 
Sensitivity: 

Resolution 



Display: 
Time base: 



IV 



wrr 



20 Hi loWJO MHz 

Lets thin 10 MV to ISOMHi 

Less than 50 MV to 500 MHz 

OJ Hi (10 MHz range) 

1,0 Hz {60 MHf range) 

10,0 H*<600 MHi range) 

9 digits 0.4" LED 

Standard- 10 000 mHi, 1.0 ppm 2CM0C 

Optional Micro- power over>0. 1 ppm 20-40" C 

8 15 VAC* 250 ma 



7 DIGITS 525 MHz $99^ 



SPECIFICATIONS: 



Range 
Sensitivity 

Resolution, 



Display 
Time base; 
Power 



20 Hi to 525 MHz 

Less than 50 MV to 1 50 MHz 

Less than 150 MV to 500 MHz 

10 Hz i 5 MHz nnarl 

10.0 Hz (50 MHi ranici 

100.0 Hz (500 MHz range* 

7 digits 4 LED 

1.0 ppm TCXO 20-40 C 

12 VAC£ 250 ma 



WIRED 



The CT-TQ breaks the price bamer on Lab quality frequency counters 
Deluxe features such as three frequency ranges - each with pre- amplification, 
dual selectable gale tunes, and gate activity indication make measurements a 
snap The wide frequency range enables you m accurately measure signal* 
from audio thru UHF with I ppm accuracy- thafs000J%f TheCT 70 is 
the answer to all vour measurement needs, in the Held lab of ham shack 




r>RK tS. 

CT-70 wired, I year warranty 199-95 
CT-70 Kit. 90 day pans war- 
ranty *4.05 
AC1 AC adapter 3.95 
9P I Nicadpack - AC 
adapter, c harger I 2.95 



7 DIGITS 500 MHz $7955 




PMCE& 

MINH0O wired I year 

warranty 179.95 

AC Z Ac adapter tor MINI- 

100 195 

BP Z Nicad pack and AC 

adapter charger 1 2, 95 



Here's a handy, general purpose counter that provides most counter 
functions at an unbelievable price. The MINI- 1 00 doesn't have the hill 
frequency range or input impedance qualities found in higher pnee units* but 
for basic RJ" signal measurements. M can' f be beat! Accurate measurements 
can be made from 1 MHz all the way up to 500 MHz with exce lien t sens itivity 
throughout the range, and the two gate times lei you select the resolution 
desired Add the nicad pack option and the M INI 100 makes an ideal addition 
io your tool boa for "in- the- fie 1*1 frequent v checks audi repairs 



WIRED 


SPECIFICATIONS 


Range 


1 MHz to 500 MHz 


Scnsitmty: 


Less than 25 MV 


Resolution: 


100 Hziilow gate) 




1.0 KHz 1 fast gate) 


Display* 


7 digits. 4 LED 


Time base 


20 ppm 20^40 C 


Power 


5 VDC ui 200 ma 




DIGITS 600 MHz $159^, 



WIRED 



SPECIFICATIONS; 



Range. 
Sensitivity 

Resolution: 



20 Hz to 600 MHz The CT-50 is a versatile lab bench counter that will measure up to 6 00 MHz 

Less than 25 mv to 1 50 MHz Wlt ^ g jjgj t precision. And one of its best features a the Receive Frequency 
H^^J wxfA^ 6 ?* MH * Ad*P«"^ "hkh *unu the CT 50 mto a digital readout for any receiver. The 

adapter is easily programmed for any receiver and a simple connection to the 
receiver's WO is all (hat is required for use. Adding the receiver adapter m no 
way limits the operation of the CT-50, the adapter can be conveniently 
switched on or off The CT-50, a counter thai can work double- duty! 



1.0 Hz 1 60 MHz range) 
100 Ht <600 MHi range) 
fl digits 0.4" LED 
2.0 ppm 2CM0' C 
110 VAC or !2 VDC 



PRICES; 

CT-50 wired, I year warranty 
CT-50 Kit. 90 day parts 
warranty 

RA- 1 . receiver adapter kit 
RA-I wired and pre- program- 
med i send copy of receiver 
schematic! 



SI 59.95 

119.95 
14.95 



J9.95 



DIGITAL MULTIMETER $99f IRED 



DM- TOO wired I yearwarmnty 


S9995 


DM-700 Kit, 90 day pans 




warranty 


79.95 


AC 1 . AC adaptor 


3.95 


BF J, Nicad pack +-AC 




adapter/ charger 


J 9.95 


MP 1 , Probe kit 


2.95 



Jhr HM-700 otters professionil quality performance at ahohbvm price 
Feature* include; 26 different ranjetr* jnd 5 function*, all arranged in a 
convenient, easy ro uie format. MctLLirrmrhts are displayed on a large 1 
digit, V> inch LED readout with automatic decimal placement *iummjitlL 
polarity . overran rc Indication and overload protection up to 12 SO volts on jiJI 
ranges, mo king it virtual lv fcoot- proof The DM-700 looks Brear H a handsome, 
K'T black, ruizyrJ ARS case with convenient retractable ok bail makes it an 
idea! addition to any shop. 



SPECIFICATIONS: 



DO AC volts; 
DC/ AC 
Current 
Resistance: 
Input 

imped a nc c. 
Accuracy 
Power 



100uV io 1 K V. 5 ranges 

0. JuA to 2.0 Amps, 5 ranges 

0. 1 ohms to 20 Megohms, 6 ranges 

10 Megohms. DC/ AC volts 
0.1% basic DC volts 
4 *C cells 



AUDIO SCALER 

For high resoJmion audio measurements* multiplies 
UP ui frequency 

• Great for PL tones 

• Multiplies by 10 or 100 
■ 01 Ki resolution 1 

129,95 Kit S39 95 Wired 



ACCESSORIES 

Telescopic whip antenna - 0NC plug 

High impedance probe, light loading 

Low past probe; for audio measurements 

Direct probe, general purpose usage , . - 

Tin hail for CT 70, 90, MINI 100 

Color burst calibration unit, calibrates counter 
against color TV signal , . . 






14 95 



COUNTER PREAMP 

For measuring nttrrmclv weak signals from 10 to LAV 
MH:- Small *ue, pnwctnJ by plug Transformer- included 

• Flax 25 db gain 

• BNC Connecton 

• Great for sniffing RF with pick-up loop 

$34.95 Kit S44.95 Wired 



ramsey electronics, inc. 

2575 Baird Rd. Penfietd, NY 14526 w 



See U$t of Advertisers on page 1W 



PHONI OROEKS 
CALL 716-586-3950 



TERMS Satisfaction guaranteed Examine fot 10 days; M not pleased 
i el urn in onginal lotm lor relunri Add 5% lor shipping 
insurance (o a maximum ol gtO. Overseas add t&^.COD add 
$2 Orciars under $10 add tt SO NY residents add 7°/ n m% 



73 Magazine • September, 1983 145 




DIRECTORY 



Culver City CA 

Jun'i Electronic*. 3!>IU SrpuK-«da Blvd., Culver 
City CA 90230, 390^003. T rides. 4G3-1SB6 San 
Di^o, 827 573JI ffUsno NVi 



Fontana CA 

Complete lino ICOM\ OrtiTrom. Ter>Toc. 
MiT*E5. Cubic, Lunar, nurr 4000 electronic 
product] for hvbibyiiL technician cupen 
Aln CE radio, iMdmabile Fontana 
452* Sirtra A*e„ Fortana CA 
&22-7710 



Sacramento CA 

TOWERS— gaUijuzttd ttt*J ttatl. crankup and 
■maris Sf^rthrm California factory drnr* to 
VOU. California Aiitnuu N^^trmv £020 Windy 
Ridgr Road. Shingl* Spnnjp CA 95642, 
fi77-95«0. 

San }ose CA 

Ray area's new«rt Aitmlnir Kadin store, Hvw 
& used Amnirnr Radio talcs Or service VV> 
ii-ahiri' Ketiwrjnd, ItXJM, A?jt|rii, Yaisu, T«*H 
Tec, Sanlee & maris murr Shaver Radio, Int.. 
137B So. Bawom Ave . San fw CA 95 L2&. 

New Castle DE 

Factory Authorised Dealer] Yacvu. ICOM. Ten- 
T«r KDk, .Ajifcn. AFX Kai*nink*. Santo* Full 
Line of AaMtaOra S» Said Tai rn Ddav* a*r 
One rmk off l-9"i DrJa»»ir Anutw Supph 
71 Mcado* Rbad, Sr» tadfe DE 19730, 
52S-772S. 

PiuUm IO 

Ron WBTBYZ has the- Largest Slock of Amateur 
Gear in (be IntrriTiowiiiain W«* and the g*** 
rVm» Call me lor aJI yotir ham needs Ran 
Dt*trtburing r 7S So. Stale. Preston ED S,1263. 
&S2-0630. 



Bioomiiiglon II . 



HGHN TOWERS Wfoihsale direct toiism All 
products Bv«ilnltk'. WrUr nr call fur prier liwt Mat 
wt are whd«uilp diitriliulrir-, f( f r Anlennu 
Specialists. Fegentv , and Hv Cain Hill Radio, 
2503 CE. Road Box 1405. Bloombiffton II 
&170L-0§§7.e63-St4l 

Western ICY 

SdU DM and vwd rrjuipmrrrt £ vr%icv LiS 
Radio. 307 McLean Ave . Kopiafenille KY 42244*. 

wtmn, 

Framtngham MA 

ATTENTION HOBBYISTS fc EXPEStMEVT 
EBS' Nov their* a 90019 for parti in vour area 
We carry audio, ink. lib, batten^ capaci- 
tors, relay*, traraforrnvn and much, much 
more. Open 6 da>i a week. Horizon Sales Inc.. 
59 Fountain St , frrarningham MA 01701 + 
I7S4433. 

Littleton MA 

The Rdiabk Ham Store Serving N.E. Full Line 
of [COM & Kenwood Vaesu HTs h Prat*, 
Diiwa, B&W acBeawnf Ira Curtis iSf Trac ItQyers, 
Lanseti, Hustler, Td«A/Hy-Caiti products. 
Mi rase amps.. Astron PS, Alpha Delta piotec 
tmrs. ARRl. 01 kantranic* instructitifi nidi. 
H lustier radar detector* Full line of con fit' 
tings TEL— COM Fl*ri™nk Comminfca- 
irons. 675 Great Rd <Bt U9l. Littleton MA 
0l460 t 4M-3400 3040 

Ann Arbor Ml 

S*r us fat product like T+t* Tnc. fl L Drake, 
Dentron and manv more Open Monday through 
Saturday, 0630 ta 1730 WB0VOL W0UXO. 
WDSOKS and WgBP behind the counter Pur- 
dlaae Radio Supply. 337 E Hoover Ave.. Am 
Arbor MI a 104. &6M-Wi!K. 



PROPAGATION 



Buffalo NTf 
WESTERN NEW YORK 

Nu£tn Frunjlier'j only full rrtockma Amateur 
tieal^r aImj Shortwave. CB, Srannen., Marltip. 
Commercial Operating dtvplavi featuring 
Vieau and otherv Towert Antenna*. Saies and 
Service DX Communicadoni. 3214 Transit 
Road. Weal Seneca NT, G6&4873, 

Amsterdam NT 
UPSTATE NEW YORK 

fcmwrwid. ICOM. Drake, plus many other lines. 
Amateur Dealer for over 35 vwarv Adinmd*di 
Radki Supplv Iimt li5 West Main Street. 
Amaterdam NV 13010, S42-KJS0 

Columbus OH 

The htiucst and best Ham Smnf *n the midw^r 
tfiUinnB] Ketiwoud and cither quality prinducts 
with working display. We sell 4mly the best 
AudvjNM-d Kenwood Service, LTnivenal Ama- 
teur Hmtii. Inc.. 1281} Aida Dr.. Rcynoldsburp; 
i< ohanboi) OH 430^966-4287. 

Scranton PA 

(COM. Bird. Cusbrraft. tieckitmn. Flukt, Lar- 
*rn, fluider. Antenna Spectalivbi, Astnm, Avan- 
U. rVlflm. WJAUW'SVS, AEA, \ irmiplri. 
HamlCey, Amphenof, Sony. B&VV, Coai-SeaL 
OrtTT Cr*h. J W MJttct l>i*wa. ARRL. 
Am«T>. Shut? LaRuc EloctfonkTi. 1112 frfaiid- 
«iew St., Scranion PA 1S50H, 343-2124 



Mountamtop PA 
WILKES- BARRK AKKA 

VHF IMF Equipment h. Stipplin Ffran HT"i 
trt kW Amptifie^v. Trans^ erterv. ConnectonE, 
VHF I'HF Microwave Liwar Amphlirn, Ga- 
AiFET Pt^amrit, OSCAR Fr|uipm<nt. LcfW 
iw preampt. Antennas, Puwer Supptw^ 
From Lunar. Mkrowsv* Module^ tfHF 
UniwFarabotic. ARCOS, Astran. FttFT Tcmna, 
Tmiiu, heuTron, KLM, Mirwji*". Su4ttit\ Tokyo 
Hy Pnwrr, Amphsntil Two rtitnpf l^r cattipg 
The- VHF SHOP. Dt.Ttt. S, RD4, lki% 34fL Miiun- 
tainlopPA 1*707, .Hfifl.ttfffi 

#a™^^^— — ^^ 

Dallas TX 

IBM Ft Apple iiftiTniiikH pri wturty liniMpsi^ 
r-Jrtrtnuuts pn^jttcl kits S50 00 ^miplrtr riv.idWn 
kil, !wh«mpbVmr*atplli!r TV dn^drr bbk 
FFBOM [m^anuiK?T duplicator. pn|>il>r tmn- 
nrv 1C hacen. data sheets. ap;4k ation nulla, and 
more ihan 6000 parts, in <taefc Senucunductnrv 
durrrto «idn> ptodta^s. took Ple«ar ^ntr Um 
yam free litrtat\iTe calxk*^ Independent Ekt- 
641WW AirUnc Rd l>aila» TX 7SS0G, 



Bal ti more W ashingtOO 

Avantek tranuatttr^ anrplifien. oacillaton and 
LNA* Coaxial cable and connector* Blunder 
TreiiEiie dealer with MicTnwavr tftbinratofy Ap- 
plied SprciaJrio. Inc., KO101G tUrnn Driic. 
BVl^vJiU Maryland 20705 Wash. 595-5393, 
Rait, 792 22H, 7;3a a.m. tnfi:00 p.m. Monday 
thru Friday, 

DEALERS 

Your company name aiui message 
rcn contain up to 25 words for as Utile 
as $150 yearly (prepaid), or $15 per 
month (prepaid quarterly). So men- 
twn a} mail-order /mtfifira or area 
code permitted. Directory tett and 
payment must reach us &Q days in ad- 
vance of publication For example, 
advertising, for the Nov. TS3 issue must 
be in our hands by SepL 1st . Mail to 
73 Magazine, Peterborough XH 
03456. ATTN: Nancy Ciampa. 



J. H. Nelson 
4 Plymouth Or, 
Whiting NJ 08759 



EASTERN UNITED STATES TO: 



GMT: 


rjo 


02 


04 


H 


Ol 


10 


IS 


ia 


If 


IB 


20 


73 


ALASKA 


li 


14 


7 


7 


7 


3A 


7 


7 


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14 


14 : 14 


AHGSNTIWA 


14A 


[4 


14 


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7A 


7 


14A 


21 


JIA 


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21 A 


21 


AUSTflAUA 


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14 


76 


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7B 


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ri 


7B 


14 


21 


HA 


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21 


14 


7 


7 


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7 


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21 


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7 


1 


7 


7 


7 


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16 L4A 


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nana it 


21 


14 


7 


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73 


- 


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141 


71 




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A = Next higher frequency may also be useful. 
B = Difficult circuit this period, 

First letters night waves, Second = day waves. 

G = Good; F = Fair, P = Poor, # — Chance of solar flares. 

# = Chance of aurora. 

NOTE THAT NIGHT WAVE LETTER NOW COMES FIRST 



146 73 Magazine • September, 1983 



SUN 


MON 


SEPTEMBER 

TUE WED THU 


FFH 


SAT 










P/F 


2 

P/F 


3 

F/G 


4 

F/G 


5_ 

F/G 


6 

F/G* 


7 
p/p* 


8 

p/p 


9 

P/F 


10 

F/G 


11 F/G 


^F/G 


13 

F/F 


14 |15 

P/F P/F* 


^FK 


17 

G/G 


18_ 

G/G 


^G/G 


F/G 


21 

F/F 


22 

F/F 


23_ 

P/F 


24 

P/F 


25 

F/G 


26 

F/G 


27 

F/G 


28 

F/G 


29 

F/F- 


30 

P/F* 







NEW GALAXIES OF PERFORMANCE ON VHF AND UHF 



FULL DUPLEX!! 



ELLITES!! 



SCATTER ! ! 



"VAfii 



' ■=* ** m 




^ 


^m^^ma^^M 


^^■^^^^^^ 


. ' 


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>> . 



The New Yaesu FT-726R Tribander is the world's first multiband, multimode Amateur transceiver capable of 
full duplex operation. Whether you're interested in OSCAR, moonbounce, or terrestrial repeaters, you owe 
yourself a look at this one-of-a-kind technological wonder! 

Multiband Capability 

Factory equipped for 2 meter operation, the FT-726R is a three -band unit capable of operation on 10 meters, 6 meters, and /or two segments of 
the 70 cm band (430-440 or 440-450 MHz), using optional modules. The appropriate repeater shift is automatically programmed for each 
module. Other bands pending. 

Advanced Microprocessor Control 

Powered by an 8-bit Central Processing Unit, the ten-channel memory of the FT-726R stores both frequency and mode, with pushbutton transfer 
capability to either of two VFO registers. The synthesized VFO tunes in 20 Hz steps on S3B/CW, with selectable steps on FM. Scanning of the 
band or memories is provided. 

Full Duplex Option 

The optional SU^726 module provides a second, parallel IF strip, thereby allowing full duplex crossband satellite work. Either the transmit or 
receive frequency may be varied during transmission, for quick zero-beat on another station or for tracking Doppter shift. 

High Performance Features 

Borrowing heavily from Yaesus HF transceiver experience, the FT-726R comes equipped with a speech processor, variable receiver bandwidth, 
IF shift, all-mode squelch, receiver audto tone contraband an IF noise blanker. When the optional XF-455MC CW filter is installed, CW Wide/ 
Narrow selection is provided. Convenient rear panel connections allow quick interface to your station audio, linear amplifier, and control lines. 

Leading the way into the space age of Ham communications, Yaesu's FT-726R is the first VHF/UHF base station 
built around modern-day requirements. If you re tired of piecing together converters, transmitter strips, and relays, 
ask your Authorized Yaesu Dealer for a demonstration of the exciting new FT-726R, the rig that will expand your DX 
horizons! 



rice And Specifications Subject To 
trange Without Notice Or Obligation 




W 



483 



The radio. 



YAlUf 



^83 



YAESU ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 6851 Walthall Way, Paramount, CA 90723 
YAESU CINCINNATI SERVICE CENTER 9070 Gold Park Drive, Hamilton, OH 4501 1 



(213) 633-4007 
(513) 874-3100 






POWER 



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HF TRANSCEIVER oh Am 



r lock 



| fKINWOOO J fc*-»*|il«i-Tl 


HMD VOX WmOC AW MAR 

,111" 

RfC MAM OFF IC WIDE 




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AF-S-HF 






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NOTCH 



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General coverage, Superior dynamic 
2 VFO's, 8 memories, Scan, Notch . . . 



range, 
COMPACT! 



TS-430S 

The TS-430S combines the ultimate in 
compact styling with advanced circuit 
design and performance, An all solid- 
state SSB. CW, and AM transceiver, with 
PM optional, covering the 160 -10 meter 
Amateur bands, it also incorporates a 
150 kHz 30 MHz general coverage re- 
ceiver having a superior dynamic range, 
dual digital VFO's, 8 memories, memory 
scan, programmable band scan, IF shift, 
notch filter, all-mode squelch, and built- 
In speech processor, 

T.S-430S FEATURES! 

• 160-10 meter operation, with general 
coverage receiver 

With 160-10 meter Amateur bond cover- 
age, including WARC 30, 17. and 12 meter 
bands, It also features a 150 kHz 30 MHz 
general coverage receiver. I iiik native UP- 
converston digital PLL circuit, for superior 
frequency stability and accuracy, UP/ 
DOWN band switches for Amateur bands 
or l~MHz steps across entire 150 kH 
30 MHz range. Two digital VFO's contln 
uously tuneable from band to band. Band 
information output on rear panel, 

• USB. LSB. CW. AM, with optional FM 
Operates on USB, LSB, CW, and AM, with 

optional FM. internally installed. AGC time 
constant automatically selected by mode. 

• Compact, lightweight design 
Measures onlv 10-5/8 1 270) W x 3-3/4 1961 
M x 10-7/8 12751 D, inches (mini, weighs 
only 14.3 lbs. (6.5 kgj. 

» Superior receiver dynamic range 
Use uf 25K125 Junction -type FETs in 

the Dyna-Mix high sensitivity, balanced, 
direct mixer circuit provides superior 
dynamic range. 

• 10 -Hz step dual digital VFO's 

LO-Hz step dual digital VFO's operate inde- 
pendently, include band and mode infer 
mat Ion. Different band and mode cross 
opera (ion possible. Dial torque adjustable. 
STEP switch for Luning in 1GHz Of 100-1 iz 
steps. A-B switch quickly shifts *fT VFO 



to the same frequency and mode as fc A~ 
VFO, or vice-versa. VFO LOCK switch pro 
vided. KIT control tunes VFO or memory, 
P- DOWN manual scan possible using 

■ optional microphone. 

• Eight memories store frequency, mode, 
and band data 

Memories store frequency, mode, and 
band data. Eighth memory stores receive 

and transmit frequencies independently* 
M.CH switch for operation ofmemorv' as 
independent VFp, or fixed frequency. 

• Lithium battery memory back-up 

Estimated live-year life, 

• Memory scan 

Scans memories in which data is stored. 

■ Programmable automatic band scan 
Scans programmed band width. Scan 
speed adjustable, HOLD switch interrupts 
band or memory scan. 

• IF shift circuit for minimum QRM. 

IF passband may be moved to place inter- 
ferring signals outside ihe passband, for 
best interference rejection. 

• Tuneable notch filter built-in 

Deep, sharp, tuneable, audio notch filter 

» Narrow -wide filter selection 
N AR-W1DE switch for IF filter selection on 
SSB, CW, or AM, when optional filters are 
installed. 12,4 kHz IF filter built-in.! 

• Speech processor built-in 

Improves intelligibility, increases average 

"talk- power! 

• Fluorescent tube digital display 
Indicates frequency to 100 Hz (10 Hz 
modifiable!. 

• All solid-state technology 

Input rated 250 W PEP on SSB, 200 W 
DC on CW. 120 W on FM (optional}, 60 W 
on AM. Buill in cooling tan, multi-circuit 
final protection. Operates on 12 VDC, or 
120/220/240 VAC with optional 
PS^4B0 AC power supply. 

• All -mode squelch circuit, built-in 

• Noise blanker, built-in 

• RF attenuator (20 dB] 

• Vox circuit, plus semi break-in with 

side "tone 

Specifications and pnevs 




Optional AT-250 Automatic 
Antenna Tuner 

Designed to match the TS43GS in size, 
color, and appearance. Funriionnlly 
compatible with any HF Inuisccjver of 
200 watts PEP or lower. (Hequires 
manual bandsw itching.) 

* Covers 160-10 meter ineL WARC 

• ABC Automatic Band Changing System 
(when used with TS-4308) • SWR/Power 
meter* 4 antenna terminals • Built-in 
AC Power Supply. 






Other optional accessories: 

• PS -430 compact AC power supply. 

• PS~30 or KPS-21 AC pow*r supplies. 

• SP-430 external speaker, 

• MB-430 mobile mounting brack* 

• AT -1 30 compact antenna tuner. 
8040 m incL WARC. 

• FM-430 FMuniL 

• VK -88C (500 Hz] or YK-8SCN (270 Hz) 

W filters. 

• YK-88SN 11.8 kHzl narrow SSB filter. 

• YK -88A (6 kHz) AM fitter. 

• MC-42S UP/DOWN hand microphone. 

• MC-60A deluxe desk microphone, 
UP/ DOWN switch, 

• MC 80 UP/DOW N desk in km phone. 

More information mi the TS-430S I 
available from all authorized dealers of 
Trio-Kenwood Communications. I 111 West 
Walnut Street. Compton. California 9022C 

KENWOOH 

pacesetter ifi amateur radro 

ore subject to change without notice or obligate